Zoekresultaat: 71 artikelen

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Jaar 2015 x
Artikel

De remmende werking van huwelijk en arbeid op vermogensdelicten. Rotterdam, 1812-1820

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden property crime, marriage, labour, nineteenth century, Netherlands
Auteurs Bjørn Gallée BA en Jaap Ligthart MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the field of criminology, marriage and labour are important determinants for the decline in criminal behavior. However, these factors are seldom researched in the context of historical criminology. By conducting research into crimes against property in Rotterdam, those brought to the Rotterdam correctional court in the 1812-1820 period, this paper attempts to shed light on the topic. Our findings show that a majority of the delinquents in question were employed, while a minority of those female delinquents were married, yet also in gainful employment in most cases. Male adolescents, who had just entered the labour market, were the largest group of male delinquents. The female population of delinquents consisted mostly of women who were close to marriageable age. Thus, it is suggested that labour and marriage supplied insufficient economical stability to inhibit criminal behavior during the 1812-1820 period.


Bjørn Gallée BA
B. Gallée, BA is werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jaap Ligthart MA
J. Ligthart, MA was in 2013 werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ en promoveert momenteel aan de Universiteit Leiden op financiële problemen van vorsten in de vijftiende-eeuwse Nederlanden.
Artikel

‘Dat het uwe Majesteit moge behagen de innigste wensch van een uwer onderdanen te vervullen’

Gratieverzoeken van vrouwen in de Rijkswerkinrichting 1886-1907

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden female vagrants, Beggars, Reprieve, State Labor Institution
Auteurs Drs. Marian Weevers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The files of the women in the State Labor Institution who submitted a request for reprieve showed that they were well aware of the prevailing discourses. They referred for example to their indispensability at home as mother and spouse. In case they were in the Institution for the first time and had no ‘unfavorable’ reputation they mainly succeeded. The main consideration to grant a pardon was the prospect of maintenance to prevent recurrence and consequently nuisance for society. Those who were seriously ill were pardoned because they could not work, the youngest residents to save them from the bad influence of their older inmates. Nevertheless many returned in the State Labor Institution.


Drs. Marian Weevers
Drs. M.H.A.C. Weevers is promovendus aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    This paper looks at how Dutch newspapers dealt with mental disorders and gender in their crime reports in 1930. The Psychopath Acts, which allowed special restriction orders (‘TBR’) to be imposed on mentally disturbed delinquents who were a danger to society, had just come into effect then. The newspapers did not present such TBR criminals as dangerous or mentally disturbed. Instead, the papers used ‘madness’ to explain apparently motiveless crimes such as killing one’s own children. Female perpetrators were no more likely to be labelled mentally ill than male perpetrators.


Clare Wilkinson MA
C. Wilkinson, MA is promovendus aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Praktijk

Migranten en minderheden in het vizier van staat en politie

Een langetermijnperspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Auteurs Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Prof. dr. M. De Koster is universitair docent historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Redactioneel

Historische criminologie: een vakgebied

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden History, social change, comparative analysis, crime trends, crime patterns
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld, Prof. dr. Margo De Koster en Prof. dr. Manon van der Heijden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Throughout history people have committed theft, fraud and murder. However, the frequency and severity of crimes are not static, but varies across time and space. The ways in which people respond to crime also change over time: penalties such as banishment, corporal punishment and capital punishment were frequently imposed in early modern Europe, but do not exist here anymore. Our thinking about crime and crime control changed over time as well. In addition to so-called hard crimes such as theft and homicide, various kinds of conduct were – in some times and periods – labeled as criminal (adultery, fornication and blasphemy). In crime control, state formation resulted in the emergence and expansion and professionalization of police forces and judicial systems, which development was accompanied by increasing interactions and interplays between supranational governments, private crime fighters, and informal forms of social control. Criminologists study fluid phenomena which vary across time and space. This makes exchange of knowledge and research cooperation between historians and criminologists particularly fruitful, or as Paul Knepper put it: ‘From what has been done so far, one thing is clear enough: the most interesting criminology arises at the point that history and criminology meet’ (Knepper, 2013, 2081).


Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is hoogleraar methoden & technieken van criminologisch onderzoek en directeur van het NSCR.

Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Prof. dr. M. De Koster is universitair docent historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Prof. dr. Manon van der Heijden
Prof. dr. M.P.C. van der Heijden is hoogleraar Comparative Urban History aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Hindernissen voor een ruimer gebruik van herstelrecht

Bevindingen van een Europees onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden herstelrecht, toegankelijkheid, verwijzingsinstanties, strafrechtelijke cultuur
Auteurs Malini Laxminarayan en Annemieke Wolthuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While most restorative justice research would suggest that victims and offenders are often satisfied with their experiences, the number of referrals to these type of programs remain low. This lack of accessibility was the topic of the European Forum for Restorative Justice project, ‘Accessibility and Initiation of Restorative Justice’. This article reports on the project’s findings with regard to several factors which limit greater accessibility, as supported by the attitudes of referral bodies and restorative justice practitioners examined in the frame of this project. The results of previous research and the current empirical research illustrate how accessibility is hindered by (1) lacking or insufficient restorative justice legislation, (2) exclusion criteria regarding which cases may be suitable to restorative justice procedures, (3) a lack of knowledge among legal actors, restorative justice practitioners and the general public about restorative justice and its benefits, (4) the persistence of a retributive legal culture within criminal justice and (5) a need for greater cooperation among those who are involved whether as referral bodies or mediators or facilitators. Qualitative data is presented to provide a better understanding of these elements, in addition to potential solutions that were reported by the respondents. Furthermore, the authors take a closer look at the current situation in the Netherlands, including an overview of the trainings that were developed within the Accessibility project. The results of these trainings reinforce the factors that were identified by previous research and the current empirical research, and aimed to look for solutions to the main barriers to greater accessibility.


Malini Laxminarayan
Malini Laxminarayan is werkzaam als senioronderzoeker bij het Hague Institute for Global Justice. Van 2013 tot 2014 was zij onderzoekscoördinator van het project ‘Accessibility and Initiation of Restorative Justice’ bij het European Forum for Restorative Justice.

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is werkzaam bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut in Utrecht en is bestuurslid van het European Forum for Restorative Justice.
Artikel

Bemiddeling in strafzaken in Maastricht III

Onderzoek naar recidive bij jeugdigen en volwassenen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden bemiddeling (in strafzaken), recidive, jeugdige daders, (bemiddelingspraktijk in) Maastricht
Auteurs Jacques Claessen, Gwenny Zeles, Sven Zebel e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we describe the mediation practice that exists at the prosecution office in Maastricht/Limburg and which was established in 1999. First, we summarize the main results of our earlier study on the relation between mediation and recidivism/reoffending rates on the basis of the Maastricht mediation model. In the remaining part of this article, we focus on answering the question whether the main results of our earlier study differ when we distinguish between adult (23 years and older) and juvenile (under 23 years) offenders. In order to answer this question several extra analyses have been carried out. The main conclusion of this article is that offenders with whom is mediated, reoffend significantly less than offenders who got a regular criminal sanction – regardless of whether the offenders are older or younger than 23 years.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht. In 2010 verscheen zijn dissertatie Misdaad en straf. Een herbezinning op het strafrecht vanuit mystiek perspectief (Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publisher). Zijn interessegebieden zijn sanctierecht, herstelrecht en de strafrechtelijke positie van het slachtoffer. Claessen is redacteur van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht en het Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht. Voorts is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg. Hij is winnaar van de Bianchi Herstelrechtprijs 2012.

Gwenny Zeles
Gwenny Zeles, is neuropsychologe en rechtspsychologe. Zij heeft diverse jaren gefunctioneerd als docent en onderzoeker aan onder andere de Universiteit Maastricht en Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Thans is zij werkzaam als onderzoeker kwaliteitszorg van Zuyd Hogeschool.

Sven Zebel
Sven Zebel is universitair docent bij de vakgroep Psychologie van Conflict, Risico en Veiligheid aan de Universiteit van Twente.

Hans Nelen
Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.

John Blad
John Blad is universitair hoofddocent Strafrechtswetenschappen aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, de Erasmus Law School, en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht. In 2010 verscheen zijn dissertatie Misdaad en straf. Een herbezinning op het strafrecht vanuit mystiek perspectief (Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publisher). Zijn interessegebieden zijn sanctierecht, herstelrecht en de strafrechtelijke positie van het slachtoffer. Claessen is redacteur van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht en het Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht. Voorts is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg. Hij is winnaar van de Bianchi Herstelrechtprijs 2012.

Gert Jan Slump
Gert Jan Slump is criminoloog, sociaal-maatschappelijk ondernemer en medeoprichter van Restorative Justice Nederland.
Artikel

Politie en burgers: van informatie delen naar volwaardige samenwerking

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden gebiedsgebonden politiewerk, burgerparticipatie, sociale media, participatieladder
Auteurs José Kerstholt, Arnout de Vries en Mirjam Huis in ’t Veld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Community oriented policing (COP) can be seen as a co-production between citizens and police (and other stakeholders) in increasing public safety. There is a broad range of projects to cooperate with citizens. We ordered these projects along two dimensions: level of co-production (informing/consulting, advising and co-creation) and domain (prevention, law and order, investigation and quality of life). Today, most initiatives are at the lowest rungs (informing and consulting), but social media provide new possibilities to involve citizens in a more direct and fast way. The effects of the various projects are mostly limited to psycho-social factors like experienced safety, feelings of control and legitimacy. However recent studies show that these factors may have an indirect effect on crime rate. Furthermore, as reducing crime rate was not the only goal for introducing COP effect studies should not be limited to crime rate but incorporate a broad range of indicators.


José Kerstholt
José Kerstholt is werkzaam bij TNO Soesterberg, Universiteit Twente te Enschede.

Arnout de Vries
Arnout de Vries is werkzaam bij TNO Soesterberg, Universiteit Twente te Enschede.

Mirjam Huis in ’t Veld
Mirjam Huis in ’t Veld is werkzaam bij TNO Soesterberg, Universiteit Twente te Enschede.
Artikel

Vessel protection, van zorgplicht naar zelfverdediging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Security, Piracy, public vs. private responsibilities, policy making, paradigm changes
Auteurs Henk Warnar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article demonstrates the influence of intellectual debate in policy paradigm changes. In response to piracy around the Horn of Africa, Dutch naval forces have participated in NATO and EU counter piracy operations since 2008. Although successful, also self protection measures by the merchant ships are required to provide security to individual ships. Since 2008 Dutch ship owners have advocated to amend legislation to allow private armed security teams (PAST) for individual protection, similar to policies by most foreign countries. Because of sensitivities concerning the private use of arms, policymakers, politicians, stakeholders and advisors have circumvented the issue. Instead of addressing the question of self defense, the paradigm of state monopoly for violence and the state’s obligation to provide security, made individual protection by embarked military teams to develop as a governmental service at levels that turned out to be unachievable for the armed forces. This policy caused several types of friction. Currently, the only acceptable solution seems to be to allow PAST and legislation is being prepared accordingly. A successful paradigm change however can only be achieved if an adequate new paradigm is constructed by intellectual debate. (Hall, Visser & Hemerijck) So far this debate has been too limited in scope. Debate has been state centric and focused on legal views and regulation. To resolve friction, additional analysis of differing roles by the state and individual entrepreneurs is required. Such analysis argues that the state severely reduces individual protection and politicians decide on the fundamental question of self defense by ships at the high seas.


Henk Warnar
Henk Warnar is senior adviseur bij het Ministerie van Defensie.
Artikel

De epidemiologie van kinderdoding in Nederland, 2009-2014

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Child homicide, Filicide, The Netherlands, Epidemiology, Copycat
Auteurs Marieke Liem en Stephanie Haarhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Child homicide is a phenomenon that not infrequently leads to shock and societal unrest. However, the precise nature and scope of child homicide in the Netherlands remains unknown. This article attempts to fill the gap in our current knowledge by reporting descriptive research on child homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2014. Further, this article aims to assess if media attention regarding child homicide brings about a so-called copycat-effect. By means of descriptive statistics, case, victim and perpetrator characteristics of 74 cases of filicide are assessed.


Marieke Liem
Marieke Liem is universitair docent en senior onderzoeker voor het Violence Research Initiative, bij Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism, verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Stephanie Haarhuis
Stephanie Haarhuis is in 2015 afgestudeerd in de forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Spot on! Zelfredzaamheid en verwachtingen van burgers bij een black-out

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Stroomonderbreking, Zelfredzaamheid, Actief burgerschap, Veerkracht
Auteurs Evelien De Pauw, Arne Dormaels en Marleen Easton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since winter 2014, Belgian is faced with a possible rolling out of power. Blackouts come without any warning whilst the duration and cause of it is mostly unclear. Rolling outs are usually planned by utility companies to put small service areas without electricity, to cope with a high energy demand that the utility companies can’t supply. This rolling out plan can prevent a larger blackout and should make people aware of the consequences of a possible black-out.
    Given this situation, this paper presents the result of a study asking citizens about their self-efficacy and organizations of their own house hold to deal with possible blackouts. For this survey, 473 citizens have been interviewed in 2 Belgian cities. We asked about their own action to organize themselves and were looking at their expectations of the government.


Evelien De Pauw
Evelien De Pauw is assistent aan de UGent, opleiding bestuurskunde en publiek management, en verbonden als gastdocent aan de Vives Hogeschool, studiegebied sociaal agogisch werk, bachelor Maatschappelijke Veiligheid.

Arne Dormaels
Arne Dormaels is werkzaam bij het Innovatiecentrum voor Veiligheid, INNOS vzw en verboden aan de UGent, opleiding bestuurskunde en publiek management.

Marleen Easton
Marleen Easton is voorzitter van INNOS en als hoofddocent verbonden aan de UGent, opleiding bestuurskunde en publiek management.
Artikel

Afgeschermd wonen in Nederland: een studie naar waarom mensen hiervoor kiezen en hoe zij omgaan met interne regelgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Gated communities, afgeschermde woondomeinen, Vondelparc, Haverleij
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg en Ronald Van Steden
Samenvatting

    Protected living in some sort of gated community is popular. However Dutch protected living differs from, for instance, the living in American gated communities, the development tends to social discussions whether it is undesirable or not. Safety seems in the Netherlands not the first reason for protected living. Here, domestic and aesthetic reasons are much more important.


Marc Schuilenburg

Ronald Van Steden
Artikel

De ervaren mogelijkheden om te re-integreren vanuit detentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Prison life, staff-prisoner relationships, correctional officers, rehabilitation, survey
Auteurs Toon Molleman en Karin Lasthuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we examine which factors are correlated to the rehabilitation of prisoners. Central is the prisoners’ willingness during their imprisonment to work on a successful return in society. Assumptions derived from the theory were statistically tested with data from the Dutch Detainee Survey 2014; a large-scale study, in which prisoners held in all Dutch penitentiary institutions (N = 29) were surveyed (n = 2120). The results are in line with the theory and show that detainees are more positive about their (potential for) rehabilitation when they are more satisfied with a) the way they are treated by correctional officers (staff orientation); b) active deployment of the so-called Detention and Re-integration Plan; c) their daily program and activities, and; d) the experienced autonomy and personal decision-making. These outcomes offer fruitful perspectives on how the prison system can promote a successful return of prisoners in our society.


Toon Molleman
Toon Molleman is strategisch management adviseur bij de divisie gevangeniswezen en vreemdelingenbewaring van de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen.

Karin Lasthuizen
Karin Lasthuizen is universitair hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Vervolg je reis en struikel niet: antropologie van dood en taboe

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Death, denial, taboo, anthropology, Suriname
Auteurs dr. ir. Yvon van der Pijl
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the relation between death, the fear and denial of it, and the appeal of mortuary rites attempting to transcend senses of mortality. It aims to show how our Own death, as a shamefull and solitary characteristic of modernity, has become a taboo and how it simultaneously continues to spur our imagination of the way Others die. Building on research in Suriname, it argues that both colonial compulsion and anthropological gazing have contributed to distorted and ambiguious attitudes toward death cross-culturally. As such, the article seeks to advance discussions on death and taboo as a perpetuum mobile of dread and everlasting enchantment.


dr. ir. Yvon van der Pijl
Dr. ir. Yvon van der Pijl is werkzaam bij de afdeling culturele antropologie, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Godslastering voor en na de aanslagen op Charlie Hebdo

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Blasphemy, Freedom of speech, Religious Extremism, Terrorism
Auteurs dr. Jean-Marc Piret en prof. mr. dr. Jeroen ten Voorde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Triggered by the recent Paris attacks the authors make an attempt to answer the question how liberal democracies can react to religious extremists that respond with violence to utterances they consider to be blasphemous. After a brief historical survey of the reactions to blasphemy in penal law and philosophy, the authors compare blasphemy laws and their relation to the freedom of speech in various European countries. Then they analyse the relevant case law of the European Court of Human Rights and the U.S. Supreme Court. In their conclusion the authors defend the position that liberal democracies should be cautious in order to prevent the principles of liberal democracy from being subverted by self-censorship induced by fear of extremism.


dr. Jean-Marc Piret
Dr. Jean-Marc Piret is universitair hoofddocent rechtsfilosofie bij de juridische faculteiten van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

prof. mr. dr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Prof. mr. dr. Jeroen ten Voorde is bijzonder hoogleraar strafrechtsfilosofie, leerstoel Leo Polak, bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en universitair hoofddocent straf(proces)recht bij de Universiteit Leiden.

prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Taboe in culturele criminologie?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden taboos, criminology, open secrets, social sciences
Auteurs Prof. dr. Dina Siegel en prof. dr. Richard Staring
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article several perspectives on studying taboos within social sciences are described. Originally, taboo, a concept that was already used within Polynesian societies early 1800, referred to food that was not allowed to eat. Anthropologists analyzed taboos especially in a functionalistic manner, as contributing to the maintenance of existing power balances within societies. These and other studies on taboos all illustrate the fact that taboos are very much a social construction and are very much time and place dependent. In contemporary western societies taboos are associated with ‘open secrets’ and ‘silencing’. Within criminology certain topics are considered taboo as a research object (e.g. explaining crime through ethnic, cultural or religious characteristics), while others claim that there are no criminological research taboos left.


Prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
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