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Aflevering 1-2, 2024 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen

Reflecties op de politiefunctie: ontwikkelingen en terugkerende thema’s

Trefwoorden politiefunctie, politie, policing, ontwikkelingen
Auteurs Dorian Schaap, Jasper De Paepe, Teun Meurs e.a.

Dorian Schaap
Dorian Schaap is universitair docent Bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit en redacteur van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.

Jasper De Paepe
Jasper De Paepe is promovendus aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden en aan het Department of Public Governance & Management van de Universiteit Gent.

Teun Meurs
Teun Meurs is lector Gebiedsgebonden politiewerk aan de Politieacademie.

Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan Hogeschool Saxion en hoofdredacteur van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.

Access_open De politiefunctie in crisistijd: lessen uit de coronacrisis

Trefwoorden politiestraatwerk, risicomaatschappij, ethische dilemma's, lokaal maatwerk, coronacrisis
Auteurs Litska Strikwerda, Wouter Stol, Wendy Schreurs e.a.

    This article is a contemplative reflection on a research paper we previously wrote on police street work during the Covid-19 crisis, which we believe cannot be separated from the nature of our complex risk society. During the Covid-19 crisis, police officers on the street had to enforce nationally promulgated precautions aimed at preventing the risk of the spread of the coronavirus. This changed the profile of police street work, which became more concerned with everyday social intercourse, rather than the social domain that police officers normally focus on in their function of maintaining law and order and providing assistance. Because of this, police officers were confronted with the broader social effects of the ‘Covid-19 measures’ the national government had lost sight of. This regularly led to ethical dilemmas, such as the question of whether it was right to act against people who had engaged in behavior that was before (and after) the Covid-19 crisis not worthy of punishment. We draw two broad lessons regarding the function of the police in times of crisis from this. First, it is important not to position the police one-dimensionally as a sword force that enforces national measures, but as an enforcement agency that helps society to get through a crisis. Local custom work, under the authority of the mayor, is in line with this. Second, there needs to be explicit discussion within the police about the ethical dilemmas involved in maintaining precautionary measures.

Litska Strikwerda
Litska Strikwerda is hoofddocent en senior onderzoeker digitale veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is werkzaam als lector Cybersafety bij NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit en Operationeel Specialist bij Politie Nederland.

Wendy Schreurs
Wendy Schreurs is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij de Politieacademie.

Saskia Westers
Saskia Westers is werkzaam als docent-onderzoeker bij de onderzoeksgroep Cybersafety van NHL Stenden hogeschool.

Big data policing: de implicaties van digitalisering en maatschappelijke dataficatie voor de politiefunctie en het politiewerk

Trefwoorden big data policing, artificiële intelligentie, politiefunctie, politiewerk, dataficatie
Auteurs Robin Khalfa, Thom Snaphaan, Oscar Wijsman e.a.

    In recent years, our society has become increasingly digitized, leading to increased datafication. The rise of computers, the internet, mobile devices, social media, artificial intelligence (AI), and related technologies has transformed various aspects of our daily lives, the way we work, and the way we recreate. This increasing digitization and datafication have also significantly impacted the police function and police work. As a result, there has been a growing emphasis on ‘big data policing’ as police departments increasingly rely on big data and related applications to steer both operational (e.g., public order enforcement and investigative research) and strategic (e.g., allocation of police resources) processes. This contribution delves into the implications of digitization and datafication for the police function and police work, with a particular focus on big data policing. On one hand, we clearly define and conceptualize big data policing, providing examples of its practical applications in today’s society. On the other hand, we examine the broad implications of big data policing for both the police function and police work. It is clear that big data policing contributes to further fragmentation of the police function by involving actors from various levels of the criminal justice system. Additionally, it introduces significant changes to socio-technological police practices, such as the extent of proactive police work and the impact on the discretion of police officers. The contribution concludes with a brief reflection on how these changes can be appreciated and considers the potential impact of the European AI Act on both the police and other stakeholders who utilize AI in their work. This legislation promises to have substantial consequences for all those directly or indirectly involved in AI-powered police practices.

Robin Khalfa
Robin Khalfa is doctoraatsonderzoeker binnen het BIGDATPOL-project (gefinancieerd door de European Research Council) aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent.

Thom Snaphaan
Thom Snaphaan is associate lector Data, Criminaliteit & Veiligheid bij het Centre of Expertise Veiligheid & Veerkracht van Avans Hogeschool, postdoctoraal onderzoeker binnen het BIGDATPOL-project (gefinancierd door de European Research Council) en lesgever aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent. |

Oscar Wijsman
Oscar Wijsman is Senior Business Expert Intelligence en Digitalisering bij Politie Nederland en Chair Europol EuCB Strategic Group on AI.

Wouter Landman
Wouter Landman is werkzaam als zelfstandig onderzoeker en adviseur bij Bureau Landman.

Wim Hardyns
Wim Hardyns is full professor Criminologie aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, en ERC Consolidator Grant houder van het BIGDATPOL-project (gefinancierd door de European Research Council). Daarnaast is hij gastprofessor Veiligheidswetenschappen aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Antwerpen.

Digitalisering en de politiefunctie: hoe het speelveld verandert en wat dat van de politie vraagt

Trefwoorden digitalisering, politiefunctie, opsporing, ordehandhaving, online criminaliteit
Auteurs Wouter Stol, Jurjen Jansen en Wouter Landman

    This article is about digitalization and the police function. Digitalization has brought about changes that have significantly altered the playing field for the police function. Especially, actors outside the police function have gained additional opportunities to challenge or contribute to the legal order. This is due to changes in organizational capacity, information capacity and normative capacity. We provide examples of this by examining the influence of digitalization on crime and public order. This 'new' reality forces the police to reflect on their role. In this article, we offer several possible approaches to fuel further debate about the police function and the role that the police can or should play in it. These approaches include: 1) collaboration with citizens and private organizations, and regulating social control, 2) moving from investigation to an integral approach, and 3) ensuring legal protection by monitoring the use of new capabilities by citizens and organizations. These changes require a proactive approach to ensure and strengthen the effectiveness of the police function in the digital age.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is werkzaam als lector Cybersafety bij NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit en Operationeel Specialist bij Politie Nederland.

Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is werkzaam als lector Digitale Weerbaarheid van Mens en Organisatie bij NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.

Wouter Landman
Wouter Landman is werkzaam als zelfstandig onderzoeker en adviseur bij Bureau Landman.

Eenheid en breuklijnen: de opdracht van de politie tegen de achtergrond van interne ontwikkelingen

Trefwoorden politie-identiteit, digitalisering, institutionele logica's, culturele ontwikkelingen, politie
Auteurs Jan Terpstra

    The main issue of this scientific essay is that the police identity, seen as a social construction created, objectified and internalized by police officers and other relevant stakeholders, is increasingly under pressure not only because of external social developments, but also because of several internal developments in the police. This paper analyses three of these internal developments: the digitalization and datafication of the police, resulting in the rise of new (data)professions in the police organization; changes in the dominant institutional logics in the police, less reactive and incident-driven and more proactive and risk- and data-driven; the introduction of new social-cultural contradictions because of changes in the social and educational backgrounds of new police officers. Each of these changes has created new conflicts and contradictions in the police organization, or what is called here new fracture lines. One of the main consequences is that it has become much more difficult to maintain an integrated identity or a shared feeling of a collective ‘blue’ mission among police officers. This paper concludes with the question of why integrity and unity of police identity and mission may still be considered as important in the contemporary age of individualization, fragmentation and differentiation.

Jan Terpstra
Jan Terpstra is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Radboud Universiteit, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid. Hij is tevens fellow bij het Team Politiestudies (ISGA) van de Universiteit Leiden, campus Den Haag.

De Koninklijke Marechaussee in het plurale ­politiebestel: een studie naar haar politiële geweldgebruik

Trefwoorden geweld, pluralisering, verantwoording, politiefunctie, marechaussee
Auteurs Tim van Lit

    The Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (RNLM) is part of the Dutch plural police system and executes police tasks whereby officers can use force. Political debate or academic research into this use of force is lacking despite an increased public discussion about police powers and discretion, and despite the announced rethinking of the Dutch police model by the Minister for Justice and Security. This lack of research and knowledge stands in the way of an informed debate or (inter)national comparison of use of force. This article aims to initiate public and scientific interest in the RNLM as police force in general and its use of force specifically. In doing so, it contributes to the process of rethinking the Dutch police model. To achieve this, unique quantitative data on the use of force by the RNLM is presented and analysed. The results of the analysis are discussed against the background of the (inter)national literature on the pluralization of the police. It is found that, between 2012 and 2022, there is an increase in RNLM use of force. The use of force is largely by physical means, although instrumental force is also used, such as pepper spray, baton, and firearms. The use of firearms is stable over time, but it appears that RNLM officers use their firearm often in combination with other means of force. This research also found that the reporting system for use of force and the managerial overview of use of force by the RNLM is not complete and inadequate, especially concerning cross border operations and cooperation with other organizations such as the Dutch National Police. This results in the need for further research and stresses the importance of including the RNLM in public and academic debate about rethinking the Dutch plural police system, police authorities, discretionary decision-making, and use of force.

Tim van Lit
Tim van Lit is buitenpromovendus aan het Van Vollenhoven Instituut van de Universiteit Leiden. De data in dit artikel zijn verkregen in het kader van zijn promotieonderzoek naar geweldgebruik door de Koninklijke Marechaussee (KMar). Dit onderzoek wordt onafhankelijk van de KMar en het ministerie van Defensie uitgevoerd; er is door hen geen inhoudelijke sturing of controle op dit onderzoek. De KMar heeft voorafgaand aan deze publicatie inzage in een conceptversie van dit artikel gekregen en feitelijke onjuistheden kunnen aangeven.

De politiefunctie: what’s in a name?

Trefwoorden politietaken, geweldsmonopolie, opleiding, governance, politiefunctie
Auteurs Joery Matthys

    The police are without a doubt an important actor in policing. However, there is a strong tendency to go one step further and limit the essence of police work to activities performed in the context of policing. As a result, enforcement and especially crime control are seen as the most important tasks performed by the police. This opinion calls for a renewed focus on the first responder and general assistance task, which brings the police officer into closer contact with the citizen. The essence of police work is to make society safer by tackling social problems, or in other words, providing assistance. However, this requires a number of preconditions. At a micro level, police training must be strengthened so that, in addition to skills, competences such as the ability to have deeper understanding and think in more abstract terms become more central. At the meso level, the connection between the police and other organizations must be improved. Specifically the link between the police and those organizations that play a role in tackling current social issues, and that are located both inside and outside the security field strictu sensu, must be ameliorated. Finally, at the macro level, smart investments must be made in both the security domain and in related policy domains such as health and poverty reduction.
    This shift is in line with the shifts proposed away from a New Public Management and even New Public Governance way of thinking, and towards a Neo-Weberian perspective. This means that the police retain legitimacy as a central distributor of tasks, but at the same time orient themselves more externally and focus on the various needs of citizens, even though these needs may differ from each other. In this new paradigm, the government is once again more central to tackling social problems, without returning to a bureaucratic and strictly hierarchical way of thinking.

Joery Matthys
Joery Matthys is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs, Universiteit Leiden. Hij maakt daar deel uit van het team Politiestudies.

Laura Brinkhorst
Laura Brinkhorst is als promovenda verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit. Ze promoveert op een door NWO gefinancierd onderzoek naar hoe Nederlandse Gemeentepolitiekorpsen zich tussen de jaren dertig en tachtig hebben aangepast aan veranderende verwachtingen vanuit de samenleving en de politiek, gericht op thema’s zoals diversiteit, plicht tegenover burgerschap en interactie met burgers.

Guus Meershoek
Guus Meershoek is als lector Politiegeschiedenis verbonden aan de Politieacademie. Daarnaast is hij universitair docent aan de Universiteit van Twente, waar hij zich bezighoudt met onderzoek naar maatschappelijke veiligheidszorg.