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Artikel

Verschillen crackers van andere criminelen?

Een vergelijking op basis van Nederlandse verdachtenregistraties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden hackers, crackers, computer intrusion, suspects, The Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. Stijn Ruiter en Frank Bernaards LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Scientific research on cybercrime has mainly focused on its technological aspects. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the human factor in cybercrime. In this article we focus on the human factor and address the question to what extent crackers (criminal hackers) are similar to other criminals. We analyse socio-demographic characteristics as well as criminal careers of crackers in comparison to those of other criminals. We employ Dutch police data on criminal suspects from 1996-2009. Our results show that hacking suspects are quite similar to other criminals with respect to both socio-demographic characteristics and their criminal careers.


Dr. Stijn Ruiter
Dr. S. Ruiter is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Frank Bernaards LLM
F. Bernaards, LLM is strategisch expert bij het Team High Tech Crime (THTC) van de politie.
Artikel

Cyberpesten vanuit een criminologisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden cybercrime, criminological challenges, cyberbullying, characteristics perpetrators, interrelation online-offline
Auteurs Drs. Joyce Kerstens en Sander Veenstra MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is assumed that the online world creates new possibilities for criminal behaviour. Only recently criminologists started the debate on the applicability of traditional criminological theories to cybercrime offending. Data retrieved from the national Dutch survey Youth & Cybersafety indicate that cyberbullying behaviour is not only strongly interwoven with traditional bullying behaviours, but is also affected by the distinct features of the online environment. The findings give support to the suggestion that the aetiological schema to explain cyberbullying should postulate the interaction between individual characteristics, distinct features of the online environment and the interaction between offline and online social realities.


Drs. Joyce Kerstens
J. Kerstens is projectleider Jeugd & Cybersafety bij het lectoraat Cybersafety, verbonden aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie. Zij is tevens promovenda aan de rechtenfaculteit van de Open Universiteit.

Sander Veenstra MSc
S. Veenstra is cum laude afgestudeerd aan de University of Leicester (Criminology, thesis over cyber bullying) en werkt als onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety, verbonden aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Slachtofferschap van cybercrime in kaart gebracht

Hacken, e-fraude, identiteitsfraude en voorschotfraude

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden cybercrime, hacking, online fraud, identity fraud, victim survey
Auteurs Miranda Domenie, Rutger Leukfeldt, Johan van Wilsem e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the results of a Dutch study that focuses specifically on victimization of various forms of cybercrimes among civilians. The survey addresses the cybercrimes hacking, fraud through selling and auction websites, identity theft and fraud and advanced fee fraud. The results are based on a validated questionnaire which was posted amongst a representative sample of 21,800 citizens, the response rate was 10,314 (47 per cent). In this article of each of these cybercrimes the prevalence is shown. Concerning prevalence, the victim survey shows that in the twelve months preceding the survey 4.3 percent of all Internet users were victims of hacking, 2.4 percent were victims of online scams (by paying for a good or service but not receiving them), 0.8 percent were victims of identity fraud and 0.2 percent of advanced fee fraude. Of all victims, 11.9 percent was victim of more than one of the cybercrimes we studied for this article. If we compare this with figures of offline crime we see that in the Netherlands in 2010, 1 percent were victims of assault, 1.2 percent of burglary and 1.5 percent of sexual offenses. In comparison with these offline crimes, the cybercrimes in our study have significant numbers of victims. Among Internet users, we see that victims of hacking and fraud by auction or selling sites are more often youngsters than older people (for hacking 15 till 35 years in fraud 15 till 25 years), people without a partner are at higher risk than people with partners and people with indicated that their most recently completed education were low are more at risk than people with high education. Especially with the online fraud this is remarkable, because it appears that people who make the most purchases over the Internet are higher educated and mostly in 25 till 45 years old.


Miranda Domenie
M.M.L. (Miranda) Domenie BSc is onderzoeker bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie. E-mail: m.m.l.domenie@nhl.nl

Rutger Leukfeldt
E.R. (Rutger) Leukfeldt MSc is onderzoeker bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie en promovendus aan de Open Universiteit. E-mail: e.r.leukfeldt@nhl.nl

Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden.

Wouter Stol
Prof. dr. W.Ph. (Wouter) Stol is Lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.
Artikel

Politieonderzoek in open bronnen op internet

Strafvorderlijke aspecten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden criminal investigation, surveillance, OSINT, investigation powers, legal basis
Auteurs Bert-Jaap Koops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Analysing large amounts of data goes to the heart of the challenges confronting intelligence and law enforcement professionals today. Increasingly, this involves Internet data that are ‘open source’ or ‘publicly available’. Projects such as the European FP7 VIRTUOSO aim at developing platforms for open-source intelligence by law enforcement and public security, which open up opportunities for large-scale, automated data gathering and analysis. However, the mere fact that data are publicly available does not imply an absence of restrictions to researching them. This paper investigates one area of legal constraints, namely Dutch criminal-procedure law in relation to open-source data gathering by the police. Which legal basis is there for this activity? And under what conditions can foreign open sources be investigated?
    After sketching the context of the VIRTUOSO project and legal constraints of open-source intelligence in general, this paper discusses provisions of the Dutch Police Act 1993 and the Code of Criminal Procedure to determine which is the correct legal basis for gathering data from openly accessible and semi-open sources. Next, cross-border gathering of data is discussed on the basis of article 32 of the Cybercrime Convention. The paper draws the conclusion that investigating open sources by the police will often go beyond what is allowed on the basis of the general task description of the police (art. 2 Police Act 1993); hence, an order from the Public Prosecutor for systematic observation or intelligence is required. Moreover, the tools used must meet the non-manipulability and auditing requirements of the Dutch Decree on Technical Devices in Criminal Procedure.


Bert-Jaap Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society, Universiteit van Tilburg. Het onderzoek voor dit artikel werd mede gefinancierd door het Europese KP7-project VIRTUOSO (projectnr. FP7-SEC GA-2009-242352).
Artikel

Access_open Stephen Graham

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden militarization of space, security, cities
Artikel

Veiligheid

Een almaar uitdijend concept

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden problem definition, safety, security, queen’s speeches
Auteurs Sandra Resodihardjo en Anne Kors-Walraven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A number of authors claim that the Dutch government is using the words safety and security more often and more broadly. In this article we show that this is partly true. By studying the usage of the word safety in the Dutch queen’s speeches, we see that especially from 1999 onwards the speeches do contain more references to safety and security issues. Moreover, more and more topics are defined as a safety and security issue. However, this same study shows that a decline in the use of the words safety and security can be discerned from 2006 onwards. Ideas to understand these fluctuations are presented at the end of the article.


Sandra Resodihardjo
Dr. S.L. (Sandra) Resodihardjo is werkzaam als universitair docent bij het Institute for Management Research (opleiding Bestuurskunde), Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. E-mail: s.resodihardjo@fm.ru.nl

Anne Kors-Walraven
A.M. (Anne) Kors-Walraven, MSc is afgestudeerd aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

‘Boeven vangen’ via internet

Beelden over criminaliteit in opsporingsberichtgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden crime & media, responsibilization, internet, citizen participation
Auteurs Judith van Erp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article studies community notification of suspects, as in Crimewatch and its Dutch equivalent, Opsporing Verzocht, and on police websites. It explores how these messages frame crime, and how these frames change when police messages are copied by private websites. Publication of suspects by the police is characterized as responsibilization, because it legitimizes the authority of the police and reinforces existing relations between police and the public. The new media, however, undermine the frame of authority as it is presented by the police, either because publications aiming to detect suspects are transformed into news or entertainment, or because private websites select those publications that give room to the questioning of police performance. As for the presentation of the publications, this article compares the Dutch TV program Opsporing Verzocht and the website GeenStijl. Opsporing Verzocht centers around the victim, while GeenStijl presents the subject from an enforcement point of view. GeenStijl users are not addressed as the police’s helping hands, but as autonomous agents of social control, sometimes standing in for the police. Community notification of suspects therefore not only influences detection rates, but also the relation between the police, the public, and offenders in society.


Judith van Erp
Dr. Judith van Erp is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: vanerp@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Downloaders van kinderporno

Een overzicht van de literatuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderporno, Downloaden, Zedencriminaliteit, Literatuurstudie
Auteurs Anton van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Unlike the physical abusers of children, little is known about downloaders of child pornography. The key questions in this article are: who are the downloaders, what are their backgrounds, why and how they download child pornography, how they behave offline and online and what types of downloaders can be distinguished? A simple answer to these questions is currently impossible to give. There is more, preferably longitudinal, research needed on risk factors for downloading child pornography and the various types of downloaders. Combating the downloaders requires a lot of the police in terms of international cooperation and up to date knowledge and expertise. This also served the treatment practices, which is partly dependent on a properly conducted police investigation.


Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. A.Ph. van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke. E-mail: a.vanwijk@beke.nl.
Artikel

Terug bij af?

Terugkeer en re-integratie van Bulgaarse vrouwen na uitbuiting in de prostitutie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden prostitutie, Bulgarije, remigratie, slachtofferschap
Auteurs MsC Loes Kersten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This research aimed to describe the remigration of Bulgarian women who had been exploited in prostitution in the Netherlands. The difficulties they encountered during their attempt to reintegrate in their environment of origin was one of the main points of interest. Files of Bulgarian women registered as victims have been analyzed in both the Netherlands and in Bulgaria. Interviews were held with current Bulgarian sex workers, former victims of trafficking and several professionals involved in the wellbeing of these women. In many cases remigration turned out to be a temporary situation as many women returned to the Netherlands later on. Partly for that reason it appeared difficult to keep track of their situation after they (initially) came back to Bulgaria. Many women encounter the very problems that contributed to the situation of trafficking in the first place. This makes it difficult to change their marginal position: prostitution remains a well paid option if the circumstances that have led to their exploitation in prostitution remain the same. This does not necessarily lead to repeated victimization, but at least to only a limited difference that reintegration programs can make.


MsC Loes Kersten
L.G.P. Kersten MsC was student criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en voerde dit onderzoek uit in het kader van haar afstudeerproject, kersten.loes@gmail.com.
Artikel

Vrouwen en witwassen: een logische combinatie met incoherente resultaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden vrouwen, georganiseerde misdaad, witwassen, 420bis
Auteurs Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A part in Dutch penal law defines money laundering as ‘any person who acquires an object, possesses it, hands it over or sells it or makes use of an object, knowing that the object originates – directly or indirectly – from an offense’. Under object is meant any goods and any property rights. With this in mind, the author argues that whoever knows that money (the object) is derived from crime, but spends the money anyway, is committing a money laundering offense. Taking the argument one step further, it is therefore a reasonable hypothesis that a large number of wives or girlfriends of criminals, have been prosecuted for money laundering. That is, if the women knew that the money they spent was obtained through crime. To test the hypothesis, 62 cases dealing with organized crime were selected and analyzed. These cases largely focus on male perpetrators of drug crimes, money laundering, human smuggling and human trafficking. It turns out that the women often knew their male friends or husbands were involved in crime. The women also profited of these crimes because they used their friends’ expensive cars, lived in large mansions and often went shopping for luxury items. Still, hardly anyone was prosecuted for money laundering offenses. Several explanations were found, ranging from pity of officers, an overload of work, absence of direct proof or simply male chauvinist bias. Only if the women were actively involved in other crimes, would they find themselves prosecuted with (among others) money laundering offenses.


Melvin Soudijn
Melvin Soudijn is als senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker werkzaam bij de KLPD. E-mail: Melvin.Soudijn@klpd.politie.nl.
Artikel

Criminaliteit, migratie en etniciteit

Nieuwe richtingen binnen een complex en beladen onderzoeksterrein

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden migratie, Criminaliteit en etniciteit, Nederland, België
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun, Dr. Mariska Kromhout, Dr. Marleen Easton e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this thematic issue various angles of crime and migration are addressed. This introductory article focuses on differences in the debate and research on crime and migration in the Netherlands and Belgium. According to the authors (and editors of this issue) both sound research and a critical debate is needed in order to prevent rash conclusions which might exclude large groups of immigrants, asylum seekers and others. This special issue demonstrates the diversity of the relations between migration and crime and the various angles from which these can be studied.


Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden, j.p.vanderleun@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Dr. Mariska Kromhout
Dr. M.H.C. Kromhout is senior onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), m.kromhout@minjus.nl.

Dr. Marleen Easton
Prof. dr. M. Easton is directeur van de onderzoeksgroep ‘Governing & Policing Security’ (GaPS), Vakgroep Bestuur & Beleid, Hogeschool Gent en co-directeur van de associatieonderzoeksgroep ‘Governance of Security’ (GofS), Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Gent, marleen.easton@hogent.be / marleen.easton@ugent.be.

Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam, FWeerman@nscr.nl.
Artikel

Terroristische netwerken en intelligence: een sociale netwerkanalyse van de Hofstadgroep

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, terrorisme, Hofstadgroep
Auteurs Dr. Renée C. van der Hulst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Radicalization and terrorism remain areas of special interest in terms of security policies. It’s common knowledge that most of the activities related to radicalization and terrorism heavily rely on the involvement of multiple actors. Therefore, an increased understanding of the underlying social structures is considered to offer important leads for the development of effective countermeasures (in particular when related to demographic, cultural, psychological and other social factors). Yet, the number of empirical network studies in this domain (at least those openly available) that incorporate arithmetic tools known as Social Network Analysis (SNA) remain extremely scarce. In this paper the author presents an exploratory Social Network Analysis of the Hofstad network based on publicly available data. Members of the Hofstad network, a radical Islamist network in the Netherlands, were active recruiters for the violent jihad, spreaded radical propaganda, some attended training camps in Pakistan, and the network was suspected of planning several terrorist attacks on strategic objects and prominent people in the Netherlands. One of the members, Mohammed B., was sentenced to life in prison for murdering the Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004. Although the Hofstad network was considered by trial as a terrorist organization in the first instance in 2006, the judgment was reversed on appeal in 2008 when most members were acquitted. As is characteristic of home-grown networks, our analysis indicated that the Hofstad network (N=67) was relatively sparse and decentralized and evolved around a more cohesive core of key players (N=13). The key players were identified based on their central network position and a hierarchical clique analysis. Mohammed B., who had been considered a marginal player by the secret service, turns out to be the most central actor of the network. Although the analysis clearly suggests that quantifying network structures provides actionable intelligence, more research is needed to validate the results.


Dr. Renée C. van der Hulst
Dr. Renée C. van der Hulst was tot voor kort als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie. Zij is thans werkzaam voor Bureau Netwerkanalyse dat onderzoek-, advies- en onderwijswerkzaamheden verzorgt (onder andere op het gebied van sociale netwerkanalyse) binnen het domein van nationale veiligheid en criminaliteitsbestrijding. Contactadres: Bureau Netwerkanalyse, Postbus 938, 1200 AX Hilversum. E-mail: vanderhulst@online.nl.
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