Zoekresultaat: 191 artikelen

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Ido Weijers
Prof. dr. I. Weijers is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdstrafrecht en jeugdbescherming aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Macht(eloos)

Normalisering van seksueel grensoverschrijdend gedrag in de (top)sport

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden sexually transgressive behavior, normalization, topsport culture, grooming, coach
Auteurs Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk en Prof. mr. Marjan Olfers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sexually transgressive behavior occurs in all sections of society, including sports. That includes behavior from making sexual comments to rape. A risk factor is the culture that can prevail in sports, also known as a disruptive culture. There is normalization of deviant behavior. The top sport culture is particularly vulnerable to unacceptable behavior. In this article we will consider the phenomenon of grooming by the coach – the conscious and movement that induce the minor to engage in sexual contact. Within top sport, the opportunity for (sexually) transgressive behavior will be the determining factor. While grooming in recreational or recreational sport is often by isolating (vulnerable) children from the group, grooming can occur in top sport because of the intensity of the relationship, which is in any case of a more closed nature and can be strengthened by the strong performance-oriented top sport culture. In both cases, an alert, open environment is necessary to create a safe sports climate.


Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke en Verinorm.

Prof. mr. Marjan Olfers
Prof. mr. Marjan Olfers is hoogleraar sport en recht aan de VU, tevens directeur van Verinorm.
Artikel

Access_open Pleidooi voor en uitwerking van een maximalistisch herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden maximalistisch herstelrecht, subsidiariteitsbeginsel, elektronische thuisdetentie, taakstraf, schadevergoedingsmaatregel
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article contains a plea for a further operationalization of the subsidiarity principle (penal law and punishment as ultimum remedium) through a maximalist restorative justice, i.e. a restorative justice that not only offers space for ‘voluntary processes’ and agreed restoration, but also for ‘compulsory procedures’ and imposed restoration. An attempt is made to make the maximalist arsenal of restorative sanctions as concrete as possible. Two examples of sanctions that are ‘constructed’ in a restorative way in this article, are restorative community service and restorative electronic home detention. This article is based on work by John Blad and Lode Walgrave that has previously appeared in Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is bijzonder hoogleraar herstelrecht en universitair hoofddocent strafrecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg.
Artikel

Constructieve vergelding revisited

De grondslag van de straf vanuit herstelrechtelijk perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden constructieve vergelding, communicatie, retributivisme, strafverlangens, ervaren erkenning
Auteurs Renée Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Is the concept of ‘retribution’ compatible with restorative justice? Starting from the perspective that retribution is an imperative given and that restorative justice should be a preferent option in coping with crime, the concept of retribution needs to be redesigned. Rethinking retribution needs to take into account the hypersensitive nature and complexity of modern society. Apparently incompatible interests need to be reconciled, paying tribute to the citizenship of both the victim and the perpetrator. Notwithstanding censure to be in place, implying the infliction of ‘pain’, the aim must lie in a reconstruction of civil relationships affirming the victim and the perpetrator to be part of the community. Standards applied must reflect objectivity, implying proportionate punishment, with a preference towards restorative justice because it is the more subsidiary option. Thus, retribution notwithstanding the imperative and painful nature of retribution, the execution should pursue the reconstruction of (civil) relationships.


Renée Kool
Renée Kool is als universitair hoofddocent werkzaam aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Herstelgerichte sancties en het strafbegrip

John Blads rechtstheoretische visie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden John Blad, rechtstheorie, mediation in strafzaken, positief recht
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay focuses on John Blad’s views on the sanction concept of restorative justice and the punishment concept of criminal law. What is the status of a restorative sanction? How does that sanction differ from imposed criminal sanctions?


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is als research fellow verbonden aan de het onderzoeksprogramma Staat en Recht, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. www.basvanstokkom.eu
Artikel

Access_open Macht, misdaad en exces

Enkele inleidende reflecties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is senior onderzoeker bij de Vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Jonge veelplegers en hun worsteling om te stoppen met criminaliteit

Een vierfasenmodel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden desistance, young repeat offenders, maturation, longitudinal study
Auteurs Prof. dr. Ido Weijers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents findings from a longitudinal study of 81 young recidivists examined over fifteen years. By the age of 25, 50 percent had desisted for at least three years. 60 percent had had no new police contacts during the last two years. Four stages could be distinguished in the desistance process. Apart from a small number of explicit persisters, all of the young adults did consciously consider whether the benefits of their criminal activities outweighed the disadvantages. With just a few exceptions, the decision to quit was not motivated by an altruistic goal, nor by extreme fear, but mainly motivated by the feeling of being too old for criminal life and by striving for a pleasant self-esteem. It is concluded that when young adult recidivists give up crime, this must be seen as an extreme and extremely late form of maturation.


Prof. dr. Ido Weijers
Prof. dr. I. Weijers is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdstrafrecht en jeugdbescherming aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open Relationele zorgrechtvaardigheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden zorgrechtvaardigheid, zorgethiek, relationele rechtvaardigheid, zorgzame relaties, zorg
Auteurs Christopher D. Marshall
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As an approach to law and justice, restorative justice focuses squarely on addressing human needs; it acknowledges the equal dignity of all parties, irrespective of their role in the harmful act; it accepts responsibilities for addressing the disadvantages or inequities that crime has bequeathed to victims and that often have contributed to offending on the part of the perpetrator; and it derives its creative potential from the shared vulnerability and reciprocal exchange of concern that occurs through respectful face-to-face encounter. Therefore restorative justice constitutes a relational justice of care.


Christopher D. Marshall
Christopher Marshall bekleedt de Diana Unwin Chair in Restorative Justice, School of Government, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
Redactioneel

Filosofische reflecties op zorg, herstel en recht doen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom, Jacques Claessen en Renée Kool
Auteursinformatie

Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is als research fellow verbonden aan de het onderzoeksprogramma Staat en Recht, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Persoonlijke website:

Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is bijzonder hoogleraar herstelrecht en universitair hoofddocent strafrecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg.

Renée Kool
Renée Kool is als universitair hoofddocent werkzaam aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

‘No peace without justice.’ Een reactie op Christopher Marshall

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden zorgethiek, vervolging, tenuitvoerlegging, opsporing, berechting
Auteurs Vincent Geeraets en Wouter Veraart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article outlines two points of criticism related to Christopher Marshall’s discussion of a relational justice of care. First, addressing the needs of the parties involved in a criminal justice case finds its appropriate place in the post-trial stage. In the pre-trial and trial stages, protecting the legal rights and equal treatment of suspects should take priority over caring for suspects. Secondly, if the outcome of the restorative encounter in the pre-trial stages has a bearing on the verdict of the judge, the encounter may risk to lose its authenticity. The offender may have reason to believe that a socially appropriate performance will be rewarded with less punishment.


Vincent Geeraets
Vincent Geeraets is rechtsfilosoof en als universitair docent verbonden aan de Afdeling Rechtstheorie en Rechtsgeschiedenis van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Wouter Veraart
Wouter Veraart is rechtsfilosoof en als hoogleraar verbonden aan de Afdeling Rechtstheorie en Rechtsgeschiedenis van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De herstelrechtelijke reactie op extremistisch geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden extremisme, terrorisme, Spanje, Italië, Noord-Ierland
Auteurs Evelien Rens, Katrien Lauwaert en Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Organizing restorative justice practices around crimes involving extremist violence remains a difficult task. It is not self-evident to bring perpetrators with very specific and radical ideas into contact with their victims. Nevertheless, interesting initiatives have been made in a number of European countries. In Spain, Italy and Northern Ireland, among others, initiatives were taken in response to the extremist violence that these countries experienced at the end of the 20th century. These initiatives have a very specific context and praxis, initiated ad hoc with attention to the specific needs of those involved. In no case can they be considered standard models or generalized practices. This contribution describes some of these initiatives in Spain, Italy and Northern Ireland and reflects on the potential uses of these dialogues in general.


Evelien Rens
Evelien Rens is studente criminologische wetenschappen aan de KU Leuven en stagiaire bij Moderator Forum voor Herstelrecht en Bemiddeling vzw.

Katrien Lauwaert
Katrien Lauwaert is beleidscoördinator bij Moderator Forum voor Herstelrecht en Bemiddeling vzw en bijzonder hoogleraar restorative justice aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven, Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie en hoofdredacteur van The International Journal of Restorative Justice.
Artikel

Access_open Waarom melden burgers?

Individuele, sociale en institutionele drijfveren voor meldgedrag in het verleden en toekomstige meldingsbereidheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden reporting behavior, crime, citizen participation, psychological drivers, response efficacy
Auteurs Wendy Schreurs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reports by citizens are a great source of information for the police. Local residents often know well what is going on in their neighborhood and which situations are suspicious. In this study, an online survey was conducted to investigate what drives citizens to report to the police. A wide range of individual, social and institutional drivers were explored. The results show that the more often people have reported anything to the police in the past, the higher their risk perception, self-efficacy, citizen participation and police legitimacy. Furthermore, participants with a higher degree of self-efficacy, response efficacy, trust in the police and police legitimacy appeared to be more willing to report in the future. An open question regarding what motivates people the most to report show that response efficacy (the idea to what extent reporting has an effect on increasing safety and reducing crime) and altruistic values (justice, to help society and punish the perpetrators) were mentioned most frequently.


Wendy Schreurs
Wendy Schreurs is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.
Kroniek

Gedetineerd via de achterdeur: juridisch en criminologisch onderzoek naar omzetting en herroeping van vrijheidsbeperkende sancties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden omzetting taakstraf, Herroeping voorwaardelijke sanctie, reclasseringstoezicht, Europese minimumregels community sanctions and measures, Europese reclasseringsregels
Auteurs Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution provides an overview of the legal and criminological research into the decision following the determination of a supervisor that the conditions of a freedom-restricting sanction are not met. It is an important decision, on the one hand because it can result in a more severe sanction than was initially imposed, on the other hand because a decision that is perceived as unfair can influence the extent to which suspects and convicts are willing to comply with conditions, and recidivism. Yet little research has been conducted into this decision. The legal safeguards with which it is accompanied are lagging behind those of the original sentencing decision. Undeserved according to penitentiary experts. The scarce empirical research shows that decision-making involves many different layers and that the actors involved have different goals, ranging from deterrence and emphasizing the credibility of the system to the successful completion of the sanction. Even in countries where regulations have been tightened considerably, the discretionary power of direct supervisors, such as employees of the working project or therapists, is still large. This raises the question to what extent the final decision maker (usually a judge) still has sufficient room to make an independent decision.


Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. dr. M.M. Boone is hoogleraar Criminologie en Vergelijkende Penologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De rol van slachtoffercompensatie in de publieke waardering van strafoplegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden victim compensation, criminal justice system, public opinion, punishment
Auteurs Dr. Janne van Doorn, Prof. dr. mr. Maarten Kunst, Dr. Jelle Brands e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the current study it was investigated to what extent the presence or absence of victim compensation influences public judgments about punishment by the general public. Results show that whether or not the victim is awarded compensation, both in the case of physical assault and burglary, did not influence the extent to which the general public agrees with the punishment imposed by the judge. Participants do consider it important that a victim has the opportunity to apply for compensation for non-material damage suffered.


Dr. Janne van Doorn
Dr. J. van Doorn is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden

Prof. dr. mr. Maarten Kunst
Prof. dr. mr. Maarten Kunst is Hoogleraar aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Jelle Brands
Dr. J. Brands is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden

Prof. dr. Jan de Keijser
Prof. dr. J. de Keijser is Hoogleraar aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Sanctionering van verkeersongevallen

Op het kruispunt van taakstraffen, verkeersdelicten en herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Verkeersongevallen, Verkeersdelicten, taakstraf, Wegenverkeerswet
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution seeks to bring together three themes in a descriptive and exploratory manner: (a) community service orders, (b) traffic offences and (c) restorative justice; the Dutch situation is central. To this end, the Dutch legal regulation regarding community service orders is first explained. Attention is also paid to existing empirical research on the effectiveness of community service orders in terms of reduction of recidivism (section 2). Furthermore, the sanctioning of traffic offences is discussed as well as the consequences for this of the current bill that seeks to sharpen criminal liability for serious traffic offences (section 3). Subsequently, it is examined which restorative justice provisions or modalities are available and how restorative community service orders are and can be designed (section 4). Finally, I describe my ideal when it comes to the sanctioning of traffic offences in the form of a continuum in which a special role is reserved for restorative community service orders (section 5). The contribution ends with a conclusion (section 6).


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is als bijzonder hoogleraar herstelrecht en universitair hoofddocent straf- en strafprocesrecht verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Hij is daarnaast rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg en bestuurslid van Stichting Mens en Strafrecht. Hij is redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Top-down and out?

Reassessing the labelling approach in the light of corporate deviance

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden labelling, corporate crime, moral entrepreneurs, peer group, late modernity
Auteurs Anna Merz M.A.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Multi-national corporations are increasingly facing attention and disapproval by different actors, including authorities, public and (non-) commercial organizations. Digital globalization and especially social media as a low-cost, highly interactive and multidirectional platform shape a unique context for this rising attention. In the literature, much attention has been devoted to top-down approaches and strategies that corporations use to avoid stigmatization and sanctioning of their behaviour. Reactions to corporate harm are, however, seldom researched from a labelling perspective. As a result, corporations are not considered as objects towards whom labelling is targeted but rather as actors who hamper such processes and who, as moral entrepreneurs, influence which behaviour is labelled deviant. Based on theoretical analysis of literature and case studies, this article will discuss how the process of labelling has changed in light of the digitalized, late-modern society and consequently, how the process should be revisited to be applicable for corporate deviance. Given a diversification of moral entrepreneurs and increasingly dependency of labelling and meaning-making on the online sphere, two new forms of labelling are introduced that specifically target institutions; that is bottom-up and horizontal labelling.


Anna Merz M.A.
Anna Merz is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Meer straffen, minder schuld: de toekomst van de penologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden penology, punishment, administrative sanctions, algorythms & punishment
Auteurs Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two developments are discussed that have a significant influence on the scope and content of the penology of the future, but otherwise have little to do with each other: The expansion of the sentencing field has resulted in a completely fluid research field. However, the important questions of penology can only be answered by integrally mapping and analyzing that sentencing field. For that reason, penology should radically free itself of the limitation of its field of research to the penal sanction. Ongoing insight into the functioning of the brain and the predictability of behavior on the basis of algorithms shine a different light on the portraits of mankind on which we base punishment. It also exposes a range of new possibilities to influence behavior and prevent criminal behavior. It is also part of the research field of penology to question which of those possibilities we want to use and under which conditions.


Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. dr. M.M. Boone is hoogleraar Criminologie en Vergelijkende Penologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Kroniek

Criminalisering van migratie en grensmobiliteit als een legitieme zorg voor de publieke criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden crimmigration, border mobility, criminalization, migration, public criminology
Auteurs Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What role do Dutch criminologists play in the – especially since the onset of the so-called migration crisis – heated national and international debates on the criminalization of migration and border mobility? This will be the central question in this publication. Based on an inventory of national and international peer-reviewed publications written by Dutch criminologists, the article will reflect upon Dutch criminologists’ public role. In addition, based on the observed ‘silences’ in the scholarly debates on the criminalization of migration and border mobility, three avenues for further criminological research will be identified.


Maartje van der Woude
Prof. mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie aan het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur en Samenleving van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Kickboksen, een Marokkaanse route naar succes?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden Kickboksen, Marokko, Chicago, Wacquant
Auteurs Frank van Gemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Loïc Wacquant conducted ethnographic research in the ghetto of Chicago and describes the route to social mobility that black boxers try to follow as they train in the gym and build body capital. Based on similar research methods, this article compares the black boxers to two episodes of kickboxing in Amsterdam. Wacquant is not hopeful when it comes to social mobility of the boxers, as he sees their boxing careers as confirmation of their low position in society. In the first Dutch episode, kickboxers manage to combine body work in the gym with working in the nightlife economy. They make money but are unaware of the danger of getting involved in criminal activities, and a number of fighters end up in prison or even dead. Currently, kickboxing is very popular with young Moroccans. Having seen what went wrong in the previous episode, Moroccan trainers keep a close watch on their pupils, and make sure they realize that what happens outside and after kickboxing is what really matters.


Frank van Gemert
Frank van Gemert is als Assistant Professor werkzaam bij de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, vakgroep criminologie van de VU Amsterdam.
Artikel

Transmuraal herstelgericht werken

Nieuwe conceptuele landkaart naar succesvol re-integreren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden gedetineerden, re-integratie, herstelgerichte detentie, strength-based benadering
Auteurs Bart Claes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past twenty-five years, a lot of attention is paid to a more victim-aware and restorative justice focused policy in prisons in Belgium and The Netherlands, striving for a restorative culture and climate in the institutions (among prisoners and staff) and for more restorative practices like victim-awareness programs and mediation. The focus is primarily on the prison structure and culture, striving to create a more restorative prison culture and climate in the institutions. In this article we argue for a shift from this system-focused pursuit of ‘estorative detention’ to the restorative reintegration of prisoners at the individual level, and by this supporting their desistance from crime. We present a conceptual framework for restorative reintegration in and outside prison as a strengths-based approach, with attention to the structural and individual elements that supports their desistance from crime.


Bart Claes
Bart Claes is houder van het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool, bestuurslid van het European Forum for Restorative Justice (www.euforumrj.org) en medeoprichter van het Expertisecentrum K I N D, Ouder en Detentie (www.expertisecentrumkind.nl).
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