Zoekresultaat: 9 artikelen

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Jaar 2011 x
Artikel

Een victimologisch perspectief op het internationale strafrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden international crimes, victimology, (international) criminal justice, victims’ rights
Auteurs Dr. Antony Pemberton, Prof. mr. dr. Rianne Letschert, Dr. mr. Anne-Marie de Brouwer e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article develops a victimological perspective on international criminal justice, based on a review of the main victimological characteristics of international crimes. These include the complicity or active involvement of government agencies, the large numbers of victims and the peculiar position of international crime victims who, at the time the crimes are committed, are usually not viewed as victims by the perpetrators, but placed outside the moral sphere or even depicted as perpetrators rather than victims.Key elements of this perspective concern the external coherence of the criminal justice reaction - the interlinking of criminal justice with other reparative efforts - as well as its internal coherence - the extent to which the procedures of international criminal justice are aligned with what it realistically can and should achieve. With internal coherence in mind, the article examines the victimological findings relating to the main rights of victims in the criminal procedure (recognition/acknowledgement, information/participation and compensation/reparation) and subsequently analyzes how the specifics of international crimes moderate them.


Dr. Antony Pemberton
Dr. A. Pemberton is associate professor of victimology aan het International Victimology Institute Tilburg van Tilburg University, a.pemberton@uvt.nl.

Prof. mr. dr. Rianne Letschert
Prof. mr. dr. R.M. Letschert is professor of victimology and international law aan het International Victimology Institute Tilburg van Tilburg University, r.m.letschert@uvt.nl.

Dr. mr. Anne-Marie de Brouwer
Dr. mr. A.-M. de Brouwer is associate professor of international criminal law aan het Department of Criminal Law van Tilburg University, a.l.m.debrouwer@uvt.nl.

Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman
Mr. dr. R.H. Haveman is freelance Rule of Law Consultant, momenteel gestationeerd in Côte d’Ivoire, roelof.haveman@gmail.com.
Artikel

De emotionele hond en zijn rationele staart in recent onderzoek naar slachtoffers van een misdrijf

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden moral psychology, victimology, restorative justice, victim impact statements
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past decades the social intuitionist approach to moral psychology has eclipsed rationalist models. The social intutionist approach considers emotions to be a driving force in moral judgement, while reasoning most often functions as a post hoc rationalisation of the initial emotion. This article argues that the social intutionist approach is also applicable to the choice and preferences victims make and have while navigating the criminal justice system. This is illustrated through two recent evaluations of victims experiences in the Netherlands: an evaluation of the Dutch victim-offender encounters and the oral and written Victim Impact Statements (VIS). It is shown that participation in the former programme is a function of low emotional impact, while participants in the VIS-schemes present with high levels of anxiety and anger, and exhibit signs of possible posttraumatic disorder. The implications of these findings are discussed and framed in terms of the social intuitionist model of moral psychology.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Redactioneel

Over cultuur en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden culture, crime, media, research methods
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg, Dina Siegel, Richard Staring e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introduction to this first issue of the Dutch Journal on Culture and Crime, the editors first examine the history of cultural perspectives in criminology and the reasons why this approach is particularly relevant to analyse crime in our globalised consumer societies. Cultural criminology’s social-constructionist perspectives on the key-concepts, culture and crime, are elaborated next, followed by an exposé of the new imaginative meaning of media-studies in our age of information. In the last paragraph the claim is made that, although ethnography plays a key-role, there is a wide variety of research methodologies that can be applied in cultural criminological framework.


Marc Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg is docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn website is www.marcschuilenburg.nl. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: d.siegel@uu.nl.

Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar Mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: staring@law.eur.nl.

René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar Internationaal vergelijkende criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en wetenschappelijk directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Slachtofferschap onder treinconducteurs

De rol van sociale informatieverwerking

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Social Information Processing (SIP), victimization, (semi-)public professions, types of victims, violence
Auteurs Stephan Verschuren MSc., Tamar Fischer en Dr. Barbara Zwirs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study examined whether variation in victimization among train ticket inspectors can be explained by the Social Information Processing (SIP) model which underlies the process of interaction. The study (N=125) shows that the amount of victimization is associated with encoding and emotions. Ticket inspectors who perceive more ‘neutral’ than ‘hostile’ cues report less victimization. Emotions have an indirect relation with the amount of victimization. The seriousness of the victimization is related to encoding, response generation, and response evaluation. Less serious victimization is found when neutral rather than hostile cues are observed, less aggressive responses are generated, and when aggressive responses are evaluated negatively and social responses positively. The results suggest that two types of victimization exist among ticket inspectors: the victim who is a relatively frequent victim and the victim who is victim of more serious forms of aggression.


Stephan Verschuren MSc.
S.M.J. Verschuren, MSc. is statistisch onderzoeker bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, smj.verschuren@cbs.nl.

Tamar Fischer
Dr. T.F.C. Fischer is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, fischer@law.eur.nl.

Dr. Barbara Zwirs
Dr. B.W.C. Zwirs is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, zwirs@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Jeugdige zedendelinquenten

Lange termijn criminele carrières en achtergrondkenmerken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden juvenile sex offender, developmental criminology, criminal career, trajectory analysis, personality and background characteristics
Auteurs Chantal van den Berg MSc., Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld en Prof. dr. Jan Hendriks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper delinquent development from age 12 to 32 of 498 juvenile sex offenders is analyzed. Trajectory analysis distinguished five groups: adolescence-limited, adolescence-limited late bloomers, low chronic, high chronic and high declining. These groups are shown to differ on personality, family and background characteristics and type of sampling offenses.Our first conclusion is that juvenile sex offenders generally do not persist in sexual offending. Although the adolescence-limited and low chronic group correspond to Moffitt’s taxonomy, the offenses and characteristics of the groups do not. Therefore, our second conclusion is that juvenile sex offenders criminal careers only partly fit this general theory for delinquent behavior. A special theory for juvenile sex offending is required.


Chantal van den Berg MSc.
C.J.W. van den Berg, MSc. is junior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), cvandeberg@nscr.nl.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar methoden & technieken van criminologisch onderzoek aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, cbijleveld@nscr.nl.

Prof. dr. Jan Hendriks
Prof. dr. J. Hendriks is bijzonder hoogleraar forensische psychiatrie en psychologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en klinisch psycholoog bij De Waag in Den Haag, j.hendriks@vu.nl.
Artikel

Het actuele veiligheidsdebat in Frankrijk

Een toneelstuk in meerdere bedrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden security policy, security discourse, Sarkozysm, battle of criminologists
Auteurs Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the current security debate in France is dissected as if it were a play in different acts. President Sarkozy, the political producer, has launched a public ‘schizophrenic’ discussion in which criminologists/sociologists act and quarrel on the edge of a knife. This debate can only be understood in reference to French criminological history, politics, structures and scientific particularities. The contents of this criminological theatre of war can enrich criminological discussion in the Netherlands and Belgium.


Marc Cools
Prof. Marc Cools is professor in de vakgroep criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en in de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent. E-mail: Marc.Cools@vub.ac.be, Marc.Cools@UGent.be.
Artikel

Zwerfafval als teken van wanorde en onveiligheid?

Een kwalitatief onderzoek naar het weggooien van zwerfafval door jongeren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden Zwerfafval, Jongeren, regelovertredend gedrag, broken windows-theorie
Auteurs Dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article offers an alternative view on litter as a sign of disorder (broken windows theory) by presenting qualitative research from the perspectives of juveniles on littering, and the various meanings they give to this behaviour. About 100 teenagers were observed in a variety of public places, such as parks and squares. A symbolic interactionist interpretation suggests that teenagers do not automatically break norms in a ‘disorderly’ environment as suggested by the broken windows theory, nor is this behaviour related to feelings of safety or lack thereof. Teenagers attach various symbolic meanings to litter and littering behaviour as these relate to their desired public identity. These results challenge the notion that litter is a reliable indicator of the experience of public safety, and calls for greater integration of symbolic interactionism within studies using the broken windows theory.


Dr. Thaddeus Müller
Dr. T. Müller is verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, muller@frg.eur.nl.
Artikel

Herstelrecht in Nederland?

Voorlopig veel nadruk op gesprekken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden Restorative justice, penal mediation, evaluation studies, victim-offender conversations
Auteurs John Blad
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a complete and detailed overview of research evaluations and outcomes of restorative justice projects in the Netherlands over the past decades. It involves developments where clearly restorative justice inspiration was visible. The author describes restorative practices with juveniles and the so-called project ‘Herstelbemiddeling’ (restorative mediation) that started in the nineties. Most evaluations had positive outcomes, but nevertheless there was no continuation from the political side. The author also examines the introduction of the country wide ‘victim-offender conversations’ which are carried out by the national victim support organization. Although this choice is justified because of the vulnerability of some victims and the chance of revictimisation, the author questions if victim organizations can really - in the best interests of the victims – turn away from problems related to the (hardened) treatment of offenders. Victim-offender conversations are to be respected and to be continued, but they cannot be seen as a restorative justice practice.


John Blad
John Blad is hoofddocent strafrechtswetenschappen aan de capaciteitsgroep strafrecht en criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift.
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