Zoekresultaat: 6 artikelen

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Jaar 2010 x
Artikel

Mannelijkheid en detentie

De waarde van mannelijkheidsstudies voor gevangenissociologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Detentie, Hegemoniale mannelijkheid, Gevangenis
Auteurs Valesca Lippens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Gender, in criminological research, often refers to women. Although ‘masculinities’ and crime have been intertwined internationally for more than two decades, this isn’t so for Dutch research. Based on this international critique, this article introduces the masculinities approach in Dutch penology. Prisons are generally considered as hypermasculine settings (Toch, 1998), but this hypothesis is seldom explored within a gender framework. Nevertheless, ‘doing masculinity’ is an important coping strategy for male prisoners (Jewkes, 2005). This gap is tackled on two levels: (1) the conceptualization of ‘hegemonic masculinity’ and (2) a critical, masculinity-oriented analysis of the existing knowledge on prison life, prison culture and prison hierarchy. It aims to tackle prison masculinity stereotypes, since traditional penal insights aren’t necessarily valid from a gender point of view (Evans & Wallace, 2008). Therefore, we conclude by analyzing the value of masculinity studies for penology.


Valesca Lippens
V. Lippens is onderzoekster bij de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Aspirant van het Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek), valesca.lippens@vub.ac.be.
Artikel

Terug bij af?

Terugkeer en re-integratie van Bulgaarse vrouwen na uitbuiting in de prostitutie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden prostitutie, Bulgarije, remigratie, slachtofferschap
Auteurs MsC Loes Kersten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This research aimed to describe the remigration of Bulgarian women who had been exploited in prostitution in the Netherlands. The difficulties they encountered during their attempt to reintegrate in their environment of origin was one of the main points of interest. Files of Bulgarian women registered as victims have been analyzed in both the Netherlands and in Bulgaria. Interviews were held with current Bulgarian sex workers, former victims of trafficking and several professionals involved in the wellbeing of these women. In many cases remigration turned out to be a temporary situation as many women returned to the Netherlands later on. Partly for that reason it appeared difficult to keep track of their situation after they (initially) came back to Bulgaria. Many women encounter the very problems that contributed to the situation of trafficking in the first place. This makes it difficult to change their marginal position: prostitution remains a well paid option if the circumstances that have led to their exploitation in prostitution remain the same. This does not necessarily lead to repeated victimization, but at least to only a limited difference that reintegration programs can make.


MsC Loes Kersten
L.G.P. Kersten MsC was student criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en voerde dit onderzoek uit in het kader van haar afstudeerproject, kersten.loes@gmail.com.
Artikel

Criminaliteit, migratie en etniciteit

Nieuwe richtingen binnen een complex en beladen onderzoeksterrein

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden migratie, Criminaliteit en etniciteit, Nederland, België
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun, Dr. Mariska Kromhout, Dr. Marleen Easton e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this thematic issue various angles of crime and migration are addressed. This introductory article focuses on differences in the debate and research on crime and migration in the Netherlands and Belgium. According to the authors (and editors of this issue) both sound research and a critical debate is needed in order to prevent rash conclusions which might exclude large groups of immigrants, asylum seekers and others. This special issue demonstrates the diversity of the relations between migration and crime and the various angles from which these can be studied.


Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden, j.p.vanderleun@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Dr. Mariska Kromhout
Dr. M.H.C. Kromhout is senior onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), m.kromhout@minjus.nl.

Dr. Marleen Easton
Prof. dr. M. Easton is directeur van de onderzoeksgroep ‘Governing & Policing Security’ (GaPS), Vakgroep Bestuur & Beleid, Hogeschool Gent en co-directeur van de associatieonderzoeksgroep ‘Governance of Security’ (GofS), Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Gent, marleen.easton@hogent.be / marleen.easton@ugent.be.

Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam, FWeerman@nscr.nl.
Artikel

De invloed van de omgevingskwaliteit op de beoordeling van de leefbaarheid door bewoners

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Leefbaarheid, Sociale veiligheid, Fysieke veiligheid, Woonomgeving, Omgevingskwaliteit
Auteurs Martin Damen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The focus of this article is the relation between the factual conditions of the environmental quality of streets and neighborhoods and the perception of livability by residents.Through analysis of evaluation of environmental quality by residents, combined with observations by trained professionals of certain aspects of the environment (population, demography, type of housing etcetera) it was possible to identify the relations between the way livability is perceived, aspects of the neighborhood and household characteristics. By zooming in on the aspects environmental and personal security and safety the article shows how the environmental quality influences residents perceptions.


Martin Damen
Martin Damen is partner bij RIGO Research en Advies bv, De Ruyterkade 139, 1011 AC Amsterdam, tel. 020-5221164. E-mail: martin.damen@rigo.nl.
Artikel

Het beoordelen van risico’s: een subjectieve zaak

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Risicoperceptie, Heuristieken, Risicocommunicatie
Auteurs Jop Groeneweg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In measuring safety a difference appears to exist between ‘objectively measured safety’ and the subjective perception by the public. Objectively spoken the level of criminality in a neighbourhood may have gone down, but that doesn’t necessary mean that the people living there ‘feel equally safer’. Psychology gives a number of explanations for this phenomenon. For example, the knowledge, the differences in thinking styles and communication about safety with citizens play an important role. This should not be seen as a case of non-rational thinking, but rather of systematic irrationality. These people are not ‘dumb’, they have (sometimes hard-wired) ways of handling information about complex issues like safety that require them to take ‘mental shortcuts’ (heuristics) in order to estimate the risks they are exposed to. This paper will focus on some of the psychological laws that guide our risk perception and surprisingly enough, the ‘objective risk’ seems to be of relatively little importance if compared with other, more subjective factors. Many of the factors relate to the nature of information citizens are exposed to: a risk that this described in easy to imagine way leads to a different evaluation of that risk compared with a less conspicuous presentation. Also the level of expertise of the ‘receiving end’ must be taken into account. Lay-people have different ways to look at risks compared with experts in a certain domain. The discussion on how to improve safety is probably best served with a continuing debate between ‘rational, objective’ and ‘systematic irrational, subjective’ mental models, while recognising their respective strengths and weaknesses. These findings may assist policy makers in particular in the formulation of policy that, in addition to the security objective as such, also improves the perception of safety.


Jop Groeneweg
Jop Groeneweg is Projectleider Menselijk falen bij de Werkgroep Veiligheid, Universiteit Leiden, Postbus 9555, 2300 RB Leiden. E-mail: groeneweg@fsw.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

De maximalistische visie op herstelrecht onder vuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden maximalisme, rechtsorde, slachtoffers, rehabilitatie
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors latest book on Restorative Justice, Self-Interest and Responsible Citizenship has been discussed in this journal in 2009 and the author now responds to the critiques, which came from three jurists and therefore had a predominantly juristic character. Themes discussed are ‘criminal justice and punishment’, ‘restorative justice and the law’, ‘restorative justice, the victim and public interest’, ‘restorative justice and the legal order’ and finally ‘restorative justice and offender rehabilitation’. Walgrave maintains and clarifies the views he developed in the book explaining why it is correct to claim that criminal justice can be identified as fundamentally punitive (although it does not always punish, as one critic has observed) and that it should be possible to elaborate restorative justice into a completely new legal system, offering legal guarantees fitting to what restorative justice is trying to achieve. Legal guarantees as they exist today in criminal procedure cannot be taken as the benchmark for restorative procedures in view of the totally different aims and procedures. Furthermore, it is not true that the victim gets too much power in restorative justice – as one critic stated – because restorative justice is and should be conceived as a system of public law, involving the legal agencies and authorities such as courts in a proper role as guardians of every citizin’s dominion. It is because of the safeguarding of dominion that the victim should have a key-role to play in restorative justice, although not obliged to participate.One critic has mentioned that Walgraves ideas seem to imply that the legal order is only something being imposed upon the citizens ‘top down’, while in many respects one could maintain that the law and the principles of the legal order have been produced ‘bottom-up’ or at least should be the result of democracy. The response is that restorative procedures offer more opportunities for citizens for this democratic participation in producing the norms of the law.Finally some have argued that the rehabilitative interests of the offender should have a more central place in the definition of restorative justice, more or less of the same importance as restoring the harms of the victim. Walgraves experiences with the Belgian model of juvenile protection made him cautious of the risks of doing so, not only in terms of serving the victims needs, but also in terms of the legal protection of the juvenile offender against arbitrary interventions.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
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