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Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid


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Aflevering 2-3, 2017 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
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Migratie, vluchtelingen en veiligheid

Auteurs Janine Janssen, Joanne van der Leun en Dianne van Hemert
Auteursinformatie

Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie. Daarnaast is zij lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Joanne van der Leun
Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie en Decaan Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dianne van Hemert
Dianne van Hemert is werkzaam bij TNO en redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Asielzoekers als (vermeende) daders

Trefwoorden asiel, jihadisme, oorlogsmisdadigers, identificatie, indicators
Auteurs Joris van Wijk en Maarten Bolhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution describes the legal basis for revoking or denying a residence status to asylum seekers and individuals in possession of a status who are considered war criminals, ‘common’ criminals or terrorists, in what way the Dutch government tries to identify these persons, and what the nature and size of this group is. The authors conclude that identifying alleged war criminals and jihadists is particularly complex and that there is a tension with respect to the use, necessity and desirability of making available concrete tools in the form of indicators to first line professionals for the purpose of identifying jihadists. The presence of unwanted but unremovable (criminal) asylum seekers is undesirable from the perspective of society. The suggestion is made to provide them, under certain conditions, with a temporary residence status.


Joris van Wijk
Joris van Wijk werkt als criminoloog bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (CICJ) aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

Maarten Bolhuis
Maarten Bolhuis werkt als criminoloog bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (CICJ) aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
Artikel

De smokkel van Syrische migranten naar Nederland

Trefwoorden Mensensmokkel, Smokkelroutes, smokkelnetwerken, Smokkelfuncties, smokkelen van migranten
Auteurs Sacha van der Velden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the modus operandi of human smugglers that smuggle Syrian migrants to the Netherlands in de period 2014-2016? Content analysis of police and Royal Marechaussee files, interviews with experts and Syrian migrants and literature research has revealed that: Syrian migrants in first instance use the South-Eastern route overseas from Turkey to Greece, for which they pay 1200-4000 euro to a smuggler, depending on the quality of the boat. From Greece some travel over land on the Balkan route. Several means of transportation are used on this route, with smugglers asking prices ranging from tens to hundreds of euros. Also they travel large parts on their own. Others are smuggled by airplane, for which they need (false) documentation. Smuggling by plane tends to be successful when departing from a small airfield, when made a detour through visa-free countries and/or a good quality (false) travel document. Prices range from 2.000 to 14.000 euros. Migrants mostly pay cash through irregular ‘banks’, a third party that plays an important facilitating role within several smuggling networks. These networks consist of several cells, with in these cells leaders and ‘employees’ and are located on migration routes and ‘hubs’ like Istanbul, Athens and Milan. The South-Eastern route is mostly in hands of Turkish criminal networks, and the continuation of the journey by airplane or through Milan over land is in hands of Syrian Dutch smugglers, the Balkan route seems to be mainly operated by individual smugglers. Within these smuggling networks the most important roles are: the recruiter, who is responsible for making contact with migrants on migration hubs or social media. The organizer/leader who coordinates activities along the smuggling route and calls employees to account. And finally the driver. Responsible for transporting the migrants and instructing them. Based on these findings several recommendations were made that can be found in this article or full research rapport.


Sacha van der Velden
Sacha van der Velden is Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale politie.
Artikel

Veiligheid en welzijn van Eritreeërs in het geding?

Onderzoek naar zorgen rondom veiligheid en welzijn van Eritrese vluchtelingen en asielzoekers in Nederland

Trefwoorden Veiligheid en welzijn Eritreeërs, Integratie, religie en rituelen, Mensenhandel
Auteurs Desiree Horbach en Conny Rijken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rationale behind refugee law is that people who fear persecution in their home country can seek and find a safe haven in another country. The situation in Eritrea with its national service and wide-spread human rights violations is reason why many Eritreans flee their country. A vast number of them want to apply for asylum in European countries. After a risky journey over the African continent where they face risks of kidnappings, trafficking for ransom, and situations of inhuman and degrading treatment, they reach Europe. Some of them continue their journey to the Netherlands. The central question in this article is whether or not their safety and well-being are at stake once they arrive in the Netherlands. Situations of involvement of and intimidation by the Eritrean regime in the Netherlands, diaspora tax that is forcibly collected, involvement of the Orthodox Church and indications of human trafficking have been reported in media and reports, by individuals and organisations. In this article the outcomes of a research on the concerns about the well-being of Eritrean asylum seekers in reception centres among employers of organisations responsible for their safety and well-being are presented and discussed. Data were collected and discussed during four focus group meetings with a total of 33 professionals. The concerns are divided in three groups: 1) Concerns about the capacities and possibilities to integrate in Dutch society, 2) Concerns about religion and rituals, and 3) Concerns about indications of human trafficking. These concerns are further elaborated based on which the conclusion is drawn that more tailored support and assistance is required for successful integration of Eritreans in Dutch society, their empowerment and resilience against threats and challenges in Dutch society.


Desiree Horbach
Desiree Horbach is beleidsadviseur bij de Unit Uitvoeringsprocessen van het Centraal Orgaan opvang asielzoekers. Zij schreef haar bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.

Conny Rijken
Conny Rijken is professor Mensenhandel en Globalisering bij INTERVICT, Tilburg University.
Artikel

Eer op de vlucht

Over eergerelateerd geweld in Nederlandse asielzoekerscentra

Trefwoorden Eergerelateerd geweld,, Vluchtelingen, Asielzoekerscentra, beroving, Import
Auteurs Janine Janssen en Ruth Sanberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this exploratory study, two questions are addressed. Firstly, examining police files on honour based violence (HBV), do we find conflicts that take place in asylum centers, and if so, what can we learn from those files? Secondly, to what extent can these police files provide insight into the role of HBV in the lives of refugees in the Netherlands? What are the possibilities and limitations and how can they be dealt with in future research?
    We apply the importation and deprivation models within total institutions on asylum centers and zoom in on honour based conflicts within these centers. The conflicts revolved around family life and morality issues, and resulted in both threats and physical violence. Among younger victims, their choice of partner was the main stumbling block, while later in the course of life conflicts arose from divorces and new relationships. Distinguishing between importation and deprivation factors within these HBV cases turned out to be difficult for two reasons. Firstly, within Dutch policy HBV is primarily viewed as violence within (extended) families and often originating from conflicts regarding partner choice and morality. This focus corresponds to importation rather than deprivation. Secondly, many cases showed interaction between the two factors, for example the many different backgrounds of the inhabitants of the asylum center can be viewed as both importation and deprivation. Future research should look into (a combination of) different data sources to shed light on the role of deprivation, because deprivational factors are more susceptible for (short term) policy measures to help prevent unnecessary stress and causes of conflict, whether honour based or not.


Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie. Daarnaast is zij lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Ruth Sanberg
Ruth Sanberg was als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de nationale politie. Sinds 2017 werkt zij als veiligheidsanalist bij de Eenheid Midden Nederland van de nationale politie.
Artikel

Op de grens van het vreemdelingentoezicht: discretionaire beslissingen binnen het Mobiel Toezicht Veiligheid

Trefwoorden migratiecontrole, crimmigratie, Discretie, grenspolitieambtenaren, Koninklijke Marechaussee
Auteurs Jelmer Brouwer, Maartje van der Woude en Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Mobile Security Monitor (MSM) is a form of migration policing in the border areas of the Netherlands, carried out by the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (KMar). The MSM has a complex legal and policy framework, merging migration control aims with certain elements of crime control. This raises the question how the officers carrying out the MSM interpret the exact aim of the instrument and their own accompanying powers and what this means for the way they carry out their task. Our results show that many officers see ‘catching criminals’ an important part of their job and that in order to achieve this, they sometimes make ‘creative use’ of their wide-ranging powers. Although similar results have been found in research with the police, KMar officers differ because of their ability to combine migration law and criminal law powers. This fits in with the process of crimmigration and the broader tendency of ad-hoc instrumentalism, which refers to a way of thinking about law and legal procedures in which the formal distinction between legal domains is considered less important and criminal justice actors can freely choose the most effective instrument to deal with the situation at hand. This means that the formal ground for a decision is not always transparent, especially not for people that are subjected to the MSM. Moreover, criminal law enforcement contains many more legal and procedural safeguards than administrative controls.


Jelmer Brouwer
Jelmer Brouwer is promovendus aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Maartje van der Woude
Maartje van der Woude is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie, Van Vollenhoven Instituut, Universiteit Leiden.

Joanne van der Leun
Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie en Decaan Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Publieke zorgen rond de instroom van vluchtelingen

Auteurs Marnix Eysink Smeets en Anoek Boot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Like many other European countries the Netherlands experienced a major influx of refugees in the fall of 2015. A majority of the population supported providing shelter to the refugees, but not without worries and anxieties about the effects of that influx, which sometimes lead to limited, local forms of social unrest. A study was started to shed more light on the worries and fears that existed in the population, on the assumptions these were based upon and on whether these worries and fears could lead to social unrest on a larger scale. The study was explorative, based on an eclectic, multi methods approach. The findings show that worries and anxieties were not limited to those who were opposed to the influx of migrants, but existed among supporters as well. The worries and anxieties were of a diverse nature, on topics like security, livability, economics, perceived (in)justice and socio-cultural aspects of life. A clear, credible answer or policy from the government was missed. When compared to the findings of earlier studies on the influx of migrants, some worries and anxieties seemed closely connected to what might be expected, in other cases a distinct ‘disconnect’ was found. These could be understood however when distorting mechanisms were taken into consideration that have been described in studies of more general security perceptions. As the worries and anxieties on the influx of refugees resonated other existing worries, anxieties and fears in society, a ‘cocktail of concerns’ was created that, given the right trigger, could have led to social unrest on a larger scale.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
Marnix Eysink Smeets is Lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en Hoofd Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid van Hogeschool Inholland.

Anoek Boot
Anoek Boot was tot april 2017 onderzoeker bij de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid van Hogeschool Inholland Rotterdam.