Zoekresultaat: 9 artikelen

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Jaar 2018 x
Artikel

Een inkijk in het leiderschap van Cannabis Social Clubs in België: criminelen, activisten, modelburgers?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Cannabis, Cannabis Social Club, Leadership, Cannabis movement, Stigma
Auteurs Dr. Mafalda Pardal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are understood as being social movement organizations advocating for the legalization of a closed, cooperative and non-profit model for cannabis supply among adult users. Drawing on qualitative data collected in Belgium, this paper analyses how one becomes a leader of a CSC as well as the functional role assumed by those individuals. It further unveils how Belgian CSC leaders’ engagement in those organizations and in the wider cannabis movement is perceived. We identify and discuss the techniques employed by those key activists to manage cannabis-related stigma drawing on a framework developed by Lindblom and Jacobsson’s (2014). While CSCs might contribute to normalizing cannabis use and supply, our analysis suggests that CSC leaders face some degree of stigmatization, shifting between conformist and confrontational techniques to manage the perceived cannabis-related stigma. Building on the case of Belgian CSC leaders, this paper makes a contribution to the understanding of an under-researched movement, and the role of the leaders within it, expanding also the application of Lindblom and Jacobsson’s (2014) framework to a novel area of activism.


Dr. Mafalda Pardal
Mafalda Pardal Postdoctorale onderzoeker BOF, Universiteit Gent mafalda.pardal@ugent.be
Artikel

Moral entrepreneurs in de 21ste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Moral entrepreneurs, Becker, Discourse, Crusading reformer, Symbolic interactionism
Auteurs Dr. Olga Petintseva en Prof. Tom Decorte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introductory article of this special issue on ‘moral entrepreneurs’ in the 21st century, we situate different notions of moral entrepreneurship. Particularly foregrounding Howard Becker’s definition, we discuss its origins and use in subsequent research. The question that we’ve put forward in the ‘call for papers’ for this special issue is to what extent the notion is relevant in contemporary research and who is considered as ‘moral entrepreneur’. The research papers discuss ‘entrepreneurial’ practices of university ethic commissions, medical professionals, police officers and the leaders of cannabis social clubs. We conclude that the underlying rationales and discourses of moral entrepreneurs that the authors identify, reflect contemporary neoliberal ideals.


Dr. Olga Petintseva
Olga Petintseva Postdoctorale onderzoeker FWO Vlaanderen, Universiteit Gent – Vrije Universiteit Brussel olga.petintseva@ugent.be

Prof. Tom Decorte
Tom Decorte Professor criminologie, Universiteit Gent tom.decorte@ugent.be
Artikel

Artsen en moreel ondernemerschap. De casus van de normalisering van verslavende opioïde pijnstillers in de Verenigde Staten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Opioid crisis, Addictive painkillers, Medical doctors, Moral entrepreneurs, Big Pharma
Auteurs Dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, I am using Becker’s concept of moral entrepreneur to analyse the role of pain specialists in the labelling process, which has led to the normalisation of the use of opioid painkillers in the United States and ultimately to the death over 200.000 Americans. In general, the literature on labelling centres on crusading reformers, and the criminalisation and stigmatisation of transgressive behaviour. Here I will focus on the moral entrepreneurship of medical experts. What was their role in the normalisation process of opioid painkiller use and are there any similarities with the strategies of crusading reformers? My findings, based on qualitative analysis of documents such as newspaper articles and academic publications, show that, with two exceptions, pain specialists use the strategies of moral crusaders. First, in their narratives, pain specialists represented themselves as neutral objective experts without the emotional stance of moral crusaders. The second exception, which is related to the first, is that there was less emphasis in their narrative on creating villains, as they could not blame openly standard medical practice because they needed the support of the established medical world in order to normalise and legalise opioid painkillers.


Dr. Thaddeus Müller
Thaddeus Müller Docent criminologie, Lancaster University t.muller@lancaster.ac.uk

Marnix Croes
Marnix Croes is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC van het Ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.
Artikel

Drie perspectieven op de illegale vogelhandel in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden green criminology, illicit trade in species of endangered birds, CITES convention
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands are considered as an important hub for the illicit trade in species of endangered birds protected by the CITES convention. In this article the authors analyze five substantial criminal cases from three different perspectives. First, from a criminal business perspective, the cases illustrate that logistics vary from relatively simple to highly complex, but always require in-depth knowledge of the animals as well as regulations, to be able to keep the birds alive to make a profit, and to smuggle them to the Netherlands, respectively. Second, from a network perspective, it is clear that those who are involved in the illicit trade – suppliers, traders and customers – are part of a closed and often long-lasting group of people who know the trade. Finally, from a green criminological perspective, the authors conclude that harms of the illicit trade in protected birds are mentioned only to a limited extent in court rulings, contrary to what one might expect based on social construction theories of criminalization and sentencing.


Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. D.P. van Uhm is universitair docent criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

State-corporate crime en niet-democratische regimes: betrokkenheid van bedrijven in internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden state-corporate crime, international crimes, state crime, business and human rights
Auteurs Annika van Baar MA MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Most state-corporate crime research is focused on crime or harmful outcomes in or by democratic states. The goal of this article is to investigate the applicability of this concept to relations between economic actors and non-democratic state actors. The concept of state-corporate crime is applied to three contexts in which corporations have become involved in international crimes such as genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Each representing a turning point in the academic and public perception of ‘business and human rights’, the contexts that are analysed are Nazi Germany (1993-1945), Apartheid South Africa (1948-1994) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC; 1996-now). It is concluded that in non-democratic states with totalitarian of authoritarian regimes (such as Nazi Germany and Apartheid South Africa), the concept of state-corporate crime is applicable and explanatory. In such strong states, economic and state actors make use of mutual benefits while, on the whole, state-interests prevail. As a result, the harmful outcome of the dynamics between corporations and states can best be described as corporate facilitated state crime. In weak states (such as the DRC) economic actors are generally more powerful while their involvement in international crimes also runs via non-state actors. The blurred lines between economic actors and state actors (and their interests) makes it difficult to apply the concept, in its different forms, to state-corporate cooperation in weak states and ‘new’ wars.


Annika van Baar MA MSc
Annika van Baar, MA MSc, is post-doc onderzoeker Resilient Societies – Resilient Rule of Law, Faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: a.vanbaar@uu.nl.
Artikel

Het verontschuldigingsritueel en herstelrecht

Het slachtofferperspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden apology ritual, The victim perspective, Sincerity, Physical aspect of apology, symbolic meaning of apology
Auteurs Inge Vanfraechem, Daniela Bolívar en Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical research on restorative justice shows that offenders can apologise to victims. Because of the ritual component of restorative justice and the possible influence on the justice system, certain questions arise: how do victims perceive these apologies? Is it important for victims that these apologies are sincere? The aim of the article is to discuss these questions through three topics, namely the physical aspect of the ritual, the symbolic meaning for victims and the relation between the offender’s apologies and the victim’s reaction.


Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is consultant (Libra), senior vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerkers KU Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Daniela Bolívar
Daniela Bolívar is assistant professor aan de School of Social Work, Catholic University of Chile. Ze is board member van de International Journal of Restorative Justice en heeft een onderzoeksproject rond bemiddeling en jeugddelinquenten in Chili afgerond.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is professor herstelrecht en victimologie aan de KU Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Diversen

Access_open ‘The closer you are the more information you get’ – interview met professor Emanuel Marx

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden etnographic research, Violence, Manchester school, going native
Auteurs prof. dr. Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This is an interview with one of the most important social anthropologists of the 20th century – prof. Emanuel Marx.


prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: dina.s@uu.nl.
Artikel

De impact van criminaliteit op de lokale belastingontvangsten

Toepassing van de Tiebout-hypothese in Vlaamse gemeenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden crime, local taxes, migration, Tiebout mobility
Auteurs Drs. Nik Smits en Prof. dr. Stijn Goeminne
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper empirically investigates whether the Flemish local income tax base yield in 306 Flemish municipalities is sensitive to changes in the local crime level between 2000 and 2014. There are two underlying assumptions. First, in a Tiebout world, rational voters holding the local government accountable for the safety of its citizens move when the local level of security becomes too greatly alienated from what they want it to be (first assumption). If migration is due to crime, the wealthier citizens are expected to move first. Consequently, the average income per capita and thus the income distribution will be affected, which in turn will influence the local income tax base yield (second assumption). By confirming both assumptions, evidence is presented for a relation between changes in local crime rates and the income tax base yield of Flemish municipalities, occurring through household mobility.


Drs. Nik Smits
N. Smits is doctoraatsstudent aan de Universiteit Gent, vakgroep Algemene Economie.

Prof. dr. Stijn Goeminne
Prof. dr. S. Goeminne is hoofddocent aan de Universiteit Gent, vakgroep Algemene Economie.
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