Zoekresultaat: 62 artikelen

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Susanne Karstedt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Maartje Weerdesteijn
Auteursinformatie

Maartje Weerdesteijn
Dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn, MSc, is universitair docent bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, en onderzoeker bij het Center for International Criminal Justice. m.weerdesteijn@vu.nl
Artikel

Whose narratives?

The Self as (also) an alien – for a complex concept of ‘Self’ in narrative criminology

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Self, narrative criminology
Auteurs Professor Alfredo Verde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper, answering to a recent critique by Ben Laws to the concept of Self developed by narrative criminology, and recognizing its importance, shows that narrative criminology has formulated a complex dynamic definition of it, in addressing both the limit-experiences and the unconscious dimension. Such enlargement can be attained by adding to narrative criminology the contributions of psychosocial criminology, that considers also the emotional dimension of crime narratives and the enjoyment connected to crime: the offender Self, in this perspective, is a multiplex, not completely definable, sometimes alien entity, which can be exposed analysing in depth criminal narratives.


Professor Alfredo Verde
Professor Alfredo Verde is professor of Criminology, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Italy.
Artikel

Het ontrafelen van de effectpuzzel

Aandacht voor de werkzame ingrediënten van slachtoffer-daderbemiddeling voor daders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Fellegi, moraliteit, neutralisatietechnieken, schaamte, sociale bindingen
Auteurs Sven Zebel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Why and how mediated contact between victims and offenders (and members from their networks) leads to positive outcomes, remains a difficult question to answer. Not surprisingly therefore, this topic has been the focus of attention of multiple articles in the past twenty years of this journal. In this contribution, the inspiring article of Borbala Fellegi (2008), titled ‘Explaining the impact of restorative justice. The “4-way interaction” of morality, neutralisation, shame and bonds’ is celebrated. Fellegi presents a theoretical framework in which the added value of restorative, mediated victim-offender meetings for the re-integration of offenders is outlined compared to other judicial responses to crime. Central to her argument is that the mediation process affects in particular the four criminogenic factors mentioned in the title. In this contribution two innovative, working mechanisms of the mediation process that she proposes, are highlighted. First, the preparation phase in which the neutral mediator initiates and facilitates discussion of the crime and its consequences for the victim(s) with the offender. Fellegi proposes that this mechanism can (start to) lift the criminogenic factor moral reasoning of the offender. Second, the restorative focus of the encounter itself between the victim and offender, in which both parties can express how they were affected, express their emotions (such as shame feelings of the offender) and discuss jointly how restoration and reparation might be achieved. This should reduce the criminogenic factor neutralisation, increase moral reasoning, and might contribute to integrative social bonds between the parties and their networks. Thus, Fellegi’s work has made innovative suggestions about the working mechanisms of victim-offender mediation – these suggestions offer useful hypotheses that can be tested empirically.


Sven Zebel
Sven Zebel is universitair hoofddocent aan de vakgroep Psychologie van Conflict, Risico en Veiligheid van de Universiteit Twente. In zijn onderzoek richt hij zich op de psychologische reacties op criminaliteit en conflict, en op de impact van interventies die trachten te herstellen en het risico op recidive te verlagen. In het bijzonder is hij geïnteresseerd in de inzet van digitale technologie om herstelrechtelijke (interactie)processen beter te begrijpen en te optimaliseren.
Artikel

Defaunatie en de coronapandemie

Overexploitatie bezien vanuit een groen criminologisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden defaunation, corona, wildlife trade, excess, ecological interaction
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The overexploitation of nature has led to anthropogenic defaunation, which results in complex socioeconomic, political and ecological consequences. Influenced by the economic growth of modernization and the interconnectedness of globalization, zoonotic diseases emerge as incalculable side effects of defaunation. By rejecting anthropocentric worldviews, this article critically examines anthropogenic defaunation and the causes and consequences of the coronavirus pandemic from a green criminological perspective.


Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. Daan van Uhm is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Essay

‘Porn’ graffiti in public space

Between moralization and agonism

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden porn, graffiti, public space, street art, morality
Auteurs Prof. Dr. Lucas Melgaço
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sexualized graffiti has emerged on walls in Brussels since the beginning of 2013, generating fierce debates. Perceived as street art and a welcome challenge to heteropatriarchy by some and as obscenity and vulgarity by others, these pieces highlight the inherently contested character of public spaces. The controversies around the presence of these paintings in public space relate to what in the literature has become known as moral geographies, that is, the spatial aspect of morality. What should one do about these supposed ‘porn’ pieces: regulate their existence and control potential tensions and conflicts, or let frictions emerge between the partisans and the opponents of such urban interventions? Who gets to say what should be tolerated and what should be regulated in public space? In this opinion piece, I situate this issue between two ends: an agonistic one, in which contestation is the rule; and an excessively regulatory one, in which public space is over-rationalized and normalized.


Prof. Dr. Lucas Melgaço
Lucas Melgaço is werkzaam aan het Department of Criminology van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB).
Artikel

Wie houdt de wacht?

Veranderingen in toezicht tijdens de jongvolwassenheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden parental monitoring, self-control, delinquency, social control
Auteurs Dr. Jessica Hill MSc en Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this study we examine whether parental monitoring remains a protective factor in the lives of emerging adults, as well as the extent to which monitoring in other settings replaces the protective role of the parents. We use data collected for the TransAM project, a longitudinal survey of 970 emerging adults (18-24 years) to examine monitoring in a range of different contexts using an instrument based on Stattin and Kerr’s parental monitoring scale (2000). Results indicate that whilst parental control plays a protective role in the first years of emerging adulthood, we find no evidence that monitoring in other settings replaces the protective role of parents. However, monitoring of the self, i.e., self-control, has an increasingly strong relationship with delinquency during emerging adulthood.


Dr. Jessica Hill MSc
Dr. J.M. Hill (MSc) is universitair docent criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is als bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Kroniek

‘Partners in crime’? De rol van de antropologie in de criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden criminal anthropology, Criminology, anthropology
Auteurs Dr. Brenda Oude Breuil
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminology, as an inherently interdisciplinary field, has built on anthropology (and other social sciences) in its development. This contribution addresses the question which insights in criminology have most been inspired by anthropology. First, it looks into the ‘criminal anthropology’ of Lombroso; then it embarks on an appreciation of the ethnographic research design within criminology (as first adopted by the Chicago School); and, finally, it assesses the link between anthropology, and cultural and global criminology. I conclude that anthropology has been valuable to our discipline on four levels: methodologically (in the importance of the ethnographic research design), theoretically (in its role in the development of symbolic interactionism and structuralism, for example), geographically (in the global scope of anthropological research), and analytically, in its experience with ‘doing ethnography’ in economically, politically and culturally embedded ways.


Dr. Brenda Oude Breuil
Dr. B.C.M. Oude Breuil is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen in Utrecht.
Artikel

Ethiek, liberalisme en gemeenschap

Enkele gedachten over herstelrecht en zorgethiek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden ethiek, liberalisme, gemeenschap, communitarisme, zorgethiek
Auteurs Pieter De Witte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article considers Christopher D. Marshall’s proposal to draw a connection between the ethics of care and restorative justice. The ethics of care tradition is critical of the modern liberal interpretation of morality as a rational endeavor based on universal principles. The article attempts to spell out the ethical and political implications of adopting this fundamental viewpoint in the context of restorative justice. On the ethical level, the ethics of care may remind the tradition of restorative justice of its essential reliance on the concrete moral practices and competences of people that precede any conceptualized normative ethics. On the political level, an ethics of care approach to restorative justice seems to lead to a certain deadlock in that it fails (and refuses) to offer a rational justification of restorative justice practices. On a closer look, the ethics of care can provide such a justification, be it a ‘communitarian’ one.


Pieter De Witte
Pieter de Witte is RK-gevangenisaalmoezenier, postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan het Centrum voor Religie, Ethiek en Detentie en docent Religie, Zingeving en Levensbeschouwing (KU Leuven).
Artikel

Herstelrecht en gedeelde betrokkenheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden gedeelde betrokkenheid, joint intentionality, meervoudig subject, joint commitment, morele verantwoordelijkheid
Auteurs Bart Pattyn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Christopher Marshalls is convinced that restorative justice has to do with care for relational involvement. That view is intuitively convincing but not particularly clear. Recent psychological and philosophical research has recently devoted much attention to notions such as ‘collective intentionality’ (Searle, Tomasello) and ‘joint commitment’ (Gilbert). This kind of research is situated and discussed in this paper. We indicate how the restoration of mutual involvement can be reinterpreted from the perspective of this research. This exercise shows that caring for relationships should not be interpreted in a sentimental way. In law and in restorative justice, it does not have to be the intention to enter into more personal relationships with each other. Rather, it is the intention to make it possible once again to develop mutual understanding, respect and compassion from our common universal human commitment.


Bart Pattyn
Bart Pattyn (1962) is hoogleraar ethiek aan de KU Leuven. Zijn onderzoeksinteresse betreft de relatie tussen media en de maatschappelijke gedeelde betrokkenheid (Media en mentaliteit, Leuven: Lannoo Campus 2014). Recente publicatie ‘Waarom waarheid ertoe doet’ Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 82/2020, p. 93-139. Hij engageert zich tegelijk voor interdisciplinaire dialoog binnen het overlegplatform Metaforum van de KU Leuven.
Artikel

Access_open Waarom melden burgers?

Individuele, sociale en institutionele drijfveren voor meldgedrag in het verleden en toekomstige meldingsbereidheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden reporting behavior, crime, citizen participation, psychological drivers, response efficacy
Auteurs Wendy Schreurs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reports by citizens are a great source of information for the police. Local residents often know well what is going on in their neighborhood and which situations are suspicious. In this study, an online survey was conducted to investigate what drives citizens to report to the police. A wide range of individual, social and institutional drivers were explored. The results show that the more often people have reported anything to the police in the past, the higher their risk perception, self-efficacy, citizen participation and police legitimacy. Furthermore, participants with a higher degree of self-efficacy, response efficacy, trust in the police and police legitimacy appeared to be more willing to report in the future. An open question regarding what motivates people the most to report show that response efficacy (the idea to what extent reporting has an effect on increasing safety and reducing crime) and altruistic values (justice, to help society and punish the perpetrators) were mentioned most frequently.


Wendy Schreurs
Wendy Schreurs is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.
Artikel

The concept of violence in (times of) crisis

On structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden structural violence, institutional violence, anti-institutional violence, economic crisis, Greece
Auteurs Marilena Drymioti
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Attempting to understand the Greek narrative of crisis, this paper examines the most prominent forms of violence that emerged in the period of acute economic recession and political upheaval in Greece namely structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence. This paper aims to highlight existing theoretical gaps and avoid common fallacies of the current body of knowledge. In contrast to some of the more common features of the discussion on violence, this note sets out to: a) acknowledge that violence is not necessarily a physical act, b) acknowledge that the outcomes of violence performances might not be physical either, c) specify and adequately distinguish agency and structural dynamics and d) address the cultural and contextual aspects of violence. Vital to this endeavor is to acknowledge, identify and understand the interactive relation between different forms of violence that emerge during the same period of time in a context in which conflict escalates.


Marilena Drymioti
Marilena Drymioti is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Integratief seksindustriebeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland

Succes voor een unieke sociale beweging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden sekswerk, Nieuw-Zeeland, decriminalisering, sociale beweging, beleidsverandering
Auteurs Dr. Joep Rottier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contrary to its allies in other countries, the sex industry decriminalization movement in New Zealand, embodied by the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective (NZPC), achieved its goal in 2003. This article explores the reform of the sex industry policy in this country on the basis of a Social Movement Concept. Apart from the specific New Zealand culture, particularly the interaction between three social political aspects – awareness, political opportunities, and a strong social movement organisation – can be identified as crucial factors in realizing a decriminalized sex industry environment. The enactment of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 meant a unique and huge success for a small sex workers movement.


Dr. Joep Rottier
Dr. Joep Rottier, onderzoeker, promoveerde in december 2018 aan de Universiteit Utrecht op de effecten van het seksindustrie decriminaliseringbeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland. Hij is bestuurslid van het Platform SekswerkExpertise Nederland.
Artikel

Herstel van het morele imago van daders als drijfveer voor bemiddeling

De ervaringen van bemiddelaars

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden mediators, victim-offender mediation, willingness to participate, offender-intentions, moral image
Auteurs Sven Zebel, Leonie Kippers en Elze Ufkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Compared to victims, relatively little is known about the role of offenders’ emotions, needs and intentions in their (voluntary) decision to participate in victim-offender mediation (VOM). Insight into this decision process among offenders is important, as it may explain (part of) the positive outcomes participation in VOM can have for them, as well as for victims. Based on the work of Shnabel and Nadler (2008; 2015), we predicted that the need to restore their moral image is an important, underlying explanation for why offenders participate in VOM. To test this, we sampled 91 victim-offender mediation cases from the Dutch mediation agency Perpectief Herstelbemiddeling based on pre-defined characteristics. We approached the mediators who handled these cases and asked them to indicate the emotions, need to restore the moral image and intentions of the offenders in these cases. Consequently, we examined how these variables predicted offenders’ actual willingness to participate (or not) in these cases. Results indicated that the need to restore the moral image is indeed an important underlying factor in offenders’ decision to participate in VOM: according to mediators’ answers, offenders who felt more remorse about their crime, felt a stronger need to restore their moral image, which in turn predicted a stronger intention to apologize and help the victim. This intention to apologize and help emerged as the strongest, direct predictor of offenders’ willingness to participate. The relevance of Shnabel and Nadler’s needs-based model of reconciliation for VOM is discussed as well as important future research questions that remain.


Sven Zebel
Sven Zebel is universitair hoofddocent aan de vakgroep Psychologie van Conflict, Risico en Veiligheid van de Universiteit Twente. In zijn onderzoek richt hij zich op de psychologische reacties op criminaliteit en conflict, en op de impact van interventies die trachten te herstellen en het risico op recidive te verlagen. In het bijzonder is hij geïnteresseerd in de inzet van digitale technologie om herstelrechtelijke (interactie)processen beter te begrijpen en te optimaliseren.

Leonie Kippers
Leonie Kippers is afgestudeerd als psycholoog aan de vakgroep Psychology of Conflict, Risk and Safety (PCRS) van de Universiteit Twente, waar zij zich in haar afstudeeronderzoek richtte op de factoren die deelname aan slachtoffer-dadergesprekken voorspellen voor slachtoffers en daders. Zij werkt momenteel als audiovisueel programmamaker bij Drijver Films. Daarnaast is zij als docent en ontwikkelaar verbonden aan de opleiding Mediaredactie bij opleidingscentrum Aventus.

Elze Ufkes
Elze Ufkes werkte tussen 2012 en 2018 als universitair docent aan de vakgroep Psychology of Conflict, Risk and Safety (PCRS) van de Universiteit Twente. Sinds 2018 is hij als onderzoeker en data-analist werkzaam bij de Algemene Rekenkamer, waar hij zijn interesse in beleidsonderzoek combineert met data-analytics.
Artikel

Prepping and verstehen

A narrative criminological perspective

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Verstehen, narrative, prepping, experience, ethnography
Auteurs Michael F. Mills en Jennifer Fleetwood
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Talk, chat, and stories are ubiquitous in ethnographic research. Engaging with the recently burgeoning literature around narrative criminology, this article argues that considerations of stories and storytelling can add much to cultural criminologists’ pursuit of ‘criminological verstehen’ (Ferrell, 1997). In doing so, we focus on one case study: ethnographic research grounded within the USA’s contemporary ‘doomsday’ prepping subculture. The article considers the value of attending to narrative during the pursuit of verstehen at two levels. First, we address the importance of storytelling upon entry to the ethnographic field – drawing attention to how the narratives researchers share, and their respect for certain stories, can facilitate deep and experiential access to stigmatized fields of activity (such as prepping). Second, we explore how narrative remains in play during immediate experiences. In particular, we argue that fleeting excitements featured in prepping lifestyles are often shaped by the significance of the ‘moments’ in which they occur to numerous personal narratives. We therefore contend that, for ethnographers interested in verstehen, a consideration of narrative offers a means to expand and deepen empathetic appreciation of participants’ worldviews and activities.


Michael F. Mills
Michael F. Mills is Lecturer in Criminology, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent.

Jennifer Fleetwood
Jennifer Fleetwood is Senior lecturer in Criminology, Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Liever het landschap dan de struiken’

In gesprek met Hans Boutellier

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden morality, victims, secularisation
Auteurs Dr. Tom Daems en Dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article Tom Daems and Bas van Stokkom discuss work and life of the Dutch social psychologist Hans Boutellier. The article is based on an interview the authors conducted with Boutellier in December 2018 as well as his published work. The article discusses in particular themes such as the morality of crime, the emancipation of victims, and processes of secularisation.


Dr. Tom Daems
Dr. Tom Daems is hoofddocent bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), KU Leuven.

Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is senior onderzoeker bij de Vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Wie heeft een wiethok op zolder?

Een kwantitatief onderzoek naar risico- en beschermende factoren op persoons- en buurtniveau voor illegale hennepplantages in woningen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden indoor cannabis cultivation, risk factors, individuals, neighbourhoods
Auteurs Emily Berger MSc, Vera de Berk MSc, Dr. Joris Beijers e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Illegal weed cultivation is increasingly perceived as an important societal problem. Most of existing research in this area focuses on the criminal organisations active on the cannabis market and the criminal profits that are gained here. The current study however focuses on the actors at the bottom of the cannabis market – the home growers – and aims at answering the following research question: what factors influence the chance of encountering an illegal weed cultivation at a certain residential address? In this study, the risk and protecting factors are taken into consideration on both the individual level (e.g. family composition and financial position of residents) and the neighbourhood level (e.g. social cohesion, physical disorganisation, level of criminality in a certain neighbourhood). In the current study, data of 401 illegal hemp cultivation sites discovered between 2011 and 2016 in homes in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, were analysed. Data from various quantitative data sources – like municipal data (BRP and data from the Social Domain) and data from the municipal neighbourhood monitors – were combined and analysed through a multilevel logistic regression. The results suggest that the likelihood of an illegal weed cultivation site is most prominently influenced by individual factors. Being married for instance seems to decrease the risk, whereas being divorced seems to increase the risk. The housing type also turns out to be of influence. On a neighbourhood level, physical disorganisation and the presence of other hemp cultivation sites in the neighbourhood are the only predictors for hemp cultivation. The results are discussed in the light of criminological theories regarding participation in crime, using the theoretical concepts motivation, opportunity, and control.


Emily Berger MSc
E. Berger, MSc is als junior-onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Universiteit Utrecht en stagiaire bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Vera de Berk MSc
V.J. de Berk, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Universiteit Utrecht en stagiaire bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Dr. Joris Beijers
Dr. J.E.H. Beijers is als docent verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht en werkzaam als analist bij de gemeente Eindhoven.

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior-onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en slachtoffers van bedrijfsgeweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Corporate violence, Health, concepts of participation
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Whether and under which conditions restorative justice can be applied to cases of corporate violence is explored starting from the phenomenon of corporate violence, defined as acts committed by corporations in the course of their regular activities but with harmful consequences for people’s health. Specific characteristics of different types of corporate violence are presented, as well as victims’ needs, experiences and expectations. The applicability of restorative justice, but also the need of its rethinking, is discussed through an analysis of the role of its key actors and the concepts of participation and restoration.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar herstelrecht en victimologie aan de KU Leuven.
Artikel

The Dual-use of Drones

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Drones, Dual use, Responsible design, Ethiek van technologisch innovatie
Auteurs Peter Novitzky, Ben Kokkeler en Peter-Paul Verbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drones en drone-gerelateerde cybertechnologieën nemen een vlucht in het veiligheidsdomein in de vorm van toepassingen door het leger, de politie, brandweer, private beveiligingsbedrijven, en ook deurwaarders, agrariërs en burgerinitiatieven. Drones werden in eerste instantie ontwikkeld voor militaire doeleinden. Hun aanpassingsvermogen als universele platforms voor beeldregistratie en goederenvervoer leidt tot hoge verwachtingen rond toepassing in het civiele domein. Dit artikel onderzoekt de ethische aspecten van “dual use” van drones en gerelateerde technologieën. Verschillende dimensies van dual use worden verkend: de technologisch ontwikkeling, maar ook de ontwikkeling van wet- en regelgeving in Amerika en Europa. Voor het Nederlandse veiligheidsdomein is relevant dat dit artikel bijdraagt aan het signaleren van de noodzaak om de ontwikkeling en toepassing van drones in breder perspectief te bezien. Drones en hun toepassingen maken deel uit van de internationale markt van militaire organisaties en van veiligheidsorganisaties in het publieke en private domein. Bovendien maken ze veelal deel uit van geïntegreerde systemen en van wereldwijde platforms voor consumentenelektronica. Dit artikel is een van de resultaten uit het door NWO gefinancierde project 'Responsible Design of Drones and Drone Services: Towards an Ethical and Juridical Tool For Drone Design and Risk Assessment' (Project no. 313-99-318). Het project was gericht op het ontwikkelen van een instrument voor ontwikkeling en gebruik van dronetoepassingen uitgaande van methoden als Responsible Research & Innovation (RRI) en Value Sensitive Design (VSD).


Peter Novitzky
Peter Novitzky is postdoctoral researcher verbonden aan de Wageningen University. Email: peter.novitzky@wur.nl.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid aan Avans Hogeschool. Hij is daarnaast senior consultant bij de Europese Technopolis Group, kantoor Amsterdam, waar hij evaluaties en verkenningen uitvoert rond ehealth en smart cities. Email: bjm.kokkeler@avans.nl.

Peter-Paul Verbeek
Peter Paul Verbeek is hoogleraar Filosofie van mens en techniek aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: p.p.c.c.verbeek@utwente.nl.
Artikel

De anomie van machtsillusies

Onbegrensde ambities in de ‘risk and win’-zakenwereld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden anomie, illusion of control, corporate crime, competition, entitlement
Auteurs dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Generally, large listed companies and banks immersed in a ‘risk and win’-culture do not have to deal with ‘deprivation of resources’ which may trigger violations of the law. The anomie-theory of Merton does not seem to fit in this context. It is more obvious that the pressure to realize lofty ambitions is the trigger for potential violations of the law. I therefore work out a ‘post-Mertonian’ anomie-concept using the ‘European Durkheim’ to examine some excessive tendencies of an originally American ‘risk and win’-culture. The aim is to work towards an anomie-theory of power illusions that makes sense in the context of corporate crime. The leading question is: which anomic attitudes prevail in an over-ambitious corporate culture and which aspirations and rationalizations can be distinguished? It is argued that an approach focused on CEO-personality traits is too limited and that the sociological approaches of Durkheim and Shover offer many points of departure to construct a plausible anomie-theory. The dimensions of that theory have been taken from studies which focus at two criminogenic norm-systems: an ‘ethos of winning at any price’ and an ‘ethos of entitlement’.


dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: b.vanstokkom@jur.ru.nl.
Artikel

Het ‘cyborg crime’-perspectief

Theoretische vernieuwing in het digitale tijdperk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, cyborg, cyborg crime, Actor-Netwerk theory, Latour
Auteurs Wytske van der Wagen MsC
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study departs from the notion that current high-tech crime developments bring various new challenges for the rather anthropocentric, instrumental and dualistic theoretical repertoire of criminology. The article reflects on these challenges and proposes the alternative ‘cyborg crime’ perspective. This concept is the result of an explorative research on the theoretical potential of the actor-network theory (ANT) for cybercrime. The study concludes that ANT and the ensuing cyborg crime perspective enables to grasp certain dimensions of cybercrime more profoundly. ANT can move us (criminologists) beyond the classical novelty debate surrounding cybercrime and stimulate theoretical innovation.


Wytske van der Wagen MsC
Wytske van der Wagen, MSc, is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Law School. E-mail: vanderwagen@law.eur.nl.
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