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Artikel

Uitgaansgeweld en de morele setting van het uitgaan in Amsterdam

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden nightlife, violence, morality, clubs, bars
Auteurs Marco van der Land, Ilse de Groot, Hans Boutellier e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nightlife violence is gaining increasing attention and is a substantial part of all violent incidents. In this article we explore the assumption that going out in metropolitan clubs and bars creates a specific moral setting, where the aim is to let yourself go. The main question in this article is to what extent the moral setting of going out contributes to nightlife related violence. We explored this issue by analyzing the case of Amsterdam, in particular the two famous squares, Leidseplein and Rembrandtplein, and de Wallen (red light district). With regard to the moral setting we distinguish between physical, social, professional and normative aspects of the moral setting. Each of these aspects has been described in academic literature as potentially contributing to violence. On that basis a checklist has been developed that was used for observations in nightlife venues that are known for either a high or low disproportionate amount of violent incidents. By comparing the two categories we were able to identify elements of the moral setting which, supported by the literature, can be expected to contribute to the prevalence of nightlife violence. Elements which we discovered that occur more frequently in venues where many incidents occur are visitor density, the loudness of the music, the presence of smokers, the overall comfort, the opportunity to dance, the presence of drunken visitors and their degree of intoxication, overtly sexually charged behavior, opportunities for the staff to observe, security at the exit, the number of bouncers, and whether visitors were searched or not before they entered the venue. Whether situations actually developed into violent conflict depended on one of three possible causes, namely miscommunication, conflict with authority or unsolicited advances. Policymakers can use these insights in order to try to manipulate violence stimulating factors.


Marco van der Land
Marco van der Land is universitair docent bij de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en onderzoeker bij de Leerstoel Veiligheid en Burgerschap aldaar. Hij is tevens hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. E-mail: m.vander.land@vu.nl

Ilse de Groot
Ilse de Groot is als zelfstandig onderzoeker en trainer op het gebied van criminaliteit en veiligheid werkzaam bij Ratio Research. E-mail: ilsedegroot@ratioresearch.nl

Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en lid van de raad van bestuur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut. E-mail: HBoutellier@verwey-jonker.nl

Rutger Visser
Rutger Visser is freelance onderzoeker en docent criminologie. Hij is gespecialiseerd op het gebied van geweldgebruik. Rutger is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Politiewetenschappen. E-mail: r.s.m.visser@vu.nl
Artikel

Het probleem van meetinvariantie bij het vergelijken van subgroepen op basis van somscores

Vermijdingsgedrag als casestudy

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden measurement invariance, differential item functioning, fear of crime, avoidance behavior
Auteurs Arne De Boeck MSc, Prof. dr. Wim Hardyns en Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Using summated scale scores to make group comparisons is only meaningful if one can assume that the scale measures attribute in the same way in each of the groups involved in the comparison. This assumption is called measurement invariance. This contribution discusses the use of modern statistical measurement models to test this assumption and to verify the consequences of a possible violation for the comparison of group means. In the empirical part of the contribution the authors illustrate their account by examining whether a scale assessing avoidance behavior – commonly used in fear of crime research – is invariant across gender and age groups.


Arne De Boeck MSc
A. De Boeck, MSc is onderzoeker aan het Leuven Institute of Criminology (LINC) van de Universiteit van Leuven.

Prof. dr. Wim Hardyns
Prof. dr. W. Hardyns is postdoctoraal mandaathouder bij het Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen (FWO) en verbonden aan de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse van de Universiteit Gent en aan de Onderzoeksgroep Crime & Society van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA) binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

De subjectieve zwaarte van detentie

Een empirisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden subjective severity imprisonment, deterrence, just desert, deprivation model, importation model
Auteurs Ellen Raaijmakers MSc, Dr. Jan de Keijser, Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both in punishment theory and sentencing practices, the subjective sentence severity is an important yet neglected area of research. This paper aims to explain differences between inmates in their subjective severity of imprisonment and to contemplate these against the background of important sentencing goals and sentencing principles. Two models commonly used to explain adjustment to prison life were applied: the import and deprivation model. Data from the Prison Project, collected among Dutch inmates staying in pretrial detention, reveal that both import and deprivation characteristics are related to the subjective severity of imprisonment. No support is found for a moderation effect of personality.


Ellen Raaijmakers MSc
E. Raaijmakers, MSc is promovendus bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Jan de Keijser
Dr. J.W. de Keijser is universitair hoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Joni Reef
Dr. J. Reef is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Autonomie, ambtelijke organisaties en criminaliteitsbestrijding

Over samenwerking tussen overheidsinstanties bij de aanpak van mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden collaboration, public administration, law enforcement, human trafficking, multi-agency approach
Auteurs Dr. Barbra van Gestel en Drs. Maite Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How do organisations collaborate in the daily practice of law enforcement? And what role plays autonomy of government agencies within this cooperation? In this article the authors answer these questions on the base of two case studies: two large scale projects in which a partnership approach was used to combat human trafficking in the Netherlands. Collaboration between city administration, investigation services and tax authorities seems to be very hard to put into practice. This is understandable from the theory that government agencies, while performing their tasks, are focused on achieving autonomy.


Dr. Barbra van Gestel
Dr. B. van Gestel is als onderzoeker werkzaam voor het WODC.

Drs. Maite Verhoeven
Drs. M.A. Verhoeven is als onderzoeker werkzaam voor het WODC.
Artikel

Straffen omvat meer dan gevangenisstraf

De effecten van daderkenmerken op de straftoemeting voor het gehele sanctiepakket

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden judicial decision-making, sentencing disparity, Imprisonment, concomitant sentencing, sentence severity scale
Auteurs Mr. drs. Sigrid van Wingerden en Dr. Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sentencing research focusing solely on unsuspended imprisonment does no justice to the practice of sentencing, where many other punishment types are imposed – often conjunctly. To investigate to what extent this imprisonment bias might have caused incomplete and thereby biased findings, we compare the effects of offender characteristics for imprisonment to those for other sanction types, as well as to a model combining sanction types. Findings suggest that the effects of offender characteristics differ per sanction type. When combinations of sanction types are taken into account, some offender characteristics do no longer have mitigating or aggravating effects, or the effects even inverted. Hence, future sentencing research should aim to include all sentences imposed.


Mr. drs. Sigrid van Wingerden
Mr. drs. S.G.C. van Wingerden is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan het instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Bemiddeling in strafzaken in België

Een blik op een gediversifieerde praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Penal mediation, Justice assistants, Direct and indirect mediation, compensation
Auteurs Dieter Burssens, Alexia Jonckheere en Christophe Mincke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1994, public prosecutors in Belgium can propose ‘penal mediation’ to criminal suspects. The supervision and follow-up of this procedure are provided by ‘justice assistants’ (comparable to probation officers), who systematically record crucial information and register it in the national database SIPAR. An exploration of this database reveals interesting insights regarding the actual practice of penal mediation. On the basis of the available data we also examined whether or not we could find relevant correlations between characteristics of (offenders in) cases and the extent to which cases have resulted in an agreement and proper compliance with that agreement. Finally, for a better comprehension of the actual practice of penal mediation in Belgium twelve interviews with justice assistants have been conducted.


Dieter Burssens
Dieter Burssens is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie in Brussel.

Alexia Jonckheere
Alexia Jonckheere is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie.

Christophe Mincke
Christophe Mincke is operationeel directeur van de Operationele Directie van het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie.
Artikel

Cirkels voor Ondersteuning, Samenwerking en Aanspreekbaarheid

Hoe vrijwilligers bijdragen aan preventie van zedenrecidive en herstel van binding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden volunteering, rehabilitation, Restorative justice, Family bonds, Sex offenders
Auteurs Mechtild Höing en Audrey Alards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    COSA (Circles of Support and Accountability) have been fully implemented and accepted in the Dutch probation organization. In COSA projects, volunteers support a former sex offender during his rehabilitation, supervised by professionals. Projects offer national coverage and until now, 42 sex offenders have been supported. International effect studies and Dutch research into effective processes offer a scientific framework, offering the theoretical and empirical underpinnings for a COSA intervention model. The normative basis of COSA is found in its specific place in restorative justice. Primarily, COSA strives for restoration of relationships within a moral and responsible community and restoration of the offender. Restoration of family bonds is an option, but needs to be well coordinated with professionals.


Mechtild Höing
Mechtild Höing is werkzaam aan de Avans Hogeschool en is docent-onderzoeker bij Expertisecentrum Veiligheid; zij onderzoekt COSA sinds 2009.

Audrey Alards
Audrey Alards is werkzaam bij Reclassering Nederland; als cirkelcoördinator is zij sinds 2009 werkzaam voor COSA.
Artikel

Het Duitse recht op nevengeschikt aanklagen

De volledige integratie van het slachtoffer in het strafproces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Accessory prosecution, victims, Victim lawyers, Secondary victimization, punishment
Auteurs Michael Kilchling en Helmut Kury
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the German concept of accessory prosecution (Nebenklage) is discussed. The Nebenklage was implemented in the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1877. It had merely an accessory function in conjunction with the private prosecution and the Klageerzwingungsverfahren, two legal institutions which had little practical relevance. Nowadays, in the course of the modern victim movement, the Nebenklage has radically changed into an instrument that is clearly provided as the main participatory option for victims interested in actively contributing to the trial of ‘their’ criminal. Previous research findings are outlined and the results of an explorative survey are presented. The findings suggest that the mere presence of the victim lawyer can significantly change the atmosphere in the courtroom, thus enhancing the willingness of the defence to treat the victim more respectfully.


Michael Kilchling
Michael Kilchling is criminoloog en is werkzaam aan het Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht in Freiburg (Duitsland), en is daarnaast voorzitter van het European Forum for Restorative Justice.

Helmut Kury
Helmut Kury was hoogleraar psychologie en criminologie en was onder andere verbonden aan het Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht in Freiburg (Duitsland).
Artikel

Verzet. Een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Birmingham School, Critical Criminology, commodification, Occupy, hackers
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introduction of the special issue of the Journal on Crime & Culture on ‘Resistance’, the editors focus on the theoretical history of the concept of resistance in the field of Criminology. Against the background of the Birmingham School and the themes and ideas of Critical Criminology, the authors argue that new issues are rebelled against, and new styles and rituals become en vogue. The street fighting man on the barricades is no longer the obvious icon, and resistance is not per se intergenerational, interclass or a confrontation between minorities and mainstream culture. Resistance may have epidemic proportions as the Arabic Spring. Movements like Occupy or WikiLeaks operate across borders, but resistance also includes subtle transgressions within organizations.


Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert werkt als universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: f.h.m.van.gemert@vu.nl

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl
Artikel

Commodifying compliance? UK urban music and the new mediascape

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden street culture, Grime, frustration, defiance, resistance
Auteurs Dr. Jonathan Ilan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Subcultural theory and cultural criminology have traditionally viewed ‘underground’ youth movements as providing images of deviance/resistance which the cultural industries harvest to turn a profit. The logic follows that street and sub cultures imbue products with a ‘transgressive edge’ that increases their appeal within youth markets. This paper uses the example of UK ‘grime’ music to demonstrate how this dynamic cannot be viewed as applying universally in contemporary times. Where their street orientated content is censured, many grime artistes express a desire for commercial success which would ultimately emerge through muting their rhetorical links to crime and violence and explicitly championing ‘mainstream’ values. This case is used as an empirical cue to explore the use and critique of the concept of ‘resistance’ within cultural criminology and subcultural theory. The paper problematizes commodification of resistance discourses as they apply to the rugged culture of the streets and indeed its supposed ‘oppositional’ character where disadvantaged urban youth clearly embody and practice the logic of neoliberalism. It furthermore suggests that certain critiques of cultural criminology go too far in denying any meaning to criminality and subcultural practice beyond consumer desire. Ultimately, the concept of ‘defiance’ is suggested as a useful tool to understand the norms of and behaviours of the excluded.


Dr. Jonathan Ilan
Dr. Jonathan Ilan is universitair docent bij de School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent (UK). E-mail: j.ilan@kent.ac.uk
Artikel

To resist = to create? Some thoughts on the concept of resistance in cultural criminology

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden resistance, create, revolution, cultural criminology, transformation
Auteurs Dr. Keith Hayward en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a theoretical analysis of the label ‘resistance’. It sets out from the premise that the notion of resistance, although it has been current in criminology for some time, is still vaguely defined. We argue that resistance is not just a negative term, but can also be seen as a positive and creative force in society. As such, the primary function of resistance is to serve as a solvent of doxa, to continuously question obviousness and common sense. In the process of resistance we distinguish three processes: invention, imitation and transformation. The third stage warrants deeper investigation within cultural criminology.


Dr. Keith Hayward
Dr. Keith Hayward is hoogleraar criminologie aan de School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent (UK). E-mail: k.j.hayward@kent.ac.uk

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl
Artikel

Jusqu’ici tout va bien. Jongeren en de productie van parochiale plaatsen in La Haine

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden La Haine, parochial space, tactics, youth, socialisation
Auteurs Mattias De Backer en Dr. Jenneke Christiaens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    La Haine (Kassovitz, 1995) shows practices of resistance of youngsters in public space. Next to the traditional milieus of socialisation – at home, at school or in institutionalised leisure facilities – youngsters demand their ‘place’ in public space. In doing so, they partly privatise public space (‘parochial space’). In this article we argue that transgressive behaviour of youngsters should be conceptualised as both a side-effect of growing up and socialisation, and as resistance against adult domination, especially in public space. As such, hanging around is cause and effect of control and criminalisation.


Mattias De Backer
Mattias De Backer MSc is onderzoeker bij de vakgroep Criminologie en de onderzoeksgroep Crime & Society van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. E-mail: mattias.de.backer@vub.ac.be

Dr. Jenneke Christiaens
Dr. Jenneke Christiaens is universitair (hoofd)docent aan de vakgroep Criminologie en verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep Crime & Society van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. E-mail: jenneke.christiaens@vub.ac.be
Artikel

Rituelen in krakersverzet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Squatters, social movement, rituals, resistance
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert, Deanna Dadusc en Rutger Visser
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the transformations in form and function of rituals in the squatting movement in Amsterdam. Upon roaring early years, rituals emerged around the search for houses to squat, the actual squatting and evictions. These rituals were recognized and used by squatters as well as other parties and they have contributed to the reduction of violence. Meanwhile, squatting in the Netherlands was prohibited and the question arises if, in this new situation, form and function of rituals have changed too. The findings shed some light on the broader link between rituals and resistance.


Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert werkt als universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: f.h.m.van.gemert@vu.nl

Deanna Dadusc
Deanna Dadusc MSc is promovenda bij de Universiteit Utrecht en University of Kent (UK). E-mail: deannadadusc@gmail.com

Rutger Visser
Rutger Visser MSc is freelance onderzoeker, docent criminologie voor het NCOI en verbonden aan de sectie Politiestudies van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: r.s.m.visser@vu.nl
Artikel

Training Diamant

Een persoonlijke impressie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2013
Auteurs Frank Bovenkerk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This is an ethnographic evaluation study on a train the trainer programme (Diamant) for the prevention of political radicalisation among young Muslims in the Netherlands. Especially the training of independent judgement on moral issues looks promising to overcome cultural disorientation. Its preventive power for radicalisation is unclear since there were no radicals among the participants of the training.


Frank Bovenkerk
Prof. dr. Frank Bovenkerk is criminoloog en gepensioneerd hoogleraar Radicaliseringsstudies aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: f.bovenkerk@uva.nl.

    In 2011 we executed a quantitative and qualitative research on the extent of discrimination, polarisation and radicalisation in a region in the Netherlands. The results are representative for The Netherlands. The research shows that there is breeding ground for radicalization, in particular Muslim youths. The outcome also provides insights in relevant avenues for public policy. Over the past years, several inventories have been made of public policy that aims to counter radicalisation. Most of the interventions listed do not conjure with the interventions we propose on the basis of our research, such as awareness raising for practitioners, prevention of and education about discrimination, focus on neighbourhood grievances and nuisances caused by specific ethnic groups and the negative tone of the public debate regarding Islam and the multicultural society. If measures to counter radicalization are even evaluated, they tend to focus on the process and effectiveness of the intervention, but they do not answer the question if that is actually also the right intervention. We therefore propose not only to focus on doing things right, but also to ask the question if we are doing the right things. We suggest not only measuring effectiveness, but also measuring impact.


Amy-Jane Gielen
Drs. Amy-Jane Gielen is senior onderzoeker en adviseur bij A.G. Advies B.V. E-mail: a.gielen@agadvies.com www.agadvies.com.

Ron van Wonderen
Drs. Ron van Wonderen is senior onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut in Utrecht. E-mail: rvanwonderen@verwey-jonker.nl.

    Halt is a Dutch organization for enforcement of alternative punishment given tot juveniles and prevention activities, like for example advisory services and educational programmes. In the context of the Government action programme Polarization and Radicalization – a programme to reduce the chances of people to become a radical or even a terrorist − the Halt offices in Limburg in cooperation with the KPC Group developed an education kit of six lessons meant for juveniles (primary school and secondary education). The lessons are given by Halt fellow workers and the teacher of the class is there for give them support and to observe the lessons. This project is qualitatively evaluated and the conclusion is as follows. The reason for the project is not located in a problem of radicalization, the final target group is more restricted than intended and in the implementation the words radicalization and polarization may not be used. Is it then a good educational package? Yes, say different Halt employees, but not for the problem raised, because that problem is not identified by them.


Hani Quint
Drs. Hani Quint is als onderzoeker/docent verbonden aan het lectoraat Politieleiderschap en Diversiteit van de Politieacademie. E-mail: Hani.Quint@politieacademie.nl.

    In this article a longitudinal effect study is described of resilience training Diamant. The training focuses in particular on adolescents with a dual identity who do not have work, are not enrolled in an education, feel unfairly treated (relatively deprived), have low self-esteem, and are at risk of social isolation. The training can be considered as a method to prevent development of criminal behaviour and possibly radicalisation. Certified trainers work with small groups of 10 to 15 adolescents to increase their resilience and help them finding their place in society. The present research focused on the following questions: (1) Does this training have a positive effect on self-esteem among the participants? (2) Does social isolation decrease as a consequence of the training? (3) Does the training reduce feelings of relative deprivation and help participants better deal with conflicts? Participants were interviewed before and halfway the training and directly after completing the training. A follow-up measurement three months after the end of the training examined effects on the longer term. In total 44 semi-structured interviews were held. Interviews were written out and coded using a two-step procedure: In the first step two researchers independently coded each interview. Second, when necessary, changes in the coding scheme were made. Then each interview was coded separately by the two researchers and disagreements were discussed until full agreement was reached. The results show that Diamant has a positive effect on self-esteem of participants. Also, participants overall showed an increase in connectedness to society. Third, Diamant reduced feelings of relative deprivation and participants indicated they could better deal with conflicts. Based on these results it is concluded that Diamant is effective in regard to its goals which were evaluated in this study. Limitations of the research and possibilities for future studies are discussed.


Allard R. Feddes
Dr. Allard Feddes is als postdoctoraal onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: A.R.Feddes@uva.nl.

Liesbeth Mann
Drs. Liesbeth Mann is als promovenda verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: L.Mann@uva.nl.

Nathalie de Zwart
Nathalie de Zwart, BSc, was ten tijde van het onderzoek als onderzoeksassistente verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: dezwart.n@gmail.com.

Bertjan Doosje
Prof. dr. Bertjan Doosje is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, en het Amsterdam Institute for Social Sciences (AISS) ‘Challenges to Democratic Representation’. Hij is als bijzonder hoogleraar bekleder van de FORUM Frank Buijs-leerstoel voor Radicaliseringsstudies. E-mail: E.J.Doosje@uva.nl.

    Preventive interventions against terrorist attacks can be justified on legal and moral grounds. The Dutch broad-based approach against terrorism also addresses radicalizations processes. It is, however, hard to justify why a government in a liberal democracy should be allowed to intervene in processes of radicalization where danger to society is not obvious. A reason to justify intervention is when a (former) radical asks for help. Theories based on the ideas of Kant and Rawls also allow for intervention if an individual’s autonomy is diminished because he is member of a sect or under the spell of a charismatic leader. Other interventions with regard to (prevention of) radicalization cannot be justified by deontological theories such as Kant’s and Rawls’. Virtue ethics or teleology would, however, allow interventions but only if they are geared towards helping the individual in their quest to the good life. This justification allows for interventions that are, for example, focused on supporting individuals to critically reflect, reason and discuss about the good life and a just society. Based on the teleological justification constraints can be derived for preventive interventions with regard to radicalization or even deradicalisation. Notice that individuals cannot be forced to join these programs because there is no legal basis.


Anke van Gorp
Dr. ir. Anke van Gorp is onderzoeker en hogeschooldocent Ethiek en Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht, Integrale Veiligheidskunde, Faculteit FMR. E-mail: anke.vangorp@hu.nl

Arnold Roosendaal
Mr. Arnold Roosendaal is onderzoeker bij TNO, afdeling Strategy and Policy for the Information Society.
Artikel

Conferencing internationaal: vaker toegepast dan gedacht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden Conferencing, Internationale toepassing
Auteurs Estelle Zinsstag en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Conferencing is a restorative justice practice which has started developing quite consistently since the 1990s, in majority in Anglophone countries such as New Zealand, Australia, the USA, Canada or the UK and in particular with consistently promising results for juvenile justice in Northern Ireland. Some continental European, Latin American and African countries are also starting to introduce this alternative to traditional criminal justice, especially in the case of juvenile justice, with some equally promising results. This article presents up-to-date information about the state of conferencing in the world and discusses some of the major conclusions that have come out of a European research project and book.


Estelle Zinsstag
Estelle Zinsstag is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en coördineert een EC Daphne project rond seksueel geweld en herstelrecht. Ze is managing editor van Restorative Justice: An International Journal.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en manager van een Europees FP7 project rond herstelrecht en interculturele conflicten.

    At the end of 2000, a pilot project began in Flanders (Belgium) to offer family group conferencing for juvenile offenders. Since June 2006, this restorative practice – together with victim-offender mediation – has been inserted in the new Youth Justice Act, making conferencing available in all judicial districts in Flanders. Five years later, however, the mediation-services had to conclude that the number of referrals for conferencing remains rather limited. This observation inspired the mediation services to take actions to bring conferencing more to the attention. This article reports on the findings of a study that was part of this process. Based on (1) an analysis of all conferencing-files that were referred between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 31, (2) focus groups with youth court social workers and criminologists working at the level of the public prosecutor and (3) surveys conducted with youth judges, the study aimed to identify and discuss barriers and obstacles within the current referral practice of conferencing in Flanders.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt studeerde af als sociaal agoog aan de Universiteit Gent. In 2009 promoveerde zij op een proefschrift over herstelbemiddeling en sociaal werk. Momenteel is zij als doctor-assistent verbonden aan de Vakgroep Sociale Agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.
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