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Macht(eloos)

Normalisering van seksueel grensoverschrijdend gedrag in de (top)sport

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden sexually transgressive behavior, normalization, topsport culture, grooming, coach
Auteurs Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk en Prof. mr. Marjan Olfers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sexually transgressive behavior occurs in all sections of society, including sports. That includes behavior from making sexual comments to rape. A risk factor is the culture that can prevail in sports, also known as a disruptive culture. There is normalization of deviant behavior. The top sport culture is particularly vulnerable to unacceptable behavior. In this article we will consider the phenomenon of grooming by the coach – the conscious and movement that induce the minor to engage in sexual contact. Within top sport, the opportunity for (sexually) transgressive behavior will be the determining factor. While grooming in recreational or recreational sport is often by isolating (vulnerable) children from the group, grooming can occur in top sport because of the intensity of the relationship, which is in any case of a more closed nature and can be strengthened by the strong performance-oriented top sport culture. In both cases, an alert, open environment is necessary to create a safe sports climate.


Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke en Verinorm.

Prof. mr. Marjan Olfers
Prof. mr. Marjan Olfers is hoogleraar sport en recht aan de VU, tevens directeur van Verinorm.
Artikel

De maatschappelijke en politieke dimensies van herstelrecht: over het verbreden van de herstelrechtelijke blik

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden populisme, Boutellier, MeToo, Black Lives Matter, klimaatdemonstraties
Auteurs Anneke van Hoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article states that the social and political context in which restorative justice is situated, needs more attention. The polarized rhetoric of populists with their plea for more state control and repression does not fit with the restorative approach with its emphasis on inclusion and social responsibility of active citizens. The author suggests that the paradigm of ‘positive security’ as coined by Marc Schuilenburg and others could function as a base for an alternative, more constructive and inclusive ‘big story’ on crime and security that is more akin to restorative justice. Aspects of current social protest movements as the MeToo movement, Black Lives Matter and climate demonstrations could be integrated in this ‘big story’, also to prevent that restorative justice is viewed only as a quick fix to soothe symptoms and not address political and social root causes of injustice. In this way, the international restorative justice movement could widen its scope.


Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog en medeoprichter van Restorative Justice Nederland en Stichting Radio La Benevolencija.
Artikel

The concept of violence in (times of) crisis

On structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden structural violence, institutional violence, anti-institutional violence, economic crisis, Greece
Auteurs Marilena Drymioti
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Attempting to understand the Greek narrative of crisis, this paper examines the most prominent forms of violence that emerged in the period of acute economic recession and political upheaval in Greece namely structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence. This paper aims to highlight existing theoretical gaps and avoid common fallacies of the current body of knowledge. In contrast to some of the more common features of the discussion on violence, this note sets out to: a) acknowledge that violence is not necessarily a physical act, b) acknowledge that the outcomes of violence performances might not be physical either, c) specify and adequately distinguish agency and structural dynamics and d) address the cultural and contextual aspects of violence. Vital to this endeavor is to acknowledge, identify and understand the interactive relation between different forms of violence that emerge during the same period of time in a context in which conflict escalates.


Marilena Drymioti
Marilena Drymioti is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Top-down and out?

Reassessing the labelling approach in the light of corporate deviance

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden labelling, corporate crime, moral entrepreneurs, peer group, late modernity
Auteurs Anna Merz M.A.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Multi-national corporations are increasingly facing attention and disapproval by different actors, including authorities, public and (non-) commercial organizations. Digital globalization and especially social media as a low-cost, highly interactive and multidirectional platform shape a unique context for this rising attention. In the literature, much attention has been devoted to top-down approaches and strategies that corporations use to avoid stigmatization and sanctioning of their behaviour. Reactions to corporate harm are, however, seldom researched from a labelling perspective. As a result, corporations are not considered as objects towards whom labelling is targeted but rather as actors who hamper such processes and who, as moral entrepreneurs, influence which behaviour is labelled deviant. Based on theoretical analysis of literature and case studies, this article will discuss how the process of labelling has changed in light of the digitalized, late-modern society and consequently, how the process should be revisited to be applicable for corporate deviance. Given a diversification of moral entrepreneurs and increasingly dependency of labelling and meaning-making on the online sphere, two new forms of labelling are introduced that specifically target institutions; that is bottom-up and horizontal labelling.


Anna Merz M.A.
Anna Merz is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Integratief seksindustriebeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland

Succes voor een unieke sociale beweging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden sekswerk, Nieuw-Zeeland, decriminalisering, sociale beweging, beleidsverandering
Auteurs Dr. Joep Rottier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contrary to its allies in other countries, the sex industry decriminalization movement in New Zealand, embodied by the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective (NZPC), achieved its goal in 2003. This article explores the reform of the sex industry policy in this country on the basis of a Social Movement Concept. Apart from the specific New Zealand culture, particularly the interaction between three social political aspects – awareness, political opportunities, and a strong social movement organisation – can be identified as crucial factors in realizing a decriminalized sex industry environment. The enactment of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 meant a unique and huge success for a small sex workers movement.


Dr. Joep Rottier
Dr. Joep Rottier, onderzoeker, promoveerde in december 2018 aan de Universiteit Utrecht op de effecten van het seksindustrie decriminaliseringbeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland. Hij is bestuurslid van het Platform SekswerkExpertise Nederland.
Artikel

De toekomst is aan de surfende criminoloog

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden criminology, artificial intelligence, research methods, research funding, causality
Auteurs Prof. dr. Jeroen Maesschalck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If, as criminologists, we really want to contribute to solutions for the great challenges of our time, we should be…surfing more. In a dynamic environment full of contradictions, we should be constantly in motion, moving left and right between different theoretical-normative perspectives as well as between methodological perspectives. This paper clarifies that surfing movement with some illustrations. It then proposes three goals for a criminological research agenda that should help us address the great challenges: actual (as opposed to superficial) relevance for practice, causal ambitions and multidisciplinarity. The paper concludes with some reflections about the organization and funding of criminological research.


Prof. dr. Jeroen Maesschalck
Prof. dr. J. Maesschalck is verbonden aan het Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie aan de KU Leuven.
Artikel

Criminologie in 2040

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden futures of criminology, scenario, interdisciplinarity, public criminology
Auteurs Prof. dr. Tom Vander Beken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Scenario techniques allow for dynamic explorations of possible futures. With the uncertainties about interdisciplinarity and the public role of criminology four scenarios for criminology in 2040 are presented. Crime Science and Criminal Policy describe situations which combine a strong public role for criminology to a low and high level of interdisciplinarity. Da Vinci and Theoretical Criminology portray futures with a limited public role for criminology and a high and low level of interdisciplinarity.


Prof. dr. Tom Vander Beken
Prof. dr. T. Vander Beken is gewoon hoogleraar aan de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Prepping and verstehen

A narrative criminological perspective

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Verstehen, narrative, prepping, experience, ethnography
Auteurs Michael F. Mills en Jennifer Fleetwood
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Talk, chat, and stories are ubiquitous in ethnographic research. Engaging with the recently burgeoning literature around narrative criminology, this article argues that considerations of stories and storytelling can add much to cultural criminologists’ pursuit of ‘criminological verstehen’ (Ferrell, 1997). In doing so, we focus on one case study: ethnographic research grounded within the USA’s contemporary ‘doomsday’ prepping subculture. The article considers the value of attending to narrative during the pursuit of verstehen at two levels. First, we address the importance of storytelling upon entry to the ethnographic field – drawing attention to how the narratives researchers share, and their respect for certain stories, can facilitate deep and experiential access to stigmatized fields of activity (such as prepping). Second, we explore how narrative remains in play during immediate experiences. In particular, we argue that fleeting excitements featured in prepping lifestyles are often shaped by the significance of the ‘moments’ in which they occur to numerous personal narratives. We therefore contend that, for ethnographers interested in verstehen, a consideration of narrative offers a means to expand and deepen empathetic appreciation of participants’ worldviews and activities.


Michael F. Mills
Michael F. Mills is Lecturer in Criminology, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent.

Jennifer Fleetwood
Jennifer Fleetwood is Senior lecturer in Criminology, Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London.
Artikel

Walk this way

The impact of mobile interviews on sensitive research with street-based sex workers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden mobile and walking methods, multisensory methods, ethnography, sex work, prostitution, ethical and sensitive research
Auteurs Dr Lucy Neville en Dr Erin Sanders-McDonagh
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article draws on a piece of ethnographic research carried out with outreach workers in London working with street-based sex workers (SBSWs). The aim of the research was to determine the efficacy of the services offered to this hard-to-reach client group. The charitable organization has a long history (20+ years) working with SBSWs in the Kings Cross area; we evaluated their drop-in and outreach services for this client group, many of whom have high-level needs due to substance misuse and mental health issues. We initially conducted semi-structured interviews with women at the drop-in services, but encountered a number of ethical and logistical issues that prompted us to consider alternative methodological approaches. This article explores our use of mobile interviews with SBSWs and the outreach team who encounter them, which we argue gives us unique insights into the realities and lived experiences of both women who work (and sometimes live) on the street and the outreach team members who engage with this hard-to-reach group. We argue that mobile interviews offer a highly effective way of conducting research with a vulnerable population, and enabled us to gain a unique perspective into best practice around effectively and ethically researching hard-to-reach groups. Critically, we maintain that these walking interviews gave detailed insights into the lives of SBSWs that would not have been possible using more traditional methods. We provide empirical data in this article from these walking interviews, including fieldnote excerpts, and consider the value of using mobile and innovative methods for criminological research with hard-to-reach populations.


Dr Lucy Neville
Dr Lucy Neville is Lecturer in Criminology, University of Leicester.

Dr Erin Sanders-McDonagh
Dr Erin Sanders-McDonagh is Senior Lecturer in Criminology, University of Kent.
Artikel

Conflict narratives and conflict handling strategies in intercultural contexts

Reflections from an action research project based on restorative praxis

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden action research, conflict, restorative justice, intercultural contexts
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A rapidly growing field of research and practice, restorative justice has primarily found its gravitational centre within the criminal justice system, as an alternative of dealing with the aftermath of crime. Less explored remains the application of restorative justice in complex, urban, or intercultural contexts, an application which raises a whole set of conceptual and practical challenges. This article is based on an action project which aimed to research conflict narratives in intercultural contexts and transform them through restorative praxis. Mostly used in educational, organizational, and health care settings, action research remains an underused but a highly interesting methodology for criminology and criminal justice research. Its alternative epistemology makes it particularly apt for scientific projects that aim both at investigating crime and justice related issues and at engendering change, either at the level of criminal justice or communities. Although action research has focused mostly on creating change at the level of practical knowledge, when conceived in a critical manner, action research aims not only at improving the work of practitioners, but also at assisting them to arrive at a critique of their social or work settings. Practice concerns at the same time problem setting or problem framing. By zooming into one of the case studies of the project, more specifically the social housing estates in Vienna, I focus in this article specifically on the tensions and dilemmas created by processes of engagement in a problematizing approach to the context and to practice. During these processes, together with other social actors, such as inhabitants and professionals, we named problems (in our case social conflicts) and framed the context in which we addressed them. I argue that participatory forms of inquiry, such as action research, should actively reframe rather than merely describe contexts and problems they work with.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali is FWO Postdoctoral researcher, Leuven Institute of Criminology, Leuven, Belgium.
Artikel

Een inkijk in het leiderschap van Cannabis Social Clubs in België: criminelen, activisten, modelburgers?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Cannabis, Cannabis Social Club, Leadership, Cannabis movement, Stigma
Auteurs Dr. Mafalda Pardal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are understood as being social movement organizations advocating for the legalization of a closed, cooperative and non-profit model for cannabis supply among adult users. Drawing on qualitative data collected in Belgium, this paper analyses how one becomes a leader of a CSC as well as the functional role assumed by those individuals. It further unveils how Belgian CSC leaders’ engagement in those organizations and in the wider cannabis movement is perceived. We identify and discuss the techniques employed by those key activists to manage cannabis-related stigma drawing on a framework developed by Lindblom and Jacobsson’s (2014). While CSCs might contribute to normalizing cannabis use and supply, our analysis suggests that CSC leaders face some degree of stigmatization, shifting between conformist and confrontational techniques to manage the perceived cannabis-related stigma. Building on the case of Belgian CSC leaders, this paper makes a contribution to the understanding of an under-researched movement, and the role of the leaders within it, expanding also the application of Lindblom and Jacobsson’s (2014) framework to a novel area of activism.


Dr. Mafalda Pardal
Mafalda Pardal Postdoctorale onderzoeker BOF, Universiteit Gent mafalda.pardal@ugent.be
Artikel

Moral entrepreneurs in de 21ste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Moral entrepreneurs, Becker, Discourse, Crusading reformer, Symbolic interactionism
Auteurs Dr. Olga Petintseva en Prof. Tom Decorte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introductory article of this special issue on ‘moral entrepreneurs’ in the 21st century, we situate different notions of moral entrepreneurship. Particularly foregrounding Howard Becker’s definition, we discuss its origins and use in subsequent research. The question that we’ve put forward in the ‘call for papers’ for this special issue is to what extent the notion is relevant in contemporary research and who is considered as ‘moral entrepreneur’. The research papers discuss ‘entrepreneurial’ practices of university ethic commissions, medical professionals, police officers and the leaders of cannabis social clubs. We conclude that the underlying rationales and discourses of moral entrepreneurs that the authors identify, reflect contemporary neoliberal ideals.


Dr. Olga Petintseva
Olga Petintseva Postdoctorale onderzoeker FWO Vlaanderen, Universiteit Gent – Vrije Universiteit Brussel olga.petintseva@ugent.be

Prof. Tom Decorte
Tom Decorte Professor criminologie, Universiteit Gent tom.decorte@ugent.be
Artikel

Artsen en moreel ondernemerschap. De casus van de normalisering van verslavende opioïde pijnstillers in de Verenigde Staten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Opioid crisis, Addictive painkillers, Medical doctors, Moral entrepreneurs, Big Pharma
Auteurs Dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, I am using Becker’s concept of moral entrepreneur to analyse the role of pain specialists in the labelling process, which has led to the normalisation of the use of opioid painkillers in the United States and ultimately to the death over 200.000 Americans. In general, the literature on labelling centres on crusading reformers, and the criminalisation and stigmatisation of transgressive behaviour. Here I will focus on the moral entrepreneurship of medical experts. What was their role in the normalisation process of opioid painkiller use and are there any similarities with the strategies of crusading reformers? My findings, based on qualitative analysis of documents such as newspaper articles and academic publications, show that, with two exceptions, pain specialists use the strategies of moral crusaders. First, in their narratives, pain specialists represented themselves as neutral objective experts without the emotional stance of moral crusaders. The second exception, which is related to the first, is that there was less emphasis in their narrative on creating villains, as they could not blame openly standard medical practice because they needed the support of the established medical world in order to normalise and legalise opioid painkillers.


Dr. Thaddeus Müller
Thaddeus Müller Docent criminologie, Lancaster University t.muller@lancaster.ac.uk
Artikel

Drie perspectieven op de illegale vogelhandel in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden green criminology, illicit trade in species of endangered birds, CITES convention
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands are considered as an important hub for the illicit trade in species of endangered birds protected by the CITES convention. In this article the authors analyze five substantial criminal cases from three different perspectives. First, from a criminal business perspective, the cases illustrate that logistics vary from relatively simple to highly complex, but always require in-depth knowledge of the animals as well as regulations, to be able to keep the birds alive to make a profit, and to smuggle them to the Netherlands, respectively. Second, from a network perspective, it is clear that those who are involved in the illicit trade – suppliers, traders and customers – are part of a closed and often long-lasting group of people who know the trade. Finally, from a green criminological perspective, the authors conclude that harms of the illicit trade in protected birds are mentioned only to a limited extent in court rulings, contrary to what one might expect based on social construction theories of criminalization and sentencing.


Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. D.P. van Uhm is universitair docent criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

State-corporate crime en niet-democratische regimes: betrokkenheid van bedrijven in internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden state-corporate crime, international crimes, state crime, business and human rights
Auteurs Annika van Baar MA MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Most state-corporate crime research is focused on crime or harmful outcomes in or by democratic states. The goal of this article is to investigate the applicability of this concept to relations between economic actors and non-democratic state actors. The concept of state-corporate crime is applied to three contexts in which corporations have become involved in international crimes such as genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Each representing a turning point in the academic and public perception of ‘business and human rights’, the contexts that are analysed are Nazi Germany (1993-1945), Apartheid South Africa (1948-1994) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC; 1996-now). It is concluded that in non-democratic states with totalitarian of authoritarian regimes (such as Nazi Germany and Apartheid South Africa), the concept of state-corporate crime is applicable and explanatory. In such strong states, economic and state actors make use of mutual benefits while, on the whole, state-interests prevail. As a result, the harmful outcome of the dynamics between corporations and states can best be described as corporate facilitated state crime. In weak states (such as the DRC) economic actors are generally more powerful while their involvement in international crimes also runs via non-state actors. The blurred lines between economic actors and state actors (and their interests) makes it difficult to apply the concept, in its different forms, to state-corporate cooperation in weak states and ‘new’ wars.


Annika van Baar MA MSc
Annika van Baar, MA MSc, is post-doc onderzoeker Resilient Societies – Resilient Rule of Law, Faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: a.vanbaar@uu.nl.
Artikel

Het verontschuldigingsritueel en herstelrecht

Het slachtofferperspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden apology ritual, The victim perspective, Sincerity, Physical aspect of apology, symbolic meaning of apology
Auteurs Inge Vanfraechem, Daniela Bolívar en Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical research on restorative justice shows that offenders can apologise to victims. Because of the ritual component of restorative justice and the possible influence on the justice system, certain questions arise: how do victims perceive these apologies? Is it important for victims that these apologies are sincere? The aim of the article is to discuss these questions through three topics, namely the physical aspect of the ritual, the symbolic meaning for victims and the relation between the offender’s apologies and the victim’s reaction.


Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is consultant (Libra), senior vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerkers KU Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Daniela Bolívar
Daniela Bolívar is assistant professor aan de School of Social Work, Catholic University of Chile. Ze is board member van de International Journal of Restorative Justice en heeft een onderzoeksproject rond bemiddeling en jeugddelinquenten in Chili afgerond.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is professor herstelrecht en victimologie aan de KU Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Diversen

Access_open ‘The closer you are the more information you get’ – interview met professor Emanuel Marx

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden etnographic research, Violence, Manchester school, going native
Auteurs prof. dr. Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This is an interview with one of the most important social anthropologists of the 20th century – prof. Emanuel Marx.


prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: dina.s@uu.nl.
Artikel

De impact van criminaliteit op de lokale belastingontvangsten

Toepassing van de Tiebout-hypothese in Vlaamse gemeenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden crime, local taxes, migration, Tiebout mobility
Auteurs Drs. Nik Smits en Prof. dr. Stijn Goeminne
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper empirically investigates whether the Flemish local income tax base yield in 306 Flemish municipalities is sensitive to changes in the local crime level between 2000 and 2014. There are two underlying assumptions. First, in a Tiebout world, rational voters holding the local government accountable for the safety of its citizens move when the local level of security becomes too greatly alienated from what they want it to be (first assumption). If migration is due to crime, the wealthier citizens are expected to move first. Consequently, the average income per capita and thus the income distribution will be affected, which in turn will influence the local income tax base yield (second assumption). By confirming both assumptions, evidence is presented for a relation between changes in local crime rates and the income tax base yield of Flemish municipalities, occurring through household mobility.


Drs. Nik Smits
N. Smits is doctoraatsstudent aan de Universiteit Gent, vakgroep Algemene Economie.

Prof. dr. Stijn Goeminne
Prof. dr. S. Goeminne is hoofddocent aan de Universiteit Gent, vakgroep Algemene Economie.
Artikel

Mannen met een hobby

Outlaw motorclubs, nieuwsmedia en imagopolitiek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden rhetoric, framing, OMG, ethos, news
Auteurs Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter en Dr. Peter Burger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study contains a qualitative framing analysis of outlaw motor clubs in Dutch newspaper articles. These clubs appear in the news as a source for positive framing to counterbalance the prevailing organized crime frame. The study shows with what rhetorical means club members are framed and how news media balance a criminal and a non-criminal image. In news articles club members refer to ethical norms and group values, and appear to employ mitigation strategies which take the hard edges off the frame and simultaneously increase their credibility.


Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter
Dr. A.W.M. Koetsenruijter is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Peter Burger
Dr. J.P. Burger is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Op de grens van het vreemdelingentoezicht: discretionaire beslissingen binnen het Mobiel Toezicht Veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden migratiecontrole, crimmigratie, Discretie, grenspolitieambtenaren, Koninklijke Marechaussee
Auteurs Jelmer Brouwer, Maartje van der Woude en Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Mobile Security Monitor (MSM) is a form of migration policing in the border areas of the Netherlands, carried out by the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (KMar). The MSM has a complex legal and policy framework, merging migration control aims with certain elements of crime control. This raises the question how the officers carrying out the MSM interpret the exact aim of the instrument and their own accompanying powers and what this means for the way they carry out their task. Our results show that many officers see ‘catching criminals’ an important part of their job and that in order to achieve this, they sometimes make ‘creative use’ of their wide-ranging powers. Although similar results have been found in research with the police, KMar officers differ because of their ability to combine migration law and criminal law powers. This fits in with the process of crimmigration and the broader tendency of ad-hoc instrumentalism, which refers to a way of thinking about law and legal procedures in which the formal distinction between legal domains is considered less important and criminal justice actors can freely choose the most effective instrument to deal with the situation at hand. This means that the formal ground for a decision is not always transparent, especially not for people that are subjected to the MSM. Moreover, criminal law enforcement contains many more legal and procedural safeguards than administrative controls.


Jelmer Brouwer
Jelmer Brouwer is promovendus aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Maartje van der Woude
Maartje van der Woude is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie, Van Vollenhoven Instituut, Universiteit Leiden.

Joanne van der Leun
Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie en Decaan Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.
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