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Artikel

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Een positief criminologische visie op radicalisering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden positieve criminologie, polarisatie, staircase model, continuum of violence, typologie van geweld
Auteurs Anneke van Hoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The first part of this article presents three academic theories on radicalisation: Moghaddam’s staircase model of radicalisation, Galtung’s typology of violence (direct, structural and cultural violence), and Staub’s psycho-educative approach. The core of Staub’s approach is that in conflict periods, people can be psychologically manipulated through their own fears, insecurities and unresolved traumas. Therefore, psycho-education and the empowerment of people are highly necessary to stimulate citizens to function as active bystanders when they are confronted with wrongdoing. In the second part of this article some promising approaches are pres­en‍ted which might increase personal and social resilience. The role of narratives in understanding experiences and changing identities is discussed. Radio La Benevolencija in Rwanda uses the power of storytel­l‍ing to stimulate resilience among the population. In the concluding paragraph a two-pronged strategy on radicalization is presented. This positive criminological perspective aims to promote active bystandership, participation and resilience.


Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog en medeoprichter van Restorative Justice Nederland en Stichting Radio La Benevolencija.

Mieke Wouters
Mieke Wouters is communicatie- en beleidsadviseur bij Perspectief Herstelbemiddeling en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

De herstelrechtelijke reactie op extremistisch geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden extremisme, terrorisme, Spanje, Italië, Noord-Ierland
Auteurs Evelien Rens, Katrien Lauwaert en Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Organizing restorative justice practices around crimes involving extremist violence remains a difficult task. It is not self-evident to bring perpetrators with very specific and radical ideas into contact with their victims. Nevertheless, interesting initiatives have been made in a number of European countries. In Spain, Italy and Northern Ireland, among others, initiatives were taken in response to the extremist violence that these countries experienced at the end of the 20th century. These initiatives have a very specific context and praxis, initiated ad hoc with attention to the specific needs of those involved. In no case can they be considered standard models or generalized practices. This contribution describes some of these initiatives in Spain, Italy and Northern Ireland and reflects on the potential uses of these dialogues in general.


Evelien Rens
Evelien Rens is studente criminologische wetenschappen aan de KU Leuven en stagiaire bij Moderator Forum voor Herstelrecht en Bemiddeling vzw.

Katrien Lauwaert
Katrien Lauwaert is beleidscoördinator bij Moderator Forum voor Herstelrecht en Bemiddeling vzw en bijzonder hoogleraar restorative justice aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven, Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie en hoofdredacteur van The International Journal of Restorative Justice.

Bente London
Bente London is directeur van Beterburen Amsterdam en omgeving.
Discussie

Pacificatie in de nasleep van aanslagen en militante strijd

Beperkte potentie van herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
Auteursinformatie

Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift. Hij is als research fellow verbonden aan het onderzoekscentrum Staat & Recht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, veiligheidszorg, straftheorie en herstelrecht. www.basvanstokkom.nl
Artikel

Access_open ‘Radicalisering’ en herstelrecht: bevindingen van het Belgische CONRAD-project

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden radicalisering, CONRAD, frame, counterframe, frameanalyse
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen, Mattias De Backer en Marie Figoureux
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, some of the findings of a practice and policy oriented research project on ‘radicalisation’ are discussed. The research was carried out in a partnership between three Belgian universities and two field organisations during the years 2017-2019. The project aimed at a ‘Constructive analysis on the attitudes, policies and programmes that relate to “radicalisation”’ (CONRAD). Restorative justice offered the initial framework to design and to set up the project. This article offers some findings and reflections on the opportunities (and the limits) that were found in the project with respect to the relevance of restorative justice. This part of the research was done on the basis of a frame-analysis on the one hand, and field work on the other. The article first presents the restorative justice assumptions that formed the backbone of the project. Then, the method of ‘inductive frame-analysis’ is presented as this was applied to a sample of media and policy documents that reported about ‘radicalisation’ and ‘de-radicalisation’ related issues in Belgium. This resulted in the identification of four frames and eight counterframes. The field work in the form of ‘participatory action research’ with young persons and their organisations in the cities of Brussels and Verviers is then discussed, revealing a complex situation of social tensions. It is argued then that the use of frames and counterframes can help those involved in, or concerned about, social problems to look at these issues from another perspective, through another lens. Based on the method of photo-elicitation, cartoons related to frames and counterframes were designed in the project as a tool to facilitate talking about ‘radicalisation’ from different perspectives. The article ends with reflections on the relevance of restorative justice in dealing with ‘radicalisation’ and violent extremism. A broad relational and participatory approach to respond to these ‘phenomena’ at societal level is proposed.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven, Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie en hoofdredacteur van The International Journal of Restorative Justice.

Mattias De Backer
Mattias De Backer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker, KU Leuven en Université de Liège.

Marie Figoureux
Marie Figoureux is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan het Instituut voor Mediastudies, KU Leuven.

Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog en medeoprichter van Restorative Justice Nederland en Stichting Radio La Benevolencija.

Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift. Hij is als research fellow verbonden aan het onderzoekscentrum Staat & Recht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, veiligheidszorg, straftheorie en herstelrecht. www.basvanstokkom.nl

Jelle van Buuren
Jelle van Buuren is universitair docent verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en Activisme van de Hoop

Een andere visie op de aanpak van radicalisering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden weder goedmaken, extremisme, terrorisme, achterstelling, onrecht
Auteurs Carl H.D. Steinmetz
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution advocates a fresh look at counteracting radicalization. Two frameworks are used for this. In the first place, that is the restorative justice that we have coined here as ‘making amends’. We need this normative framework because it provides clues for the prevention of ‘transgressing’ forms of radicalization, which can lead to extremism and terrorism. Secondly, we use an Activism of Hope framework, which states that we may and must resist social deprivation and injustice. After all, deprivation and injustice are the breeding ground for radicalization.


Carl H.D. Steinmetz
Carl H.D. Steinmetz is managing director Expats & Immigrants B.V. in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Waarom melden burgers?

Individuele, sociale en institutionele drijfveren voor meldgedrag in het verleden en toekomstige meldingsbereidheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden reporting behavior, crime, citizen participation, psychological drivers, response efficacy
Auteurs Wendy Schreurs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reports by citizens are a great source of information for the police. Local residents often know well what is going on in their neighborhood and which situations are suspicious. In this study, an online survey was conducted to investigate what drives citizens to report to the police. A wide range of individual, social and institutional drivers were explored. The results show that the more often people have reported anything to the police in the past, the higher their risk perception, self-efficacy, citizen participation and police legitimacy. Furthermore, participants with a higher degree of self-efficacy, response efficacy, trust in the police and police legitimacy appeared to be more willing to report in the future. An open question regarding what motivates people the most to report show that response efficacy (the idea to what extent reporting has an effect on increasing safety and reducing crime) and altruistic values (justice, to help society and punish the perpetrators) were mentioned most frequently.


Wendy Schreurs
Wendy Schreurs is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.
Redactioneel

Burgeropsporing: kansen en uitdagingen in een snel ontwikkelende praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Auteurs Nicolien Kop, Sven Brinkhoff en Robin Christiaan van Halderen
Auteursinformatie

Nicolien Kop
Nicolien Kop is als lector criminaliteitsbeheersing & recherchekunde werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.

Sven Brinkhoff
Sven Brinkhoff is werkzaam aan de Open Universiteit.

Robin Christiaan van Halderen
Robin Christiaan van Halderen is werkzaam aan Avans Hogeschool Den Bosch.
Artikel

Heel Holland spoort op

Naar een afwegingsmodel voor de politie in de omgang met burgers die zelfstandig onderzoek doen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden Participation, citizen, police, investigation, reciprocity
Auteurs Arnout de Vries, Shanna Wemmers, Stan Duijf e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Citizens investigating crimes themselves is a growing trend, because of democratization of information (e.g. social media), tools (e.g. apps) and knowledge (e.g. explanimations on YouTube). More and more citizens do their own research as modern Sherlocks. The police has to handle these trends in line with participant wishes and the law, but does not yet have concrete tools to do so. This article explores how the police participate in contemporary citizen criminal investigations, including the difficulties and benefits experienced. The obtained insights of the presented research serve as guidance, which can help police officers understand how to participate with citizens who have started, or want to start, a criminal investigation. The presented model explains how police can use it to better guide and stimulate, but also stop or protect citizens in their investigative activities. An app with professional guidance was piloted in four police units to participate with citizens that do their own research and learn from expectations and experiences. Citizens need guidance, but more importantly expect a certain degree of reciprocity in collaborating with police in criminal investigations.


Arnout de Vries
Arnout de Vries is werkzaam bij TNO Groningen.

Shanna Wemmers
Shanna Wemmers is werkzaam als scientist innovator bij TNO.

Stan Duijf
Stan Duijf won als masterstudent Science in Policing en in 2019 de scriptieprijs van de Politieacademie.

Victor Kallen
Victor Kallen klinisch psychofysioloog bij TNO Behavioural & Societal Sciences.
Artikel

De eigenzinnige burgerwacht

Normatieve praktijken als uitgangspunt voor evaluatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden Social practice, police, public administration, vigilante
Auteurs Simen Klok
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Citizen engagement in public safety is increasing rapidly. This trend, also known as responsibilisation, causes new dilemmas for (local) goverments. This article is based on a case study on a local group in the Dutch municipality Neder-Betuwe. These vigilantes arrest suspects by using extensive and professional equipment. By using the theory of normative practices this article compares the practices of the vigilantes and the local police. Their attitude to themes as safety, community values and the core values of the Dutch rule of law differs. This puts pressure on cooperation between vigilantes and police officers.


Simen Klok
Simen Klok is werkzaam bij Politie Oost-Nederland.

    In former times, citizens themselves were responsible for ensuring and protecting their own safety. Over the years, this responsibility largely shifted to the government, partly due to the establishment of an institutionalized police force. In recent years, citizens have increasingly reestablishing themselves in domain of social security. Citizens are engaged in tasks that are traditionally seen as primarily the responsibility of the police, such as law enforcement, criminal investigation and immediate in case of emergencies.
    Technology can be considered as one of the major driving forces behind this increasing contribution of citizens in the field of security. Technology makes it possible to quickly find and share information and enhances people’s ability to deal with cognitively complex tasks. In a certain way, technology democratizes police work by making the skills and tools available for every citizen.
    In this article we will discuss the value of a specific form of technological support for citizens in their search for missing persons: the missing persons app ‘Sarea’. The Netherlands has a high number of missing persons and in many incidents citizens start searching themselves. Often, this citizen initiatives are uncoordinated. Therefore, an app has been developed by the police to help citizens start and coordinate their own searches for a missing person.


Jerôme Lam
Jerôme Lam is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.

Nicolien Kop
Nicolien Kop is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.

Celest Houtman
Celest Houtman is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij Politie Nederland, Eenheid Oost-Nederland, Dienst Informatie.
Artikel

Strafvorderlijke kaders voor burgeropsporing

Wezenlijke handvatten voor politie, OM en strafrechter om op een zuivere manier om te gaan met informatie van opsporende burgers in strafzaken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden Burgeropsporing, Strafvordering, Politie, Particuliere recherche
Auteurs Sven Brinkhoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focusses on the use of information of citizens who conducted their own investigation in a criminal procedure. Three questions are important in such a situation: 1) is the prosecution of the suspect based largely or entirely on the information of the civilian?, 2) was this information obtained lawfully? and 3) is the information reliable? In this article these questions are discussed.


Sven Brinkhoff
Sven Brinkhoff is o.a. universitair hoofddocent strafrecht en strafprocesrecht aan de Open Universiteit.
Artikel

Digitale coproductie van preventie en opsporing met burgers

Een verkenning naar de contouren van een nieuw beleidsregime

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden Digitale coproductie, digitaal burgerschap, digitale buurtpreventie, digitale opsporing, Technologieregime
Auteurs Steven van den Oord en Ben Kokkeler
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the years, the use of data and digital technology in neighbourhood watch groups for prevention and detection of crime and citizens initiatives to enhance public safety has increased due to social and technological changes of citizen participation in coproduction of safety and digitization of economy and society. This causes a transition towards a new technology regime, a shift from a ‘closed’ information and communication technology regime owned by governmental organizations towards (inter)national ‘open’ platforms, which in turn challenges the current policy regime. This transition creates new societal expectations and challenges, often with contrasting dynamics. For instance, citizens are becoming the so-called ‘eyes and ears’ for government in prevention and detection of crime in neighbourhoods, while professionals are increasingly expected to coproduce safety with citizens through new forms of prevention and detection. With the rise of data and digital technology such as platforms and applications citizens are increasingly enabled to take the lead and initiate collaboration and organize new forms of prevention and surveillance in their own neighbourhoods.
    Both in literature as in public policy practice, neighbourhood prevention and crime detection in general is addressed. However, less attention is spent on the role and impact of data and digital technology. We propose this is an issue because the emerging digital technology regime requires a new conceptual view wherein citizen initiatives are no longer perceived as merely instrumental to government interventions, but are understood as coproducers of public safety in their neighbourhoods, as part of a broader societal shift in which citizens are enabled by digital technology to organize their own data environments. Based on the introduction of digital coproduction, we illustrate four case examples to explain which opportunities for safety professionals and local governments arise to create a policy regime that suits the emerging digital technology regime.


Steven van den Oord
Steven van den Oord is werkzaam aan Avans Hogeschool ’s-Hertogenbosch.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid aan Avans Hogeschool ’s-Hertogenbosch.
Artikel

Is digitale buurtpreventie een goed instrument voor burgeropsporing?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden digital neighborhood watch, community crime prevention, crime reduction, surveillance, social control
Auteurs Jossian Zoutendijk en Krista Schram
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is often assumed that digital neighbourhood watch groups lead to more emergency calls and more arrests by the police. This article revolves around the question whether or not these groups actually contribute to reducing crime in the Netherlands. It does so by looking at recent studies and the results of researchers’ own ‘realist evaluation’ of the city of Rotterdam’s policy on digital neighbourhood watch. The latter includes a reconstruction of the program theory and ten case studies with different types of groups. The reconstruction of program theory revealed two main routes to crime reduction: 1) more emergency calls and more arrests by the police and 2) more social control. Chat histories have been studied and moderators, participants, non-participants and professionals were interviewed on their perception of active mechanisms and on the efficacy of their group. None of the respondents believed their group led to an increased number of arrests, but interviews and chat histories show that crime can be reduced by means of social control. Social control by neighbours limits the opportunity for crime and disturbs criminal acts. Other studies in the Netherlands support this finding. The article closes by putting digital neighbourhood watch in a citizen’s perspective with suggestions to improve the efficacy of digital neighbourhood watch groups and the notion that for citizens, crime reduction is not the only or principal goal.


Jossian Zoutendijk
Jossian Zoutendijk is werkzaam bij Hogeschool Inholland Rotterdam.

Krista Schram
Krista Schram is werkzaam bij Hogeschool Inholland Rotterdam.
Artikel

Het spanningsveld tussen regels en ruimte: een onderzoek naar taakgerelateerd ongeoorloofd handelen binnen de Nederlandse politie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden taakgerelateerd ongeoorloofd handelen, noble cause corruption, politie, leiderschap, ethiek
Auteurs Robin Christiaan van Halderen en Benjamin Rafaël van Gelderen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of the present research was to gain insight into the topic of ‘task-related rule-breaking behavior’ (TRB) among Dutch police officers. TRB is a more refined alternative for the concept of noble cause corruption and has been defined as: police officers breaking rules or formal agreements for the purpose of acting in a manner that contributes to the lawful police task. Qualitative research has been conducted within one of the ten regional police forces in the Netherlands. Results show that TRB appears to be a relatively common phenomenon during policework. Behaviors are categorized in sixteen categories and five overarching outlines. In addition, attention is given to several important factors that could be related to TRB being distinguishable between police officers’ individual responsibility and organizational factors. To handle TRB, it is recommended to pay attention to the police officers’ approach of judging and rationalizing their own behavior, their level of knowledge, and social skills. Furthermore, organizational structure (i.e., spam of control) and police leadership may, among other factors, play an important role in encouraging TRB. Especially the way supervisors deal with police officers’ professional autonomy needs specific attention in order to reduce TRB. Autonomy needs guidance in the form of clear orders followed by feedback and coaching. Also, an active form of ethical leadership is needed. An action framework is presented that could be helpful to supervisors to judge and thereby reduce forms of TRB.


Robin Christiaan van Halderen
Robin Christiaan van Halderen is werkzaam bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool te 's-Hertogenbosch.

Benjamin Rafaël van Gelderen
Benjamin Rafaël van Gelderen is Sectorhoofd Politie van de Eenheid Limburg, District Noord- en Midden-Limburg.
Artikel

De relatie tussen huiselijk geweld en betrokkenheid bij 1%motorclubs (Ex-)partners van leden van 1%motorclubs in de (vrouwen)opvang

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden huiselijk geweld; 1%mc; outlaw motorcycle gang; OMG; vrouwenopvang
Auteurs MSc Nanne Vosters en Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Little is known about (former) partners of 1%motorcycle club members. Social professionals working with victims of domestic violence in shelters have regular encounters with these mostly female (ex-)partners. In this exploratory contribution we wonder what is known about domestic violence amongst people with (ex-)partners of 1%motorcycle club members and the consequences of the involvement of a motorcycle club for tackling this violence. Based on thirteen semi-structured interviews with social professionals working in a shelter, external professionals and (ex-)partners, the link between domestic violence and membership of a motorcycle club could not be verified. What this research does show is that safety is the number one priority in working with these (ex-)partners. Furthermore, it shows how complex it is to assess the seriousness of potential threat coming from these 1%motorcyle clubs. Further research on domestic violence in environments associated with organised crime and the cooperation between the judiciary system and social professionals is needed to improve safety and wellbeing for this specific group.


MSc Nanne Vosters
Nanne Vosters is als docent verbonden aan de deeltijdopleiding Social Work van Avans Hogeschool en als onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties van Avans Hogeschool.

Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie, lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool en bijzonder hoogleraar Rechtsantropologie aan de Open Universiteit.
Kroniek

Gedetineerd via de achterdeur: juridisch en criminologisch onderzoek naar omzetting en herroeping van vrijheidsbeperkende sancties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden omzetting taakstraf, Herroeping voorwaardelijke sanctie, reclasseringstoezicht, Europese minimumregels community sanctions and measures, Europese reclasseringsregels
Auteurs Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution provides an overview of the legal and criminological research into the decision following the determination of a supervisor that the conditions of a freedom-restricting sanction are not met. It is an important decision, on the one hand because it can result in a more severe sanction than was initially imposed, on the other hand because a decision that is perceived as unfair can influence the extent to which suspects and convicts are willing to comply with conditions, and recidivism. Yet little research has been conducted into this decision. The legal safeguards with which it is accompanied are lagging behind those of the original sentencing decision. Undeserved according to penitentiary experts. The scarce empirical research shows that decision-making involves many different layers and that the actors involved have different goals, ranging from deterrence and emphasizing the credibility of the system to the successful completion of the sanction. Even in countries where regulations have been tightened considerably, the discretionary power of direct supervisors, such as employees of the working project or therapists, is still large. This raises the question to what extent the final decision maker (usually a judge) still has sufficient room to make an independent decision.


Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. dr. M.M. Boone is hoogleraar Criminologie en Vergelijkende Penologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
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