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Migratie, vluchtelingen en veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Auteurs Janine Janssen, Joanne van der Leun en Dianne van Hemert
Auteursinformatie

Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie. Daarnaast is zij lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Joanne van der Leun
Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie en Decaan Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dianne van Hemert
Dianne van Hemert is werkzaam bij TNO en redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

De smokkel van Syrische migranten naar Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Mensensmokkel, Smokkelroutes, smokkelnetwerken, Smokkelfuncties, smokkelen van migranten
Auteurs Sacha van der Velden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the modus operandi of human smugglers that smuggle Syrian migrants to the Netherlands in de period 2014-2016? Content analysis of police and Royal Marechaussee files, interviews with experts and Syrian migrants and literature research has revealed that: Syrian migrants in first instance use the South-Eastern route overseas from Turkey to Greece, for which they pay 1200-4000 euro to a smuggler, depending on the quality of the boat. From Greece some travel over land on the Balkan route. Several means of transportation are used on this route, with smugglers asking prices ranging from tens to hundreds of euros. Also they travel large parts on their own. Others are smuggled by airplane, for which they need (false) documentation. Smuggling by plane tends to be successful when departing from a small airfield, when made a detour through visa-free countries and/or a good quality (false) travel document. Prices range from 2.000 to 14.000 euros. Migrants mostly pay cash through irregular ‘banks’, a third party that plays an important facilitating role within several smuggling networks. These networks consist of several cells, with in these cells leaders and ‘employees’ and are located on migration routes and ‘hubs’ like Istanbul, Athens and Milan. The South-Eastern route is mostly in hands of Turkish criminal networks, and the continuation of the journey by airplane or through Milan over land is in hands of Syrian Dutch smugglers, the Balkan route seems to be mainly operated by individual smugglers. Within these smuggling networks the most important roles are: the recruiter, who is responsible for making contact with migrants on migration hubs or social media. The organizer/leader who coordinates activities along the smuggling route and calls employees to account. And finally the driver. Responsible for transporting the migrants and instructing them. Based on these findings several recommendations were made that can be found in this article or full research rapport.


Sacha van der Velden
Sacha van der Velden is Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale politie.
Artikel

Een eenvoudige diefstal of toch een mishandeling?

Verschillen in type delict tussen zelfrapportage door slachtoffers en registratiesystemen bij instanties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Slachtoffers, Registratie misdrijf, slachtofferrapportage, Delictcategorie
Auteurs Maartje Timmermans, Joost van den Tillaart en Annemarie ten Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    From a secondary analysis of data from a survey of victims of crime, commissioned by the WODC, it appears that more than occasionally the registration of the type of offence by the police, the Public Prosecution Service and Victim Support Netherlands does not match the victim’s own reporting of the offence. In this article, the differences between victims’ reports and registrations regarding the nature of the victimization are exposed and the background of the differences is explored. Some offences seem to have an increased chance of being classed by victims in offence categories which differ from those of the registrations.
    Based on the secondary analysis, the authors conclude that it is important for the interpretation of future research among victims to identify the registered offence and explicitly verify this with the respondent. It is also good to consider what registration data is useful in samples to be able to identify differences between the registrations and the victims’ reports later. A practical implication of the discrepancy in the nature of victimization is that bottlenecks may occur in the connection between the support needs of victims and the supply.


Maartje Timmermans
Maartje Timmermans is senior onderzoeker bij Regioplan.

Joost van den Tillaart
Joost van den Tillaart is senior onderzoeker bij Regioplan.

Annemarie ten Boom
Annemarie ten Boom is projectbegeleider bij het WODC, het onderzoekscentrum van het Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Zij werkt aan een proefschrift over het verband tussen de slachtoffer-daderrelatie en de behoeften van slachtoffers met betrekking tot justitie. Zij is als buitenpromovendus aan INTERVICT verbonden.

    Preventive interventions against terrorist attacks can be justified on legal and moral grounds. The Dutch broad-based approach against terrorism also addresses radicalizations processes. It is, however, hard to justify why a government in a liberal democracy should be allowed to intervene in processes of radicalization where danger to society is not obvious. A reason to justify intervention is when a (former) radical asks for help. Theories based on the ideas of Kant and Rawls also allow for intervention if an individual’s autonomy is diminished because he is member of a sect or under the spell of a charismatic leader. Other interventions with regard to (prevention of) radicalization cannot be justified by deontological theories such as Kant’s and Rawls’. Virtue ethics or teleology would, however, allow interventions but only if they are geared towards helping the individual in their quest to the good life. This justification allows for interventions that are, for example, focused on supporting individuals to critically reflect, reason and discuss about the good life and a just society. Based on the teleological justification constraints can be derived for preventive interventions with regard to radicalization or even deradicalisation. Notice that individuals cannot be forced to join these programs because there is no legal basis.


Anke van Gorp
Dr. ir. Anke van Gorp is onderzoeker en hogeschooldocent Ethiek en Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht, Integrale Veiligheidskunde, Faculteit FMR. E-mail: anke.vangorp@hu.nl

Arnold Roosendaal
Mr. Arnold Roosendaal is onderzoeker bij TNO, afdeling Strategy and Policy for the Information Society.
Artikel

Zijn Nederlandse burgers écht enthousiast over de nieuwe antiterrorismemaatregelen?

Een vergelijking van attitudes en willingness to pay

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden counterterrorism policy, public opinion, willingness to pay, legitimacy
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem en Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2001, the Netherlands have broadened their array of antiterrorism legislation and policies. However, there is hardly any insight into the level of public support for them. This article assesses the Dutch public opinion on four measures that were recently made effective: enhanced possibilities for stop-and-search, broadening of possibilities for special investigative resources, increased obligations for identification, and body scans in airports. Two randomly selected, comparable groups were asked different questions about these issues: attitudes or willingness to pay. The results show that respondents have positive attitudes towards newly introduced antiterrorism measures, yet simultaneously, they have low willingness to pay. Both groups were also asked how they would allocate an imaginary fixed budget to various criminal justice policies and tax rebate. These results show similar relations for both attitudes and willingness to pay, suggesting they both measure the relative importance assigned to antiterrorism policies. A right political orientation predicts both positive attitudes and high willingness to pay. Furthermore, people with high income have higher willingness to pay. The results underline the necessity to pay attention to the subtleties underlying public opinion on crime control.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J.A. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. M.A.H. (Maartje) van der Woude is universitair docent criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: m.a.h.vanderwoude@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Gemeenten en de strijd tegen de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden georganiseerde criminaliteit, bestuurlijke aanpak, BIBOB, gemeenten, evaluatieonderzoek
Auteurs Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Municipalities play an increasingly important role in the fight against organized crime. Following Italian and New York examples, the Netherlands have developed several instruments for an administrative approach to organized crime. This article describes these instruments on a local and a national level and discusses its theoretical foundations. A critical assessment is made on the reach of this administrative approach considering the perception and nature of organized crime in the Netherlands. Further, methods for assessing the effectiveness of such an approach are discussed. Has organized crime successfully been targeted and how could this be established?


Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

Gemeenschap als bron van positieve veiligheid

Een conceptuele verkenning en aanzet tot empirisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden gemeenschap, sociale cohesie, sense of belonging, insluiting
Auteurs Ronald van Steden, Marieke van Vliet, Ton Salman e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the links between the concepts of security and community, questioning the conventional use and meaning of both. To begin with, it addresses the taken-for-grantedness of the thought that communities foster feelings of security, and that contemporary processes of migration, intensified worldwide communication, and ‘heterogeneization’ of habitats stimulate feelings of insecurity and nostalgia for ‘old-fashioned’ tight kinship. Subsequently, it criticizes the too lop-sided focus on insecurity in current debates, and asks attention for – community-based – positive feelings of security. In the next paragraphs, however, the problematic aspects of the idea of ‘community’ are discussed: its inadequacy in capturing current individualized ways-of-life, its exclusionary tendencies, its potentially exaggerated focus on social control, and its rejection of, and fear for, the outside world. Therefore, we assess the possibility to construe (‘strong’) community qualities in a situation of multiple, overlapping and porous populations of varied identity-relevance within overarching institutional arrangements of rule of law and of shared codes of conduct (as ‘weak’ ties). Finally, the argument is translated in suggestions for empirical research to be able to determine the fecundity of the ideas presented.


Ronald van Steden
Ronald van Steden is universitair docent aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschappen van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: r.van.steden@fsw.vu.nl.

Marieke van Vliet
Marieke van Vliet is cultureel antropologe. Zij is werkzaam als recherchekundige bij de regiopolitie Amsterdam-Amstelland. E-mail: marieke.van.vliet@amsterdam.politie.nl.

Ton Salman
Ton Salman is universitair hoofddocent aan de afdeling culturele antropologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: aj.salman@fsw.vu.nl.

Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.E-mail: jcj.boutellier@fsw.vu.nl.
Artikel

Sociale netwerkanalyse en jeugdcriminaliteit: een overzicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, jeugdcriminaliteit, jeugddelinquentie
Auteurs Frank Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper, recent social network research in the area of juvenile delinquency is reviewed. Two main subjects are distinguished: first, studies in which Social Network Analysis is used to enhance our insights into the relation between delinquent peers and own delinquent behavior; second, the use of Social Network Analysis to get a better picture of delinquent groups and youth gangs. Two examples of social network analyses in the field of juvenile delinquency are elaborated. These examples combine visual depiction of networks with quantitative analyses of network characteristics, illustrating the complementary nature of both approaches. The literature and the examples show that Social Network Analysis lead to a more nuanced and complex insight into the role of delinquent peers in delinquent behavior and the structure of groups of young offenders.


Frank Weerman
Frank M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Contactadres: NSCR, Postbus 71304, 1008 BH Amsterdam. E-mail: fweerman@nscr.nl.

Drs. Bas Mali
Bas Mali is onderzoeker bij het Lectoraat Gemeenschappelijke Veiligheidskunde en docent-onderzoeker bij de Faculteit Algemene Politiekunde van de Politieacademie. E-mail: bas.mali@politieacademie.nl.
Discussie

De recidive van Den Engh

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs Dr. Gijs Weijters en Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    [Volgt nog]


Dr. Gijs Weijters
Gijs Weijters is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij de onderzoeksafdeling CRS (Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties) van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie. E-mail: g.m.weijters@minjus.nl.

Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts
Stefan Bogaerts is als hoogleraar forensische psychologie en victimologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, sectie klinische psychologie en aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Intervict, Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij doceert tevens aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
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