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Artikel

Alsof slachtofferschap een verhaal is: de narratieve victimologie en haar grenzen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden victimology, narrative criminology, cultural criminology, Susan Brison, Hans Vaihinger
Auteurs Prof. dr. Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article adopts German philosopher Hans Vaihinger’s Philosophy of “as if” as a vehicle to sketch the main features of the emerging research domain of narrative victimology, as well as address some of its limitations. Vaihinger emphasizes the importance of useful untruths, i.e. things we know to be untrue, but nevertheless behave as if they are not, if that strengthens their use as instruments for us to find our way more easily in the world. This applies to our daily lives, but also to our societal institutions and the models and metaphors that underlie our approaches to (social) science. The paper argues that the narrative metaphor of the historical event is often more apt to enhance our understanding of victimological phenomena than that of the mechanism, which is the default metaphor of (social) science. The paper subsequently describes four areas of inquiry of narrative victimology: victimisation’s impact on (life) stories; narratives in the aftermath of victimization; narratives of victim’s experiences with justice processes and the coincidence and juxtaposition of the victims’ narrative with narratives of other significant parties. For all its merits however, the narrative metaphor is also a “useful untruth”, equipped with its own limitations, for instance the difficulty of language in describing first hand experiences of victims and the possibility that narrative structures will be imposed upon victim experiences.


Prof. dr. Antony Pemberton
Prof. dr. Antony Pemberton is hoogleraar herstelrecht aan het Leuven Institute of Criminology, KU Leuven en senior onderzoeker aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum voor Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam. Als onderdeel van die laatste functie is hij tevens gedetacheerd als hoogleraar victimologie aan Tilburg University.
Essay

Legitimering van massale schade

De narratieve sociologie van Lois Presser

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden narrative criminology, critical criminology, mass harm, narrative impacts, power paradox
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this review-essay, two books by criminologist Lois Presser are discussed: Why We Harm (2013) and Inside Story: How Narratives Drive Mass Harm (2018). In these books the author develops a general theory of harmful action, in particular collective and massive forms of harmful action that are often related to state institutions and large companies. Presser shows that all kinds of stories, scripts and ideologies may justify, support, cover up or deny harmful action. In her publications, cultural sociology, critical criminology and discourse analysis are intimately intertwined.


Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is research fellow aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en redacteur van Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.
Artikel

Narratieve criminologie meets participatief actieonderzoek

Een reflectie over epistemologische mogelijkheden en uitdagingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden participatory action research, critical narrative criminology, counter narratives, drug use, stigma
Auteurs Michelle Van Impe MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Critical narrative criminologists analyse dominant and institutionalised stories that can contribute to harm but they might also become more involved in interrogating and changing such narratives. The following question would be: in what ways can this be done? Based on experiences from a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project on stigma with people who use(d) illegal drugs, this paper reflects on the epistemological opportunities and challenges of fusing narrative criminology with PAR. Although such an integration raises potential tensions – especially with regard to the role of the researcher – PAR can amplify narrative criminology by offering a framework for practicing critical, ethical and socially engaged scholarship. Vice versa, narrative criminology can deepen PAR in its analysis of discursive power structures and the relation between narratives and action.


Michelle Van Impe MA
Michelle Van Impe is doctoraal FWO-onderzoeker bij het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) in Gent, België.
Artikel

Conflict narratives and conflict handling strategies in intercultural contexts

Reflections from an action research project based on restorative praxis

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden action research, conflict, restorative justice, intercultural contexts
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A rapidly growing field of research and practice, restorative justice has primarily found its gravitational centre within the criminal justice system, as an alternative of dealing with the aftermath of crime. Less explored remains the application of restorative justice in complex, urban, or intercultural contexts, an application which raises a whole set of conceptual and practical challenges. This article is based on an action project which aimed to research conflict narratives in intercultural contexts and transform them through restorative praxis. Mostly used in educational, organizational, and health care settings, action research remains an underused but a highly interesting methodology for criminology and criminal justice research. Its alternative epistemology makes it particularly apt for scientific projects that aim both at investigating crime and justice related issues and at engendering change, either at the level of criminal justice or communities. Although action research has focused mostly on creating change at the level of practical knowledge, when conceived in a critical manner, action research aims not only at improving the work of practitioners, but also at assisting them to arrive at a critique of their social or work settings. Practice concerns at the same time problem setting or problem framing. By zooming into one of the case studies of the project, more specifically the social housing estates in Vienna, I focus in this article specifically on the tensions and dilemmas created by processes of engagement in a problematizing approach to the context and to practice. During these processes, together with other social actors, such as inhabitants and professionals, we named problems (in our case social conflicts) and framed the context in which we addressed them. I argue that participatory forms of inquiry, such as action research, should actively reframe rather than merely describe contexts and problems they work with.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali is FWO Postdoctoral researcher, Leuven Institute of Criminology, Leuven, Belgium.
Artikel

Gevallen helden van bedrijfsleven en openbaar bestuur

De ‘fall from grace’ van witteboordencriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, status degradation, sanctioning, executives, punishment
Auteurs Prof. dr. Wim Huisman en Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminology, it is generally assumed that the high social status of white-collar offenders prevents them of being targeted by criminal law enforcement. But when they do, they suffer greater social and economic damage because of this high social status. Empirical research on the consequences of criminal law enforcement and conviction for white-collar offenders is scarce, and limited to the US and the UK. This paper used biographies of convicted former executives in business and public office in the Netherlands, to analyse these consequences and the process of the ‘fall from grace’ of white-collar offenders. The consequences are described in four life-domains: health, the private sphere, the occupational sphere and the social sphere. The results show that Dutch executives, in line with findings for the Anglo-American white-collar offenders, experience status degradation and suffer much collateral damage of criminal law enforcement. After the initial horror of imprisonment, they endure prison life fairly well. Individual competences and remaining social and economic capital enable them to return to normal life, although they cannot return to pre-conviction levels of social status.


Prof. dr. Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
Drs. Dennis Lesmeister is veroordeeld in de Klimop-zaak en is geassocieerd onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Securitisering en seksualisering van migratie: het debat over oud en nieuw in Keulen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Refugees, Gender debate, Sexual violence, Framing analysis
Auteurs Dr. Martina Althoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article examines the public debate about New Year’s Eve in Cologne in 2015. Theoretical starting point is the idea that public debates are forms of social communication in which reality is produced and social events become meaningful. On the basis of a framing analysis, it is investigated what significance New Year’s Eve in Cologne has as a medial event for society. The question here is how the event is described and explained, how it is mentioned and interpreted, what significance it collectively receives and how these insights can be theoretically interpreted. The analysis shows that different frames were possible, such as the problematization of the work of the police. Instead, the discourse focused on the sexual behaviour of refugees and securitization and sexualisation of migration takes place.


Dr. Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is werkzaam als universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie. E-mail: m.althoff@rug.nl.
Redactioneel

Varia

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Auteurs dr. Ilse van Liempt en prof. dr. Richard Staring
Auteursinformatie

dr. Ilse van Liempt
Dr. Ilse van Liempt werkt als universitair docent/onderzoeker bij de sectie Stadsgeografie van de Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: i.c.vanliempt@uu.nl.

prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring werkt als bijzonder hoogleraar bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: staring@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

De ‘integratie’ van mensen van Nederlandse afkomst in superdiverse wijken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden superdiversity, integration, people of Dutch descent, creative class, occupational groups
Auteurs Prof.dr. Maurice Crul en Frans Lelie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Amsterdam and Rotterdam both have become majority-minority cities. Cities where all ethnic population groups, including that of Dutch descent, now form a minority. Most migration research focusses on the integration of a variety of migrant groups in the city. This article addresses the group forgotten in migration research: the people of Dutch descent. What does it mean for people of Dutch descent to be part of an ethnic group that is becoming increasingly smaller in the super-diverse neighborhoods of the city? Amsterdam is often regarded as the example of a ‘happy’ super-diverse city, while Rotterdam considered to be an ‘unhappy’ super-diverse city. Our research confirms that in Rotterdam people of Dutch descent draw brighter boundaries between themselves and people of other ethnic backgrounds than their peers in Amsterdam do. It is remarkable that the difference between Rotterdam and Amsterdam is especially evident among people in the middle and higher echelons of the labour market, and less so among the working class. What causes this difference? In both cities, we see that people from the creative sector and people working in law enforcing occupations like police, army and security are characterized by a stabile attitude towards ethnic diversity. The cities’ general climate seems to influence – both positively and negatively – mainly those in administrative, technical, financial and social professions, where we find less stable attitudes towards diversity.


Prof.dr. Maurice Crul
Prof. dr. Maurice Crul is hoogleraar Organisatie van Diversiteit en Onderwijs aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en hoogleraar Sociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Frans Lelie
Frans Lelie is gastonderzoeker aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Moving beyond the other

A critique of the reductionist drugs discourse

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden drug use, drug users, drug policy, drug reform, media, discourse, the other
Auteurs Stuart Taylor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper uses the UK as a vehicle through which to argue that a dominant reductionist drugs discourse exists which simplifies understandings of drug use and drug users leading to socio-cultural misrepresentations of harm, risk and dangerousness. It contends that at the centre of this discourse lies the process of othering – the identification of specific substances and substance users as a threat to UK society. Interestingly, within the wider context of global drug policy reform this othering process appears to be expanding to target a wider variety of factors and actors – those policies, research findings and individuals which contest normative notions, resulting in the marginalisation of ‘alternative voices’ which question the entrenched assumptions associated with drug prohibition. The paper concludes that there is a need for collective action by critical scholars to move beyond the other, calling for academics to be innovative in their research agendas, creative in their dissemination of knowledge and resolute despite the threat of being othered themselves.


Stuart Taylor
Stuart Taylor is senior lecturer in criminal justice in the School of Law at Liverpool John Moores University, UK.
Artikel

Othering refugees: exclusion, containment and spaces of hope

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden refugee camp, space, foreigner dispositif, fieldwork
Auteurs Lynn Musiol MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article examines mechanisms of othering the refugees illustrated on one refugee camp in Germany. Based on the theoretical strand of the foreigner dispositif, I analyze spatial and architectural compositions of the camp to outline the differentiation of ‘we’ (nation state) and ‘others’ (refugees). In the process of othering space excludes, controls and identifies refugees as ‘others’. However, being identified as the other, space can also be conceived as a specific space of hope. The findings shed some light on the link between othering, space and identity.


Lynn Musiol MA
Lynn Musiol is a master student Interna­tional Criminology at the University of Hamburg.
Artikel

Scientific misconduct: how organizational culture plays its part

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden scientific misconduct, organizational culture, social control
Auteurs Rita Faria PhD student
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Scientific misconduct takes place at the heart of higher education organizations. Organizational culture (meso level) shapes scholars’ behaviors and perceptions (micro level) about what should be problematized while conducting research and teaching. In this paper it is argued that there are organizational mechanisms at place by which organizational goals (funding) and professional goals (recognition) become indistinguishable. The mechanisms are: pressure, loose social control, scarce resources and lack of alternatives. Scholars may strategically react to these mechanisms by accepting, fitting in, resisting or giving up. It is at the heart of these mechanisms and strategies that problematic behaviors may emerge.


Rita Faria PhD student
Rita Faria is Lecturer at the School of Criminology – Faculty of Law of the University of Porto (Portugal).
Artikel

Onveiligheid als stedelijkheidsfobie

Angst en onmacht in de hygiënische stad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden disorder, perception of crime and disorder, urbanism, public familiarity
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article suggests that fears and concerns about disorder and crime are connected with urbanophobia, i.e. a low willingness to identify with public space and a certain incapacity to recognize deviancy and give it a place in one’s mind map. For this reason many citizens may not develop public familiarity. At the same time it is argued that tackling urban disorder is often necessary but not for reasons that proponents of repression and zero tolerance think. Current crime and disorder policies bring forth many counterproductive results, including increased fear and powerlessness. It seems more reasonable to combat disorder to undo the ‘situational normality’ of persistent forms of anti-social behaviour. For many citizens this signals a restoration of expected peaceful interaction.


Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit en aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschap & politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Email: b.a.m.van.stokkom@vu.nl
Artikel

De pose

Boevenbiografie tussen structuur en interactie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden biography, structure, symbolic interactionism, presentation of self
Auteurs Frank van Gemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In biographies a structure perspective is common to place the key person in a context of time and place. Apart from opportunities and obstacles, also cultural frames for interpretation vary with context. In this article a second, interaction perspective is added. This can best be applied if the key person cooperates in the research and if an emic approach is used. A recent life history of Jan Hoolwerf demonstrates how the key person comes to various presentations of self that can be understood as poses that fit specific settings.


Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: f.vangemert@rechten.vu.nl.
Redactioneel

Over cultuur en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden culture, crime, media, research methods
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg, Dina Siegel, Richard Staring e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introduction to this first issue of the Dutch Journal on Culture and Crime, the editors first examine the history of cultural perspectives in criminology and the reasons why this approach is particularly relevant to analyse crime in our globalised consumer societies. Cultural criminology’s social-constructionist perspectives on the key-concepts, culture and crime, are elaborated next, followed by an exposé of the new imaginative meaning of media-studies in our age of information. In the last paragraph the claim is made that, although ethnography plays a key-role, there is a wide variety of research methodologies that can be applied in cultural criminological framework.


Marc Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg is docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn website is www.marcschuilenburg.nl. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: d.siegel@uu.nl.

Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar Mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: staring@law.eur.nl.

René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar Internationaal vergelijkende criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en wetenschappelijk directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

‘Boeven vangen’ via internet

Beelden over criminaliteit in opsporingsberichtgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden crime & media, responsibilization, internet, citizen participation
Auteurs Judith van Erp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article studies community notification of suspects, as in Crimewatch and its Dutch equivalent, Opsporing Verzocht, and on police websites. It explores how these messages frame crime, and how these frames change when police messages are copied by private websites. Publication of suspects by the police is characterized as responsibilization, because it legitimizes the authority of the police and reinforces existing relations between police and the public. The new media, however, undermine the frame of authority as it is presented by the police, either because publications aiming to detect suspects are transformed into news or entertainment, or because private websites select those publications that give room to the questioning of police performance. As for the presentation of the publications, this article compares the Dutch TV program Opsporing Verzocht and the website GeenStijl. Opsporing Verzocht centers around the victim, while GeenStijl presents the subject from an enforcement point of view. GeenStijl users are not addressed as the police’s helping hands, but as autonomous agents of social control, sometimes standing in for the police. Community notification of suspects therefore not only influences detection rates, but also the relation between the police, the public, and offenders in society.


Judith van Erp
Dr. Judith van Erp is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: vanerp@law.eur.nl.
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