Zoekresultaat: 10 artikelen

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Jaar 2012 x
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Boevenbiografieën

Een inleiding op dit themanummer

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden biography, convict criminology, narrative method, disqualified knowledge
Auteurs Frank van Gemert en René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Biographies of ‘criminals’ are an immensely popular genre. As ‘true crime’ stories they are generally found on the shelves of fiction literature. In this article the authors examine their cultural criminological significance. First, they examine what makes a ‘good’ biography, analyse how biographical material is used in the work of people like Robert Park and his Chicago School, Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu and indeed historians. Then the authors list different traditions of criminal biographies. They conclude by arguing that ‘good biographies’, i.e. biographies that are both sufficiently emic and offer enough context information, have a lot to offer, because they show ‘the other side’ of criminology, provide information that cannot be obtained through strictly scientific methods and counter the reductionist images prevailing in the discipline.


Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: f.vangemert@rechten.vu.nl.

René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie (NVK). E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Met biografieën een beter begrip van witteboordencriminaliteit?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, corporate crime, biographies, case studies
Auteurs Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central question of this article is whether biographies can be a source for criminological research on white-collar crime and how they can contribute to the explanation of white-collar crime. To answer this question, 35 Dutch biographies were studied. Following the legal ambiguities of white-collar crime, not all of these biographies are about criminal offences. And following the dominant anthropomorphic approach to corporate crime, some of these are corporate biographies. Many biographies confirm current criminological explanations of the causation of white-collar crime. Yet, biographies also offer additional insights, for instance about the causal relevance of the private life of white-collar offenders.


Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar bij de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@vu.nl.
Artikel

Klokkenluiden en veiligheid

De wegen die werknemers bewandelen bij verschillende typen misstanden op het werk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden whistle-blowing, safety, employee, report, wrongdoing
Auteurs Doris van van Dijk, Marijke Malsch, Gezinus Wolters e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands whistle-blowing regulations are still unbalanced and ineffective in the protection of whistle-blowers and the prevention of misconduct at work. This article focuses on the question how whistle-blowing behaviour is influenced by the type and severity of the wrongdoing. The study also examines to whom employees would report (internally and/or externally), if they would report anonymously, and why they would do that or not. As far as the authors know, this is one of the first studies on whistle-blowing behaviour that systematically investigates the characteristics of the wrongdoing by using vignettes. In a two by two design, two kinds of wrongdoing (safety problem or embezzlement) at two levels of severity are plotted against each other. When confronted with severe wrongdoing, respondents intend to blow the whistle more often (externally) than with mild wrongdoing. Of the four cases, the difference between mild and severe embezzlement is most pronounced. Internally, a difference is found between the vignettes in reporting anonymously. Most respondents prefer to report to their direct supervisor, especially when a mild safety problem occurs. With severe embezzlement however, respondents prefer to report to a confidential adviser within the company. Outside the company, reporting to one’s trade union is most popular. Nearly all respondents would only report externally after an internal report has not yielded any results, or they would not report outside the company at all. They often argue that it is an internal problem and that the company could be harmed if the wrongdoing would be disclosed. This argument is used in all vignettes. Anonymity is still considered important by the majority of the respondents. It is recommended in this article that policymakers specify whistle-blowing regulations that are adaptable to the specific characteristics of the wrongdoing and the reporting employee(s).


Doris van van Dijk
Mr. D. (Doris) van Dijk MSc is junior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). E-mail: dorisvandijk@zonnet.nl

Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de rechtbank Haarlem en in het Hof Den Bosch. E-mail: mmalsch@nscr.nl

Gezinus Wolters
Dr. Gezinus Wolters is universitair hoofddocent cognitieve psychologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Wim Huisman
Prof. mr. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@vu.nl
Artikel

Zoeken naar de juiste bouwstenen

Het gevangenisontwerp en de detentiebeleving van gedetineerden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden prison design, prison environment, inmates’ perspective, prison conditions
Auteurs Drs. Karin Beijersbergen, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager, Prof. dr. Peter van der Laan e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Knowledge about the effects of the architectural design of prisons is limited. This large-scale study examined the relation between prison design and inmates’ perceptions of their conditions of confinement. Data were used from the Prison Project, in which inmates held in all Dutch remand centers were interviewed (N=1,715). Multilevel analyses showed that the architectural design was related to inmates’ perspective: prisoners in panopticon designs experienced their autonomy, safety and relationships with staff less positive than prisoners in other designs. Specific characteristics of the prison design, like more gallery levels and a higher rate of double bunking, were also associated with less positive inmates’ perceptions.


Drs. Karin Beijersbergen
Drs. K.A. Beijersbergen is promovendus bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Peter van der Laan
Prof. dr. P.H. van der Laan is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Reclassering, faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden en bijzonder hoogleraar bij de vakgroep sociologie aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Stilzwijgen onder toezichthouders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden secrecy, denial, silence, monitoring
Auteurs Henk van de Bunt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the silence of control agents. It is often said that control agents as representatives of the risk society are obsessed with control activities and fact-finding, and that rule breakers are regularly exposed by negative publicity. The author takes the contrary position that even major cases demonstrate the persistence of silence on the part of control agents. He distinguishes between two types of silence: denial and secrecy. Denial means that control agents saw nothing while they could have discovered wrongdoing. He points to the fact that this denial in the face of knowledge is the result of sociological ambivalence: control agents are often forced to reconcile conflicting interests, which supersede the importance of supervision. The article shows that secrecy plays an important role in trust relationships between control agents and the objects of their supervision. Secrecy enables control agents to better obtain information. In effect, with regard to the supply of information and the scrutiny of the objects under supervision, control agents are dependent on the cooperativeness of the objects of supervision. These days, much emphasis is placed on breaking the walls of silence. Perpetrators, victims and witnesses, as well as control agents, are being encouraged to break the silence through the use of star witness arrangements, whistleblower arrangements, witness protection, and reporting centres. But is this effective? The author suggests that maintaining secrecy is essential and that those measures limit the space for control agents to develop trust relationships with the objects of supervision, and thereby the opportunity to engage in fact-finding.


Henk van de Bunt
Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail:vandebunt@law.eur.nl
Artikel

Crimineel gedrag in de jongvolwassenheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden developmental and life course criminology, emerging adulthood, criminal careers
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland, Dr. Hanneke Palmen en Dr. Marion van San
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Much of developmental and life course criminological research addresses either the onset and escalation of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence, or the desistance from crime during the adult years. Far less attention has been paid to the years in which adolescents first make the transition to adulthood. Over the last 50 years due to increased educational demands this transition period has become prolonged and increasingly deinstitutionalized, resulting in a new life stage denoted as the emerging adult period. This introductory paper describes the ways in which this newly formed life stage between ages 18 and 28 is relevant for criminology, questions our knowledge on criminal career development during this period and explores new research avenues that may contribute to a full-fledged criminology of the emerging adulthood.


Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Hanneke Palmen
Dr. H. Palmen is postdoc bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Marion van San
Dr. M. van San is senior onderzoeker bij RISBO (Erasmus Universiteit) en wetenschappelijk docent aan de faculteit der sociale wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit.
Artikel

Werk, werkkenmerken en delinquentie

Een longitudinaal onderzoek naar de invloed van het hebben van een baan op delinquent gedrag onder jongvolwassenen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden delinquency, work, emerging adulthood, work commitment, future possibilities
Auteurs MSc. Maaike Wensveen, Dr. Hanneke Palmen, Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The link between being employed and delinquent behaviour is complex. This article examines to what extent having a job, the commitment to that job and the future prospects of that job are related to delinquency. We use data from the Utrecht Study of Adolescent Development (USAD), a six-year, three-wave longitudinal study, pertaining to a general population sample of 669 young adults between the ages of 18 and 28. Having a job is associated with an increase in delinquency for 18 and 19 year old males. The results for subsequent ages show a trend towards a delinquency decreasing effect at subsequent ages. The effect of work characteristics – commitment, future prospects – is less clear.


MSc. Maaike Wensveen
M. Wensveen, MSc. was ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel masterstudent bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Hanneke Palmen
Dr. H. Palmen is postdoc bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Wim Meeus
Prof. dr. W.H.J. Meeus is hoogleraar Ontwikkeling in de Adolescentie, departement Pedagogische en Onderwijskundige Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Agenten volgen via Twitter bevordert positieve beeldvorming, stimuleert de meldingsbereidheid en verandert de veiligheidsbeleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Twitter, community policing, transparency, perception, willingness to report
Auteurs Leon Veltman, Marianne Junger en Roy Johannink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since November 2009, the regional police of Groningen facilitated their community officers with Twitter. According to the principles of community policing, they are enabled to shorten the distance between the police and citizens by giving them a direct connection. Such a connection should stimulate interaction, while at the same time it should make people feel more safe. In addition, Twitter also creates possibilities for the police to be transparent. Sharing of information should alter citizens’ perception towards the police.
    A comparison has been made, by using an online questionnaire, between followers and two kinds of non-followers. The effects of following twittering community officers have been demonstrated by using statistical analyses, taking into account relevant control variables. On the basis of these analyses it has been demonstrated that following a twittering community officer did not positively or negatively alter the perception of safety of their followers. However, an enhanced information position has made followers much more aware of local disorder and crime. Thanks to shared information about police actions to sustain and improve local safety and livability, followers’ perception of safety has not been altered negatively.
    Followers’ perception towards the police organization has been positively altered, thanks to the twittering community officers. Especially the sharing of information and involving citizens into local policing helps the police to alter the perception of citizens towards their organization. In addition, it has been shown that followers’ willingness to report has been improved. Thanks to the ease of use of Twitter and the shortened distance between the police and citizens, followers do frequently contact the police or a community officer to share some information, or to report some crime or disorder. However, it has been shown that Twitter should just be presented as complementary to existing ways to contact the police.


Leon Veltman
L. (Leon) Veltman MSc is adviseur beleid en onderzoek bij VDMMP Focus op veiligheid. E-mail: veltman@vdmmp.nl

Marianne Junger
Prof.dr. M. (Marianne) Junger is Professor Social Safety Studies aan de Universiteit Twente. E-mail: m.junger@utwente.nl

Roy Johannink
Drs. R. (Roy) Johannink MCDm is senior adviseur beleid en onderzoek bij VDMMP Focus.
Artikel

De daling van moord en doodslag in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden homicide, trend, the Netherlands, murder, decline
Auteurs Dr. Marieke Liem, Dr. Johan van Wilsem, Drs. Paul Smit e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The number of homicides in the Netherlands has been stable for some time but decreased over the last few years. The aim of this study is first, to describe the recent trends in homicide in the Netherlands. Second, we aim to explain the reasons for this recent drop in homicide by using data from the Dutch Homicide Monitor that includes all homicides in the period 1992-2009. Findings suggest that the drop in homicide could be explained by a combination of factors, including change in situational characteristics, change in social cohesion and change in the degree of economic deprivation.


Dr. Marieke Liem
Dr. M.C.A. Liem is universitair docent criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden, m.c.a.liem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J.A. van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden, j.a.van.wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Drs. Paul Smit
Drs. P.R. Smit is onderzoeker bij het WODC, Ministerie van Justitie, p.r.smit@minjus.nl.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden, p.nieuwbeerta@law.leidenuniv.nl.
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