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Artikel

Een tweelingstudie naar indicatoren van genetische en culturele transmissie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden intergenerational continuity, rule-breaking behavior, genes, environment, twin study
Auteurs Camiel van der Laan MSc, Dr. Steve van de Weijer, Dr. Michel Nivard e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the present study, the role of genetic and cultural transmission in intergenerational continuity of rule-breaking behavior (RBB) was investigated. Based on the resemblance within 3,982 Dutch twin pairs, aged 13 to 17 years, the relative importance of genetic (G), shared environmental (C), and unique environmental (E) influences on RBB was estimated. Cultural transmission, the process of passing on knowledge, norms and values, can lead to similarities within families, and forms part of the shared environment of children growing up in the same family. The authors found no evidence for shared environmental influences, and consequently no indication of a role for cultural transmission. Genetic influences explained 60 percent of the variance in rule-breaking behavior at age 13 to 17, implying that intergenerational continuity at this age is mainly driven by genetic transmission.


Camiel van der Laan MSc
C.M. van der Laan is promovendus bij de afdeling Biologische Psychologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S.G.A. van de Weijer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Michel Nivard
Dr. M.G. Nivard is universitair docent bij de afdeling Biologische Psychologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Dorret Boomsma
Prof. dr. D.I. Boomsma is hoogleraar biologische psychologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en directeur van het Nederlands Tweelingen Register.
Artikel

Crimineel gedrag over de levensloop én over generaties: de rol van het gezin

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden intergenerational continuity, Criminal behavior, Family, Family relations, Generations
Auteurs Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminology, explanations for engagement in externalizing or criminal behavior are often found within the direct (social) environment of the individual. More specifically, family functioning, the quality of family relations and parenting strategies during childhood and adolescence are found to be related to the development of externalizing problems or criminal behavior over the life-course. Although less well studied, the opposite might also be true: externalizing problems or delinquency during childhood and adolescence may in turn also affect some important (family-related) transitions over the life-course, such as engagement in romantic relationships, the transition to parenthood, parenting strategies and broader family functioning. Not surprisingly, in life-course criminology there is increasing attention for familial similarities in externalizing and delinquent behavior. What underlies intergenerational continuity of criminal behavior? Under which circumstances behavior is continued over the course of generations? What is the role of the family? What is needed to break intergenerational cycles and facilitate earlier and more effective interventions? In this article, a literature review is provided on the role of the family in intergenerational continuity of externalizing or criminal behavior over the life-course and across generations.


Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
Dr. V.I. Eichelsheim is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Intergenerationele continuïteit of discontinuïteit van crimineel gedrag?

Een onderzoek naar de modererende invloed van samenwonen en de geografische afstand tussen ouder en kind

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden intergenerational transmission, discontinuity, criminal parent, geographical distance, exposure
Auteurs Dr. Steve van de Weijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study (N=921) examines whether living together with a criminal parent moderates the intergenerational continuity of crime. Results are mixed, but show that the intergenerational continuity of crime decreases when the child lived together with the criminal parent for a shorter period of time. This association is most strong for children whose criminal mothers live on a large distance from them. Longitudinal fixed effects models, however, show that these results are likely the consequence of between-individual differences and therefore do not reflect causal influences on the intergenerational continuity of crime.


Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S.G.A. van de Weijer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

De moeder als facilitator van intergenerationele overdracht binnen de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden organized crime, intergenerational continuity, discontinuity, mother, parenting
Auteurs Meintje van Dijk Msc, Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans en Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research on intergenerational continuity of crime is primarily focused on transmission from fathers to children. In this article, we aim to give insight in the role of mothers in (the prevention of) continuity of organized crime. The results of our explorative study on 25 organized crime offenders based in Amsterdam and their partners and children, show that parenting skills and norms and values of mother seem to have an important role in both the intergenerational continuity of organized crime and the prevention of the transmission.


Meintje van Dijk Msc
A.M.M. van Dijk MSc is promovenda bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. E.R. Kleemans is hoogleraar zware criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
Dr. V.I. Eichelsheim is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Een nieuwe Aanbeveling van de Raad van Europa: naar een duurzame verankering van het herstelrecht?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Aanbeveling van de Raad van Europa, Recommendation No. R(99)19, Herstelrecht in strafzaken, strafproces
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents and critically discusses a new Recommendation on restorative justice (CM/Rec(2018)8) that was adopted on 3 October 2018 by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. This new regulation builds on the previous Recommendation No. R(99)19 on mediation in penal matters and recommends the governments of the 47 member States of the Council of Europe the adopt and implement the principles of restorative justice as described in the Appendix of the new Recommendation. These guidelines apply to national authorities and national agencies in general, and to judges, public prosecutors, police, prisons, probation, juvenile justice agencies, victim support services and restorative justice services in particular. The article presents the origins of the Recommendation, its contents and its meaning for restorative justice developments in Europe and beyond.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is professor herstelrecht en victimologie aan de KU Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Mediation bij ZSM Midden-Nederland

De rol van de ketenpartners en optimalisering van doorverwijzingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden ZSM, Midden-Nederland, ketenpartners, mediationbureau, Betekenisvolle afdoening
Auteurs Britt van der Plas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on research into the use of mediation in criminal cases at ZSM Midden-Nederland. It focusses on the question how referrals to mediation can be optimized. The research shows that there is much room for improvement and a broader deployment of mediation. Lack of knowledge of the criminal justice partners involved, leads to misconceptions about the mediation process, about which institution should be deployed, and about the (in)suitability of cases for mediation. This lack of knowledge seems to be greatest among the police, while they play an important role within ZSM. Moreover, Victim Support Netherlands has a dominant role in the choice whether or not to refer to mediation. The overall conclusion is that mediation is not yet sufficiently anchored in the criminal justice partners’ system.


Britt van der Plas
Britt van der Plas heeft in 2018 de master Conflicthantering, rechtspraak en mediation aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond. Daarvoor heeft zij de master Strafrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht voltooid. Momenteel werkt zij als parketsecretaris bij het functioneel parket van het Openbaar Ministerie.
Artikel

De in zichzelf gekeerde Nationale Politie

Bemiddeling en sociale zelfredzaamheid uit zicht?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Nationale Politie, wijkagenten, Screen-level bureaucratie, Sociale zelfredzaamheid
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How does the police deal with conflict resolution and (referrals to) mediation? Is this perceived as relevant within the new national police organization? This article elaborates on work processes within the National Police, including ZSM-settlements, the punitive aspects of police culture and the impoverishment of neighborhood-oriented police work. It is concluded that there is little room within the police for responsive approaches to crime and social unsafety. However, there are still police professionals who question ‘assembly line’-processing of criminal cases, support restorative justice strategies and try to improve the citizen-empowerment in neighbourhoods.


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift. Hij is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, burgerschap en lokale veiligheidszorg, straftheorie en herstelrecht. www.basvanstokkom.nl
Artikel

De psychische gezondheid van gedetineerden in België en Nederland: een systematisch overzicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden prison, mental disorders, distress, substance use, suicide
Auteurs Drs. Louis Favril en Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A well-established body of epidemiological research suggests that the prevalence of mental health problems (mental disorders, psychological distress, and substance use) in prisoner populations far exceeds that of non-incarcerated people in the surrounding community. Poor mental health in prisoners is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including suicidal behaviour. In the past decade, novel data in Belgium and the Netherlands have been published on this topic, which have not been synthesized to date. The aim of the current systematic literature review was to provide an up-to-date overview of the mental health of prisoners in Belgium and the Netherlands. Based on 24 empirical studies conducted in 1997-2018, the authors conclude that people with mental health problems are overrepresented in Belgian and Dutch prisons, providing both a challenge and a public health opportunity to address the mental health care needs of a vulnerable and hard-to-engage population. Investing in the prevention and treatment of mental health problems not only benefits the prisoners concerned, but equally, society at large.


Drs. Louis Favril
Drs. L. Favril is doctoraatsonderzoeker bij de Faculteit Recht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Wie heeft een wiethok op zolder?

Een kwantitatief onderzoek naar risico- en beschermende factoren op persoons- en buurtniveau voor illegale hennepplantages in woningen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden indoor cannabis cultivation, risk factors, individuals, neighbourhoods
Auteurs Emily Berger MSc, Vera de Berk MSc, Dr. Joris Beijers e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Illegal weed cultivation is increasingly perceived as an important societal problem. Most of existing research in this area focuses on the criminal organisations active on the cannabis market and the criminal profits that are gained here. The current study however focuses on the actors at the bottom of the cannabis market – the home growers – and aims at answering the following research question: what factors influence the chance of encountering an illegal weed cultivation at a certain residential address? In this study, the risk and protecting factors are taken into consideration on both the individual level (e.g. family composition and financial position of residents) and the neighbourhood level (e.g. social cohesion, physical disorganisation, level of criminality in a certain neighbourhood). In the current study, data of 401 illegal hemp cultivation sites discovered between 2011 and 2016 in homes in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, were analysed. Data from various quantitative data sources – like municipal data (BRP and data from the Social Domain) and data from the municipal neighbourhood monitors – were combined and analysed through a multilevel logistic regression. The results suggest that the likelihood of an illegal weed cultivation site is most prominently influenced by individual factors. Being married for instance seems to decrease the risk, whereas being divorced seems to increase the risk. The housing type also turns out to be of influence. On a neighbourhood level, physical disorganisation and the presence of other hemp cultivation sites in the neighbourhood are the only predictors for hemp cultivation. The results are discussed in the light of criminological theories regarding participation in crime, using the theoretical concepts motivation, opportunity, and control.


Emily Berger MSc
E. Berger, MSc is als junior-onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Universiteit Utrecht en stagiaire bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Vera de Berk MSc
V.J. de Berk, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Universiteit Utrecht en stagiaire bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Dr. Joris Beijers
Dr. J.E.H. Beijers is als docent verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht en werkzaam als analist bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior-onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Van salafistisch gedachtegoed alleen kun je niet leven: de financiële zelfredzaamheid van 131 uitreizigers nader bekeken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden jihadi travellers, terrorism, terrorist financing, financial independence
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The present article examines the financial life of 131 jihadi travellers (JTs), also known as foreign terrorist fighters, from the Netherlands. For the purpose of the research, access was acquired to all their banking transactions in the year preceding their departure: over 60,000 transactions in total. Their income from work or employment, various forms of social assistance, student grants, and other income or expenditure were examined. The data provided a good picture of their financial independence, i.e., the extent to which they were capable of making their own living or needed to claim assistance from the authorities. The analysis shows that it is highly exceptional for Dutch JTs to be financially independent. Only 5 percent have sufficient income from work or employment without making any claims on the government for financial assistance, and are free of mounting debts. The low score can for a large part be explained by the fact that almost half of the JTs are under 23 years of age and/or receive a student grant. Their financial picture largely resembles ordinary students. Older JTs (over 22 years of age, and not having received a student grant for at least one year) underperform, however. Only 9 percent are financially independent. Financial support could perhaps be used to monitor or steer recipients’ role in society.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is operationeel specialist bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek, Dienst Landelijke Informatieorganisatie, Landelijke Eenheid, Politie.
Artikel

Partnerdoding in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Partnerdoding, Epidemiologie, Moord, Nederland
Auteurs Marieke Liem, Inge de Jong en Jade van Maanen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner homicide (IPH) constitutes one of the most prevalent types of homicide. This study aims to assess the nature and prevalence of intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2014. In doing so, we make use of police data, court data, and media articles. Findings show that IPH occurs 29 times per year, resulting in a victimization rate of 0.20 per 100,000, similar to other Western-European countries. Our results further show a decline in IPH in the last years. IPH in the Netherlands mostly occurs in heterosexual relationships, and involves male perpetrators and female victims. Finally, we reflect on possible causes for the decline of this type of homicide.


Marieke Liem
Marieke Liem is Universitair Hoofddocent, verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs, Faculteit Governance & Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.

Inge de Jong
Inge de Jong is thans werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie als adviseur bij de dienst Informatie Management en tijdens het uitvoeren van deze studie student Crisis & Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jade van Maanen
Jade van Maanen isthans werkzaam bij Rijkswaterstaat als technisch projectleider bij de dienst Centrale Informatievoorziening en tijdens het uitvoeren van deze studie student Crisis & Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Komt een 112-melding bij de politie

Triage op de politie-meldkamer bij personen met verward gedrag

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Verwarde personen, Triage, Gevaar, passend vervoer, psycholance
Auteurs André Wierdsma, Yvette van Strien, Philip den Hollander e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National thematic projects and local authorities aim to improve shelter and transport facilities for mentally disordered non-offenders. A pilot project in the south-western part of the Netherlands investigated the efficiency of psychiatric expertise in the triage process of the police emergency control room.
    To evaluate incoming emergency telephone calls in terms of the type of mentally disordered behavior, the sort and degree of dangerousness, and the urgency and type of response required.
    Between November 2016 and January 2017 social psychiatric nurses did weekend shifts on the emergency control room. Incoming telephone calls concerning public nuisance or disordered behavior were administered using the triage tool developed by the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care. Nurses had access to regional information systems and were explicitly allowed to follow up on cases where continuity of care was an issue.
    A total of 155 calls were evaluated producing a representative image of calls concerning mentally disordered behaviour. Results show that this type of emergency calls is not overly frequent, in many cases not extremely urgent (response time target >1 hour: 67%), and about 65% could be followed up by the general practice centre or specialised (psychiatric) healthcare services. More than half (55%) of the emergency calls involved people previously in contact with psychiatric services. Most common types of danger were public disorder (28%) and suicide risk (21%). However, in 29% of cases type of danger was unclear and 14-20% of the triage tool was inconclusive.
    Triage by mental health specialists at the police emergency control room is not efficient because many cases are not very urgent and information quality is often too low to preclude street-triage. Yet screening and follow up of mentally disturbed persons can be improved by close collaboration between control room and psychiatric services.


André Wierdsma
André Wierdsma is universitair docent, afdeling psychiatrie aan het Erasmus MC.

Yvette van Strien
Yvette van Strien is adviseur acute zorg bij Traumacentrum ZuidWest-Nederland.

Philip den Hollander
Philip den Hollander is chef Meldkamer bij de Politie Rotterdam.

Aram van Reijsen
Aram van Reijsen is psychiater acute dienst bij Bavo-Europoort.
Artikel

Access_open De historie van de operationeel leider

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Historie, Operationeel leider, Bureaupolitiek, Beethovenfout voor samenwerking
Auteurs Bernard Groot en Ira Helsloot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The operational leader, the ‘gold commander’, fulfils a crucial function in crisis- and disaster management in the Netherlands. He is held responsible for the total coordination of all collaborating emergency services and supports/advises the Mayor, the Commander in Chief. Unfortunately, this function has never been very effective in practise, as shown by many evaluations. From a scientific point of view, it is easy to understand why the operational leader cannot be effective in the Dutch crisis management organisation. The operational leader has no authorities and has been seated in an emergency operation centre far from the Mayor. This article examines why this issue has not been solved, despite 30 years of studying and adjusting the Dutch crisis management organisation.


Bernard Groot
Bernard Groot is directeur van Crisiscontrol BV te Hardinxveld-Giessendam. Het bedrijf legt zich toe op crisisbeheersing, rampenbestrijding, advies/opleiding/training en interim-management.

Ira Helsloot
Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar Besturen van Veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit.
Artikel

Een held valt niet – morele dilemma’s als een gevierde insider in de fout gaat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden hero, moral entrepreneur, Bill Cosby, Jimmy Savile, Gerrit Achterberg
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert en Danaé Stad MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bill Cosby, Jimmy Savile and Gerrit Achterberg lived in different periods, in the US, UK, and the Netherlands. They were heroes because of what they accomplished during their professional careers but all three turned out to have committed serious crimes. Disclosure is painful, not only for the hero who comes to fall but also for the community that finds itself redefining moral standards when losing a celebrated insider. For this reason, the crimes of these three men have been concealed and kept secret for years. In comparing the three cases, this article tries to find out who decides on keeping the hero on his feet, how this is done, and if this changes over time.


Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert is universitair docent bij de sectie strafrecht en criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Danaé Stad MSc
Danaé Stad MSc studeerde criminologie aan de VU en is werkzaam bij het Regionaal Informatie en Expertise Centrum Amsterdam-Amstelland (RIEC-AA).
Artikel

De mooie held geveld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden heroes, downfall, master status, media
Auteurs Prof. dr. Hans Nelen en Dr. Frank van Gemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introductory article of this special issue on the downfall of popular heroes, some relevant aspects in relation to the general theme are explored. Who are considered to be heroes and which elements are relevant to understand the process heroes may go through when they start sliding on the slippery slope, and, eventually, fall into the abyss of disgrace? What is the role that (social) media play in the demolition of their reputation and how do heroes perceive their own downfall and respond to it? The theoretical concept that is used in this article is Howard Becker’s master status and, in particular, the notion that the master status of a fallen hero surpasses and contaminates all other statuses, previously possessed by an individual.


Prof. dr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.

Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert is universitair docent bij de sectie strafrecht en criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De val van Jacobus Capitein en het debat over omstreden koloniale helden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Jacobus Capitein, Atlantic history, Dutch history, slavery, postcolonialism
Auteurs Dr. Karwan Fatah-Black
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The post-colonial re-evaluation of prominent figures in Dutch history has been resisted fiercely in the public sphere. This article raises the question how lives from the colonial era that are a source of national pride, but are also tainted by their implication in the history of slavery, colonialism and racism can be presented in a way that does justice to their historical context. Jacobus Capitein, who was first enslaved and later became an advocate for slavery in the 1740s, was initially regarded a hero in the eighteenth century, but has received a far more critical evaluation since the second half of the twentieth century. This article takes the way in which professional historians and heritage institutions have dealt with the complex and layered life story of Jacobus Capitein as a model for approaching the lives of the canonical figures of Dutch Atlantic history.


Dr. Karwan Fatah-Black
Dr. Karwan Fatah-Black is universitair docent sociale en economische geschiedenis, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Gevallen helden van bedrijfsleven en openbaar bestuur

De ‘fall from grace’ van witteboordencriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, status degradation, sanctioning, executives, punishment
Auteurs Prof. dr. Wim Huisman en Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminology, it is generally assumed that the high social status of white-collar offenders prevents them of being targeted by criminal law enforcement. But when they do, they suffer greater social and economic damage because of this high social status. Empirical research on the consequences of criminal law enforcement and conviction for white-collar offenders is scarce, and limited to the US and the UK. This paper used biographies of convicted former executives in business and public office in the Netherlands, to analyse these consequences and the process of the ‘fall from grace’ of white-collar offenders. The consequences are described in four life-domains: health, the private sphere, the occupational sphere and the social sphere. The results show that Dutch executives, in line with findings for the Anglo-American white-collar offenders, experience status degradation and suffer much collateral damage of criminal law enforcement. After the initial horror of imprisonment, they endure prison life fairly well. Individual competences and remaining social and economic capital enable them to return to normal life, although they cannot return to pre-conviction levels of social status.


Prof. dr. Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
Drs. Dennis Lesmeister is veroordeeld in de Klimop-zaak en is geassocieerd onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Gevallen helden en geheugenoorlogen in voormalige Sovjetstaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden collective memory, memory-wars, Soviet heroes, nationalism, nostalgia
Auteurs Prof. dr. Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The relocation or destruction of the monuments of Soviet heroes in our times is in fact a process of replacement of one myth by the other. The commemoration of historical events has become the subject of struggle and manipulation of political power. The Soviet era is today the subject of divergent interpretations, ranging from nostalgia to denial, depending on the cultural, ethnic and socio-economic context in which these memories take place. In this article the processes are analysed, in which Lithuanians and Georgians change the meaning of symbols of their past in the attempt to redefine history and determine the fate of their fallen heroes.


Prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Vergeving en heel worden na afloop van zware geweldsdelicten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Vergeving, trauma, dialoog, verontschuldiging, vergelding
Auteurs David L. Gustafson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a recent research study entitled Encountering ‘The Other’: Victim Offender Dialogue in Serious Crime the impact and outcomes for victims/survivors of meeting with the prisoner participants who had caused them harm were examined. In the vast majority of those cases, organised within the context of the Victim Offender Mediation Program (VOMP), forgiveness was offered by victims and received by offenders. This research, utilizing a qualitative multiple case study method, examined twenty-five randomly selected cases referred for victim/offender mediation over a 10-year period, in which victims/survivors, following a period of preparation, had participated in at least one day-long dialogue with their offenders facilitated by trained personnel. This article addresses only one of the research questions posited in this study, namely, the ways in which apology and forgiveness played a part in those dialogues and in the experience of the participants following their mutual encounters. It is argued that granting forgiveness can have great power in its effects when experienced by the participants.


David L. Gustafson
David L. Gustafson is directeur van de Fraser Region Community Justice Initiatives Association. Hij is tevens adjunct professor aan de School of Criminology van de Simon Fraser University, therapeut en klinisch counsellor. Hij ontwikkelde en gaf leiding aan het Victim Offender Reconciliation Program (VORP) in Langley. Onlangs rondde hij een proefschrift af aan de Universiteit van Leuven.
Artikel

De gunfactor van herstelrecht

Clementie, compassie en de zorg om de dader

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Clementie, Vergeving, recht doen, tweede kans
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the willingness of the victim to judge the offender more mildly after the latter apologized for his wrongdoing and shows that he is involved in behavioral change. A large group of victims wants to help (young) perpetrators and offer them a second chance, even victims who have been treated violently. It is argued that these forms of compassion express a caring attitude, the wish that the offender will be rehabilitated and that a change in behaviour is more important than compensation. This attitude can also be referred to as ‘forbearance’, in terms that a less severe sanction is sufficient. This goodwill factor may well be the most important aspect of ‘doing justice’ in restorative meetings.


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift. Hij is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, burgerschap en lokale veiligheidszorg, straftheorie en herstelrecht. www.basvanstokkom.nl
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