Zoekresultaat: 41 artikelen

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Artikel

Het verhaal gaat …

Een positief criminologische visie op radicalisering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden positieve criminologie, polarisatie, staircase model, continuum of violence, typologie van geweld
Auteurs Anneke van Hoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The first part of this article presents three academic theories on radicalisation: Moghaddam’s staircase model of radicalisation, Galtung’s typology of violence (direct, structural and cultural violence), and Staub’s psycho-educative approach. The core of Staub’s approach is that in conflict periods, people can be psychologically manipulated through their own fears, insecurities and unresolved traumas. Therefore, psycho-education and the empowerment of people are highly necessary to stimulate citizens to function as active bystanders when they are confronted with wrongdoing. In the second part of this article some promising approaches are pres­en‍ted which might increase personal and social resilience. The role of narratives in understanding experiences and changing identities is discussed. Radio La Benevolencija in Rwanda uses the power of storytel­l‍ing to stimulate resilience among the population. In the concluding paragraph a two-pronged strategy on radicalization is presented. This positive criminological perspective aims to promote active bystandership, participation and resilience.


Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog en medeoprichter van Restorative Justice Nederland en Stichting Radio La Benevolencija.
Boekbespreking

Het incasseren van ongenoegen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Dr. Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard MA
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard MA
Dr. M.R. Lindegaard MA is senior onderzoeker bij het NSCR en universitair hoofddocent Sociologie aan de Universiteit van Kopenhagen.
Artikel

Integratief seksindustriebeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland

Succes voor een unieke sociale beweging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden sekswerk, Nieuw-Zeeland, decriminalisering, sociale beweging, beleidsverandering
Auteurs Dr. Joep Rottier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contrary to its allies in other countries, the sex industry decriminalization movement in New Zealand, embodied by the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective (NZPC), achieved its goal in 2003. This article explores the reform of the sex industry policy in this country on the basis of a Social Movement Concept. Apart from the specific New Zealand culture, particularly the interaction between three social political aspects – awareness, political opportunities, and a strong social movement organisation – can be identified as crucial factors in realizing a decriminalized sex industry environment. The enactment of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 meant a unique and huge success for a small sex workers movement.


Dr. Joep Rottier
Dr. Joep Rottier, onderzoeker, promoveerde in december 2018 aan de Universiteit Utrecht op de effecten van het seksindustrie decriminaliseringbeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland. Hij is bestuurslid van het Platform SekswerkExpertise Nederland.
Artikel

Kickboksen, een Marokkaanse route naar succes?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden Kickboksen, Marokko, Chicago, Wacquant
Auteurs Frank van Gemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Loïc Wacquant conducted ethnographic research in the ghetto of Chicago and describes the route to social mobility that black boxers try to follow as they train in the gym and build body capital. Based on similar research methods, this article compares the black boxers to two episodes of kickboxing in Amsterdam. Wacquant is not hopeful when it comes to social mobility of the boxers, as he sees their boxing careers as confirmation of their low position in society. In the first Dutch episode, kickboxers manage to combine body work in the gym with working in the nightlife economy. They make money but are unaware of the danger of getting involved in criminal activities, and a number of fighters end up in prison or even dead. Currently, kickboxing is very popular with young Moroccans. Having seen what went wrong in the previous episode, Moroccan trainers keep a close watch on their pupils, and make sure they realize that what happens outside and after kickboxing is what really matters.


Frank van Gemert
Frank van Gemert is als Assistant Professor werkzaam bij de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, vakgroep criminologie van de VU Amsterdam.
Artikel

De smokkel van Syrische migranten naar Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Mensensmokkel, Smokkelroutes, smokkelnetwerken, Smokkelfuncties, smokkelen van migranten
Auteurs Sacha van der Velden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the modus operandi of human smugglers that smuggle Syrian migrants to the Netherlands in de period 2014-2016? Content analysis of police and Royal Marechaussee files, interviews with experts and Syrian migrants and literature research has revealed that: Syrian migrants in first instance use the South-Eastern route overseas from Turkey to Greece, for which they pay 1200-4000 euro to a smuggler, depending on the quality of the boat. From Greece some travel over land on the Balkan route. Several means of transportation are used on this route, with smugglers asking prices ranging from tens to hundreds of euros. Also they travel large parts on their own. Others are smuggled by airplane, for which they need (false) documentation. Smuggling by plane tends to be successful when departing from a small airfield, when made a detour through visa-free countries and/or a good quality (false) travel document. Prices range from 2.000 to 14.000 euros. Migrants mostly pay cash through irregular ‘banks’, a third party that plays an important facilitating role within several smuggling networks. These networks consist of several cells, with in these cells leaders and ‘employees’ and are located on migration routes and ‘hubs’ like Istanbul, Athens and Milan. The South-Eastern route is mostly in hands of Turkish criminal networks, and the continuation of the journey by airplane or through Milan over land is in hands of Syrian Dutch smugglers, the Balkan route seems to be mainly operated by individual smugglers. Within these smuggling networks the most important roles are: the recruiter, who is responsible for making contact with migrants on migration hubs or social media. The organizer/leader who coordinates activities along the smuggling route and calls employees to account. And finally the driver. Responsible for transporting the migrants and instructing them. Based on these findings several recommendations were made that can be found in this article or full research rapport.


Sacha van der Velden
Sacha van der Velden is Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale politie.
Artikel

Effecten van informatieverstrekking op agressie van UWV-cliënten

Een experimentele scenariostudie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Trefwoorden experimental scenario study, frustration aggression, informational justice, workplace violence, negative affect
Auteurs Natascha Sprado MSc, Dr. Tamar Fischer en Lisa van Reemst MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study investigates the effect of providing information about decision making on aggression of clients of the Dutch Employee Insurance Agency (UWV). The expectation is that providing adequate information leads to a decrease in aggression, because it influences feelings of informational justice and frustration. UWV-clients (N=1.415) participated in an experimental scenario study (adequate vs. limited information providing). Next to aggression, psychological, UWV and social demographic characteristics were measured. Compared to limited information, receiving adequate information results in lower aggression. Clients with more negative affect show more aggression, but receiving adequate information especially reduces aggression in these clients.


Natascha Sprado MSc
N.N. Sprado, MSc is junior onderzoeker bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Ten tijde van de dataverzameling van de beschreven studie was zij masterstudent.

Dr. Tamar Fischer
dr. T.F.C. Fischer is universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Lisa van Reemst MSc
L. van Reemst, MSc is promovenda bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is als hoogleraar werkzaam aan de faculteit rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leuven en het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Krachten op Straat: waar politiemensen uit putten en mee worstelen in hun alledaagse werk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0203 2016
Trefwoorden Police culture, Meaning, focus groups, values
Auteurs Merlijn van Hulst, Gabriel van den Brink, Wiljan Hendrikx e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article scrutinizes the forces that are at play during the work of police officers in the Netherlands in order to unravel how they shape and give meaning to police officers’ workaday practice. By doing so, we contribute to scholarly debates in the fields of criminology and public administration and give a new impulse to the Dutch debate on policy culture. Using insights from the literatures on police culture, policing, police morality and police styles as theoretical background, an empirical study was conducted using fifteen focus groups with a total of 83 police officers working at street-level as main method of data collection. After analyzing the transcripts through an iterative coding process, four main forces that influence police officers’ workaday practice emerged from the data, partly confirming and partly expanding existing research: 1) environment and public; 2) group culture; 3) organization and its supervisors; and 4) personal factors. However, by acquiring a deeper understanding of these forces in relation to each other and to their workaday practice, police officers’ ‘moral resilience’ will increase: it will help them to act well-considered, strengthening their ability to explain the logic of their actions.


Merlijn van Hulst
Merlijn van Hulst is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan Tilburg University.

Gabriel van den Brink
Gabriël van den Brink is hoogleraar wijsbegeerte bij Èthos aan de Vrije Universiteit. Voorheen was hij lector aan de Politieacademie en hoogleraar maatschappelijke bestuurskunde aan Tilburg University.

Wiljan Hendrikx
Wiljan Hendrikx is PhD onderzoeker aan Tilburg University, waar hij onderzoek doet naar de professionele rolidentiteit van professionals in de zorg en het onderwijs in relatie tot veranderingen in de beleidscontext van beide sectoren.

Nicole Maalsté
Nicole Maalsté is als researcher, adviseur en publicist werkzaam bij Acces Interdit. Zij doet al 25 jaar onderzoek in moeilijk toegankelijke (drugs)milieus en ondersteunt met haar expertise over drugsmarkten het denkwerk van overheden, advocaten, belangenorganisaties en politieke partijen.

Bas Mali
Bas Mali is als docent-onderzoeker verbonden aan de School voor Hogere Politiekunde en aan de afdeling Onderzoek & Ontwikkeling van de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Slachtoffer van arbeidsuitbuiting?

Een kwalitatieve studie naar ideaaltypische trajecten die leiden tot zelfidentificatie als slachtoffer van mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden self-identification, labour exploitation, human trafficking, victimology, grounded theory
Auteurs Niki Tielbaard MSc., Dr. Masja van Meeteren en Xenia Commandeur MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although the Netherlands criminalised some forms of labour exploitation as human trafficking, many cases remain undetected. This is probably due to low self-identification among victims. Whereas research revealed factors obstructing self-identification among victims, it remains unclear how some victims do arrive at self-identification. Drawing on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with victims and professionals, this qualitative study identifies two ideal-typical pathways to self-identification. In the first trajectory self-identification is gradually formed through information gathering and deteriorating working conditions. In the second trajectory self-identification is triggered by a sudden vital event.


Niki Tielbaard MSc.
N.M Tielbaard is masterstudent Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en was stagiaire bij FairWork te Amsterdam en masterstudent Veiligheidsbeleid en Rechtshandhaving aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Masja van Meeteren
Dr. M.J. van Meeteren is Universitair Hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Xenia Commandeur MA
Drs. X.D. Commandeur is onderzoeker mensenhandel
Artikel

Roesmiddelen en regulering: oude wijn in nieuwe regels?

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden pleasurable substances, regulation, cannabis, war on drugs
Auteurs Prof. dr. Tom Decorte en Dr. Damián Zaitch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In contrast with the critical, innovative ideas developed between the 1960s and the 1980s regarding the way we deal with illegal drugs in our societies, the current dominant approaches frame the issue of drugs as a matter of crime, public order, and control. Pleasurable substances have always existed and always will, and so the efforts to cope with them. However, we witness today remarkable developments at local, national and international levels in the fields of drug policies (on cannabis for example), drug trafficking (new routes, new actors) and drug use (new substances, new drug cultures), all of which deserve our attention and push us to think beyond the repressive paradigm. This contribution, which also serves as an introduction for this special issue of ToCC on drugs, aims to present an overview of the main developments taking place, and challenges ahead, within the three above-mentioned fields. There are new markets and trends in the use of legal and illegal pleasurable substances, particularly regarding synthetic drugs (amphetamines, methamphetamines and new psychoactive substances or NPS), tobacco and alcohol. Illegal drugs are supplied from changing countries and through new routes, while retailing increasingly takes place through the so-called cryptomarkets (online). Effective policies are rendered impossible by the fundamental repression paradox: the more intensive and effective the repression, the larger the profits of drug traffickers and the balloon effects (displacement). Despite the harms and negative effects of repressive policies have extensively been documented, a societal debate towards the regulation of illegal drugs is hindered by the use of false dichotomies or presuppositions, by the use of ethical or moral appeals, or by lack of political will. Also the debate in the media is static, superficial and full of clichés. Scientific research on drugs also follows specific agendas and it is focussed on particular aspects of the problem. Changes to end the ‘war on drugs’, certainly regarding cannabis, are however underway in many places at local and national level (Uruguay, Canada, US, Spain, etc.), this despite UN bureaucracies and international conventions that fiercely resist those changes.


Prof. dr. Tom Decorte
Prof. dr. Tom Decorte is antropoloog en hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent, en directeur van het Instituut voor Sociaal Drugsonderzoek (ISD). Hij publiceert geregeld over drugsbeleid, cannabisteelt en drugsgebruik.

Dr. Damián Zaitch
Dr. Damián Zaitch is universitair docent bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. Hij onderzoekt en publiceert over drugshandel, drugsbeleid en georganiseerde misdaad in Nederland en Latijns-Amerika, en over diverse vormen van transnationale misdaad, globale criminele markten en organisatiecriminaliteit.
Artikel

Criminele carrières van ordeverstoorders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2016
Auteurs Drs. Tom van Ham, Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland, Dr. Henk Ferwerda e.a.
Auteursinformatie

Drs. Tom van Ham
Drs. T. van Ham is als onderzoeker verbonden aan Bureau Beke.

Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en als bijzonder hoogleraar verbonden aan de Universiteit van Leiden.

Dr. Henk Ferwerda
Dr. H.B. Ferwerda is directeur van Bureau Beke.

Prof. dr. Theo Doreleijers
Prof. dr. Th.A.H. Doreleijers is emeritus hoogleraar kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie.

Dr. Otto Adang
Dr. O.M.J. Adang is lector Openbare Orde & Gevaarbeheersing bij de Politieacademie.
Redactioneel

De bestudering van criminaliteit op macroniveau: een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden macro criminology, theory, crime drop, punitive turn, micro-macro problem
Auteurs Dr. Frank Weerman, Dr. André van der Laan, Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory article we introduce the subject of our thematic issue on ‘macro criminology’, and illustrate it with a short historical overview and examples of ‘typical macro criminological’ research. Successively we address the recent decrease in crime in many Western countries (the ‘crime drop’), the increased tendency to punish more severely in the last decennia (the ‘punitive turn’), and historical developments in homicide (‘history of violence’). After that we address an important theoretical and philosophical problem with regard to macro criminology: the balance between micro and macro factors in explaining macro phenomena. Finally, the contributions of this thematic issue are introduced.


Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. André van der Laan
Dr. A.M. van der Laan is senior onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit Rechtshandhaving en Sancties (CRS) van het WODC.

Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall
Prof. I.H. Marshall is Professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice en de Department of Sociology & Anthropology van de Northeastern University in Boston (VS).

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Jeugddelinquentie in vergelijkend perspectief

Vertellen micro- en macroanalyses hetzelfde verhaal?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden cross-national criminology, juvenile delinquency, theoretical integration, self-report survey, theory-testing
Auteurs Chris Marshall PhD en Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a micro- and a macro-level analysis of predictors of delinquency in order to contribute to the discussion about the micro-macro problem in criminology. We use Coleman’s boat (1990) to situate our research question. Individual theories dominate the field of delinquency, there are few theories at macro level. Cross-level theoretical integration primarily takes place between individual (micro) and community (meso) levels, and hardly ever on (national) macro level. Our question is to which extent macro-level theory fruitfully may use concepts drawn from micro-level theory. We test a micro and a macro model using indicators from the domains of family, school, friends/peers and economy, using data collected by the Second International Self-Report Study of Delinquency (ISRD2), a cross-national self-report survey of delinquency and victimization among students between 12 and 16 years in 30 countries (n=71.436). Dependent variable at micro level is versatility (last year), at the macro level (national) we use contacts with the police for youths under 18. Results confirm the importance of including macro context (country clusters) in the analysis of individual delinquency. We further conclude that factors related to family and friends correlate at both micro and macro level with measures of delinquency; the role of school and economic factors is less clear-cut. The article concludes with the recommendation to give the micro-macro problem in delinquency theory a more central and explicit position in research programs.


Chris Marshall PhD
C.E. Marshall, PhD is Associate Professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice van de University of Nebraska-Omaha (VS).

Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall
Prof. I. Haen Marshall is Professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice en de Department of Sociology & Anthropology van de Northeastern University in Boston (VS).
Artikel

Agressie in de tram

Het perspectief van trambestuurders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Tramdrivers, strategies, aggressive passengers, masculinity
Auteurs Dr. Thaddeus Müller en Roy Zeestraten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we focus on how tram drivers react when confronted with a situation of aggression in the tram. Their role in these situations has hardly been explored in recent Dutch studies on this topic. In our explorative research, which consisted of observation and interviews in The Hague, our aim is to gain the perspective of tram drivers on aggressive passengers. Through their eyes we describe a range of strategies which they use to restore public order. Our research shows that in order to understand the reaction of tram drivers a) this has to be placed in the sequential development of an aggressive interaction and b) this has to be related to the ways they give meaning to the aggression of passengers and their work context. Our research shows that there are two perspectives among tram drivers: a) a ‘business’ perspective, with an emphasis of tram drivers as employees who avoid risk situations and call for support in situations they cannot control and b) a personal perspective, in which tram drivers tend to follow more personal guidelines, in which masculinity plays a central role. Those who use the later perspective become more involved in violent and physical interactions.


Dr. Thaddeus Müller
Dr. Thaddeus Müller is werkzaam als Senior Lecturer Criminology bij de Lancaster University (UK). Hij is gespecialiseerd in kwalitatief onderzoek en doet onderzoek naar de ‘deviante’ jongeren, etniciteit en criminalisering, stedelijke (on)veiligheid, drugs en wetenschappelijke fraude.

Roy Zeestraten
Roy Zeestraten is criminoloog en werkzaam als EC coördinator bij Reclassering Nederland, regio Den Haag. Als EC coördinator heeft hij veel contact met ketenpartners zoals PI’s, OM, advocaten en zorginstellingen. Hiernaast is hij verantwoordelijk voor de begeleiding van cliënten met elektronische controle.
Artikel

Thuisdealers, ritselaars en meesnoepers. Bewoners en bezoekers van grootstedelijke crackpanden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Crack cocaine, Drug dealing, Ethnography
Auteurs Drs. Petra Houwing, Alberto Oteo Pérez MSc en Prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on ethnographical research in 24 crack houses in Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague. Crack houses were defined as the homes of crack users where crack is being sold and smoked together with other users. All crack houses were located in disadvantaged, multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. Both residents and visitors were men and women, middle-aged, of various ethnic origin and with a long history of hard drug use. In addition to economic benefits for residents (crack sales, getting crack for free from visitors) and sometimes also for visitors, crack houses predominantly serve as a safe haven for drug use and as a social meeting place. Two types of crack houses were found: dealing houses (with ‘home sellers’) and home circuits (divided into ‘fixers’ who arrange or facilitate that crack is available, and ‘users-for-free’, who allow that crack is sold or delivered and used in their apartment, in exchange for a bit of crack). To reduce the risk of discovery and closure, residents take various measures, but less if they are not a legal resident of the apartment. In comparison with the Anglo-Saxon literature about crack houses, there is less ethnic segregation, a less aggressive atmosphere and less involvement with prostitution.


Drs. Petra Houwing
Drs. Petra Houwing is antropoloog. Zij was als veldonderzoeker verbonden aan het Bonger Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam en is nu cliëntmanager bij de GGD Haaglanden.

Alberto Oteo Pérez MSc
Alberto Oteo Pérez, MSc, is promovendus bij het Bonger Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam, en trainee bij het EMCDDA te Lissabon.

Prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf
Prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Jihadgang naar Syrië: een wetenschappelijke benadering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Jihad, Foreign fighters, Syria, radicalisation
Auteurs Nick Platje Msc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes a qualitative inquiry into Dutch people going to Syria for participating in Jihad. The inquiry compares theoretical findings with empirical facts, based on a content analysis and a document analysis, completed with ten depth-interviews. The results show that a combination of scientific findings on radicalisation and foreign fighters explains the jihad movement to Syria partly. The results also show that some factors, which have not recently be examined scientificly, are crucial for the character and extent of the movement towards Jihad.


Nick Platje Msc
Nick Platje (Msc) is werkzaam bij het ministerie van Defensie.
Artikel

Het ultieme kwaad: de daders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden genocide, typology of perpetrators, ordinary people, crimes of obedience, terror
Auteurs prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Genocide is so cruel and extreme that a first natural reflex is to distance ourselves from the perpetrators and qualify them as deranged criminals, psychopaths and sadists – very different from us ordinary people. Although some of the perpetrators fit this description, most perpetrators are ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances who commit so-called crimes of obedience. A genocidal regime is usually led by a criminal mastermind, who is supported by a number of fanatics and opportunistic careerists who take advantage of the situation to make themselves a career. Many of these perpetrators are special cases who deliberately participated in the genocide. Perpetrators in the middle cadre as well as the rank and file members are however often very ordinary people who just go along and follow the flow out of ideological conviction, fear or material gain.


prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
prof. dr. A.L. (Alette) Smeulers is hoogleraar internationale criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Zedenmannen, zoetwatermatrozen en zware jongens

Een empirisch onderzoek naar hiërarchische (gender)verhoudingen in een Belgische mannengevangenis

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden prison hierarchy, male inmate subculture, prison masculinities
Auteurs Maaike Beckmann MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Male inmate subcultures can be described as highly gendered settings where power relationships are based on a hierarchical gender order. Cultural idealized forms of masculinity provide an important foundation for these hierarchical rankings. Notions of hegemonic and subordinate masculinities offer a valuable theoretical framework for explaining the power relations and pecking order among male inmates. Drawing on observations and qualitative semi-structured interviews with prisoners in a medium-size Belgian male prison, this article analyses the various intermale dominance hierarchies among inmates and the discourses in which they are embedded: type of offence, social conduct, individual characteristics of the prisoners and the possession of different forms of capital. This article both stresses and nuances the importance of offence categories by explaining how hierarchical status can be enhanced through social performance and acting in accordance with the prison code. Additionally, it describes how hierarchical arrangements operate in the daily practice of prison life through spatial norms.


Maaike Beckmann MSc
M. Beckmann, MSc is promovendus bij de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en bij de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Verzet. Een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Birmingham School, Critical Criminology, commodification, Occupy, hackers
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introduction of the special issue of the Journal on Crime & Culture on ‘Resistance’, the editors focus on the theoretical history of the concept of resistance in the field of Criminology. Against the background of the Birmingham School and the themes and ideas of Critical Criminology, the authors argue that new issues are rebelled against, and new styles and rituals become en vogue. The street fighting man on the barricades is no longer the obvious icon, and resistance is not per se intergenerational, interclass or a confrontation between minorities and mainstream culture. Resistance may have epidemic proportions as the Arabic Spring. Movements like Occupy or WikiLeaks operate across borders, but resistance also includes subtle transgressions within organizations.


Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert werkt als universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: f.h.m.van.gemert@vu.nl

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl
Artikel

Creatief gebruik van bevoegdheden

Een explorerend onderzoek binnen de Nederlandse politie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Policing, Creative Use of Authorities, Noble Cause Corruption;, Organizational Misbehavior (OMB), Case study
Auteurs Robin Christiaan van Halderen en Karin Lasthuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police officers sometimes use creative ways in deploying their authorities when they deal with obstacles that hinder the pursuit for higher organizational goals or the common interest. By doing this, the boundaries of legislative rules might be stretched or even exceeded. This article reports the findings of a Dutch case study within the police into this phenomenon, which the authors described as the ‘creative use of authorities’. By means of observations and interviews within the researched police forces 57 cases were described and analyzed. The cases enabled a first categorization of distinctive forms of creative use of authorities with 4 essential core elements, that is: abstain from use, abuse, improper use and selective use of authorities.


Robin Christiaan van Halderen
Drs. Robin Christiaan van Halderen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid, Avans Hogeschool (www.expertisecentrum-veiligheid.nl) E-mail: rc.vanhalderen@avans.nl

Karin Lasthuizen
Dr. Karin Lasthuizen is universitair hoofddocent en senior-lid van de onderzoeksgroep Quality of Governance van de Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: k.m.lasthuizen@vu.nl
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