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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie x Jaar 2015 x
Artikel

Militaire actoren en accenten in de veiligheidszorg in twintigste-eeuws België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden security, policing, Belgium, twentieth century, gendarmerie
Auteurs Jonas Campion Phd in History (UCLouvain, Paris Sorbonne – Paris IV)
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since mid-January 2015, nearly 300 soldiers were mobilized by the Belgian government to ensure the safety of public places in Liège, Brussels, Antwerp and Verviers, providing assistance to local and federal police forces. This provoked intense political and public debate about the issue of the provision of security in a democratic society, raising questions such as: which are the goals of security policies and what kind of risks are they supposed to address? Which control instances should be responsible for the provision of security and how should they operate? The central issue, here, is whether either civilian or military actors and practices are the most appropriate for surveillance and policing tasks. As a matter of fact, this discussion goes back to the Belgian independence and has marked the entire history of the Belgian police system, since at the heart of it, there has long been a military police force, the gendarmerie. In this contribution, we examine how the militarization of security and policing tasks evolved across the twentieth century in Belgium, which socio-political conditions shaped these evolutions, and what kind of arguments pro or contra military approaches have been advanced in this process.


Jonas Campion Phd in History (UCLouvain, Paris Sorbonne – Paris IV)
Jonas Campion is postdoconderzoeker aan de Universiteit Lille 3, France (Irhis, gesteund door het région Nord-Pas-de-Calais) en gastprofessor aan het UCLouvain, België.
Artikel

De remmende werking van huwelijk en arbeid op vermogensdelicten. Rotterdam, 1812-1820

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden property crime, marriage, labour, nineteenth century, Netherlands
Auteurs Bjørn Gallée BA en Jaap Ligthart MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the field of criminology, marriage and labour are important determinants for the decline in criminal behavior. However, these factors are seldom researched in the context of historical criminology. By conducting research into crimes against property in Rotterdam, those brought to the Rotterdam correctional court in the 1812-1820 period, this paper attempts to shed light on the topic. Our findings show that a majority of the delinquents in question were employed, while a minority of those female delinquents were married, yet also in gainful employment in most cases. Male adolescents, who had just entered the labour market, were the largest group of male delinquents. The female population of delinquents consisted mostly of women who were close to marriageable age. Thus, it is suggested that labour and marriage supplied insufficient economical stability to inhibit criminal behavior during the 1812-1820 period.


Bjørn Gallée BA
B. Gallée, BA is werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jaap Ligthart MA
J. Ligthart, MA was in 2013 werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ en promoveert momenteel aan de Universiteit Leiden op financiële problemen van vorsten in de vijftiende-eeuwse Nederlanden.
Artikel

‘Dat het uwe Majesteit moge behagen de innigste wensch van een uwer onderdanen te vervullen’

Gratieverzoeken van vrouwen in de Rijkswerkinrichting 1886-1907

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden female vagrants, Beggars, Reprieve, State Labor Institution
Auteurs Drs. Marian Weevers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The files of the women in the State Labor Institution who submitted a request for reprieve showed that they were well aware of the prevailing discourses. They referred for example to their indispensability at home as mother and spouse. In case they were in the Institution for the first time and had no ‘unfavorable’ reputation they mainly succeeded. The main consideration to grant a pardon was the prospect of maintenance to prevent recurrence and consequently nuisance for society. Those who were seriously ill were pardoned because they could not work, the youngest residents to save them from the bad influence of their older inmates. Nevertheless many returned in the State Labor Institution.


Drs. Marian Weevers
Drs. M.H.A.C. Weevers is promovendus aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    This paper looks at how Dutch newspapers dealt with mental disorders and gender in their crime reports in 1930. The Psychopath Acts, which allowed special restriction orders (‘TBR’) to be imposed on mentally disturbed delinquents who were a danger to society, had just come into effect then. The newspapers did not present such TBR criminals as dangerous or mentally disturbed. Instead, the papers used ‘madness’ to explain apparently motiveless crimes such as killing one’s own children. Female perpetrators were no more likely to be labelled mentally ill than male perpetrators.


Clare Wilkinson MA
C. Wilkinson, MA is promovendus aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Praktijk

Migranten en minderheden in het vizier van staat en politie

Een langetermijnperspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Auteurs Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Prof. dr. M. De Koster is universitair docent historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Boekbespreking

Intervene to be seen …

Bespreking van The reputable bystander. The role of reputation in activating or deactivating bystanders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Eric Rassin
Auteursinformatie

Prof. mr. dr. Eric Rassin
Prof. mr. dr. E. Rassin is als rechtspsycholoog verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Redactioneel

Historische criminologie: een vakgebied

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden History, social change, comparative analysis, crime trends, crime patterns
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld, Prof. dr. Margo De Koster en Prof. dr. Manon van der Heijden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Throughout history people have committed theft, fraud and murder. However, the frequency and severity of crimes are not static, but varies across time and space. The ways in which people respond to crime also change over time: penalties such as banishment, corporal punishment and capital punishment were frequently imposed in early modern Europe, but do not exist here anymore. Our thinking about crime and crime control changed over time as well. In addition to so-called hard crimes such as theft and homicide, various kinds of conduct were – in some times and periods – labeled as criminal (adultery, fornication and blasphemy). In crime control, state formation resulted in the emergence and expansion and professionalization of police forces and judicial systems, which development was accompanied by increasing interactions and interplays between supranational governments, private crime fighters, and informal forms of social control. Criminologists study fluid phenomena which vary across time and space. This makes exchange of knowledge and research cooperation between historians and criminologists particularly fruitful, or as Paul Knepper put it: ‘From what has been done so far, one thing is clear enough: the most interesting criminology arises at the point that history and criminology meet’ (Knepper, 2013, 2081).


Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is hoogleraar methoden & technieken van criminologisch onderzoek en directeur van het NSCR.

Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Prof. dr. M. De Koster is universitair docent historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Prof. dr. Manon van der Heijden
Prof. dr. M.P.C. van der Heijden is hoogleraar Comparative Urban History aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Stapels koopwaar als eene bestendige aanlokking voor dieven’. De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden governance of security, private security, crime control, situational crime prevention, loss prevention
Auteurs Drs. P. Leloup
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on the manner in which between 1880 and 1940 private actors in the port of Antwerp, whether or not in cooperation with the public authorities, interpreted crime and crime control in terms of risk management, loss prevention and situational crime prevention through a strict economic approach, as opposed to the then dominant institutionalized and criminological discourse. Whereas crime control by the major criminal justice institutions put an emphasis on the biological, psychological and sociological characteristics of the offender, measures taken by maritime, industrial and commercial organizations were aimed exclusively at manipulating the temporal and spatial dimensions of the opportunity structures in which criminal activities, which posed a threat to the economic profitability, could develop.


Drs. P. Leloup
Drs. P. Leloup is verbonden aan de Crime & Society (CRiS)-onderzoeksgroep van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, is houder van masterdiploma’s geschiedenis (Universiteit Gent, 2009) en criminologische wetenschappen (Universiteit Gent, 2012) en werkt aan een proefschrift over de ontwikkeling van de private veiligheidszorg in België, getiteld ‘The development of the private security industry in Belgium (1907-1990). A historical-criminological perspective on contemporary changes in security and crime control’.

Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. M. Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam.

Dr. Tamar Fischer
Dr. T.F.C. Fischer is Universitair Docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Het episodisch geheugen en getuigenverhoor

Wat weten politieverhoorders hiervan?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden interview, interviewer, police, witness, episodic memory
Auteurs Dr. Geralda Odinot, Drs. MCI Roel Boon en Laura Wolters BSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this study, we examined what police interviewers know about factors that affect the reliability of eyewitness testimony. We asked 143 specialist investigative interviewers from the Dutch police to complete a questionnaire about eyewitness memory. The results indicate that the police interviewers have limited knowledge of episodic memory and accompanying interviewing issues. In addition, we analyzed the interview manual from the Dutch Police Academy on coverage of the topics in our questionnaire. The poor level of knowledge of the police interviewers was correlated with lack of knowledge in the manual. Results are discussed in relation to education in police interviewing in the Netherlands.


Dr. Geralda Odinot
Dr. G. Odinot is onderzoeker op de afdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties bij het WODC, Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Drs. MCI Roel Boon
Drs. R. Boon MCI is operationeel specialist bij de Nationale Politie.

Laura Wolters BSc
L.C.M. Wolters BSc is operationeel specialist bij de Nationale Politie.

Dr. Martina Althoff
Dr. M. Althoff is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Boekbespreking

Rationele keuze, nieuwsgierigheid en ambitie

Hoe hoogleraren onderzoek vinden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Prof. dr. Tom Vander Beken
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Tom Vander Beken
Prof. dr. T. Vander Beken is hoogleraar aan de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

‘Onze kinderen zijn geen terroristen’

Families van Belgische en Nederlandse Syriëgangers over het vertrek van hun geliefden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden foreign fighters, armed struggle, families, Syria, radicalization
Auteurs Dr. Marion van San
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since March 2013 a sizeable number of Belgian and Dutch youngsters have joined the armed conflict in Syria. According to recent estimates, Belgium has 438 foreign fighters in Syria, the Netherlands 160. Very little is known about who these people are and what made them decide to join the armed struggle. There is also a lack of information regarding their families. The research on which this article is based comprised interviews with twenty families with at least one member who has left for Syria. In addition, former teachers of these youngsters were asked to reflect on their students’ actions. The central questions of this article concern the views of family members on the youngsters’ decision to join the armed struggle, whether or not there were signs of radicalization prior to their leaving, and whether all of them actually did go through a process of radicalization.


Dr. Marion van San
Dr. M. van San is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het RISBO (Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam).
Discussie

Cultuur op den duur

Een reactie op Bovenkerk en Fokkema

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. F.H.M. van Gemert is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Discussie

Repliek op Frank van Gemerts ‘Cultuur op den duur’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frank Bovenkerk en Dr. Tineke Fokkema
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Frank Bovenkerk
Prof. dr. F. Bovenkerk is emeritus hoogleraar aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Tineke Fokkema
Dr. C.M. Fokkema is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (NIDI-KNAW), bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en bij de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Redactioneel

De bestudering van criminaliteit op macroniveau: een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden macro criminology, theory, crime drop, punitive turn, micro-macro problem
Auteurs Dr. Frank Weerman, Dr. André van der Laan, Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory article we introduce the subject of our thematic issue on ‘macro criminology’, and illustrate it with a short historical overview and examples of ‘typical macro criminological’ research. Successively we address the recent decrease in crime in many Western countries (the ‘crime drop’), the increased tendency to punish more severely in the last decennia (the ‘punitive turn’), and historical developments in homicide (‘history of violence’). After that we address an important theoretical and philosophical problem with regard to macro criminology: the balance between micro and macro factors in explaining macro phenomena. Finally, the contributions of this thematic issue are introduced.


Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. André van der Laan
Dr. A.M. van der Laan is senior onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit Rechtshandhaving en Sancties (CRS) van het WODC.

Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall
Prof. I.H. Marshall is Professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice en de Department of Sociology & Anthropology van de Northeastern University in Boston (VS).

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.
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