Zoekresultaat: 24 artikelen

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Artikel

Burgers als institutioneel werkers. Een nieuw perspectief op burgerparticipatie in veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden institutional work, citizen participation, fire, disruption, actor perspective
Auteurs Jasper Bongers en Wim de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we show how the concept of ‘institutional work’ can be used to study citizen participation in the field of security arrangements. Institutional work starts from the perspective of actors trying to influence security institutions, and not from the perspective of government (as concepts like the ‘participation society’ and ‘ladder’ do). As such, this dynamic concept can be a useful addition to the conceptual arsenal of security experts. By applying the concept to the case of the Voluntary Fire Brigade in nineteenth-century Utrecht (1879-1890) we show how institutional work can work in practice. Finally, we reflect on the contribution that institutional work can make to our understanding of citizen participation in the field of safety.


Jasper Bongers
Jasper Bongers is promovendus aan de Open Universiteit. jasper.bongers@ou.nl

Wim de Jong
Wim de Jong is postdoc aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en Radboud Universiteit. wpthdejong@gmail.com
Artikel

Van tellen naar voorspellen - Sturen op risico’s met een voorspellend wiskundig model op basis van historische brandweerdata

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden chimney fires, prediction, spatial statistics, historical data, schoorsteenbranden
Auteurs Martine School, Maurits de Graaf, Marie-Colette van Lieshout e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the prediction of chimney fires using data collected by the Twente safety region over the years 2004 up to 2015. The explanatory variables used are the number of inhabitants per areal unit of 500 by 500 metres, the daily mean temperature and an indicator variable for October. Spatially and temporally correlated noise is added to be able to capture latent factors such as human behaviour. The model is validated using the data over the years 2016 and 2017. The model is implemented as a dashboard on a public website and yields as output a hazard map for chimney fires in Twente based on the weather forecast for the coming six days. This way, the dashboard can be used for prevention and planning purposes.


Martine School
Tineke School is als Data Science Consultant werkzaam bij Dat.mobility. m.l.school@outlook.com

Maurits de Graaf
Maurits de Graaf is werkzaam als innovatiemanager bij Thales Nederland B.V., en als associate professor mathematics of operations research bij de Universiteit Twente. m.degraaf@utwente.nl

Marie-Colette van Lieshout
Marie-Colette van Lieshout is als senior onderzoeker werkzaam bij het CWI en als hoogleraar ruimtelijke stochastiek bij de Universiteit Twente. colette@cwi.nl

Emiel Sanders
Emiel Sanders is werkzaam als zelfstandig adviseur informatie gestuurd werken bij Sanders Consulting en Advies. emiel@sandersconsultingadvies.nl

Ron de Wit
Ron de Wit is brandweerofficier en als plaatsvervangend commandant brandweer werkzaam in de Veiligheidsregio Twente. r.dewit@brandweertwente.nl
Artikel

Access_open Preventie en de aanpak van radicaliseren en terrorisme: een herziening

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden Radicalisation and Terrorism, American Wars, Activism of Hope, Mental Health and Prevention
Auteurs Carl H.D. Steinmetz
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    About half (54%) of Dutch mental health care have patients who radicalize. This delivery room for radical losers deserves more attention. The GGZ will then have to emerge from the stalled discourse, that radicalization is not a psychiatric disorder. An important breeding ground for these and other ‘delivery rooms’ are apart from factors like social and psychological influences, and grievances about social, economic and health inequalities (Bhui et al., 2014), the wars that are initiated annually by the United States from 1798, with or without the help of the United Kingdom, the European Union and therefore the Netherlands. This article argues that ‘fire should not be fired with fire’. It is argued for the implementation of Activism of Hope (Lleshi, 2018) with its own grandfathers, such as Martin Luther King, Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela. Finally, an action perspective for all young people in the tumultuous phase of adolescence is proposed for education- and care institutions.


Carl H.D. Steinmetz
Carl H.D. Steinmetz is managing director at Expats & Immigrants B.V.
Artikel

‘Gelukkig is geen ramp ontstaan’

De omgang met slachtoffers na grote branden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden victim needs, social justice, disasters, fires, legal settlement
Auteurs Michael Blommers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on a retrospective analysis of six large scale and fatal fires in the Netherlands, an improvement in terms of meeting the needs of victims can be seen. A comparison of the legal settlement of these fires shows mayor differences in the fulfilling of different aspects of social justice that are identified in social psychology. Two victim needs commonly associated with retributive justice – financial compensation and a thorough, neutral investigation into the causes of the disaster – were fulfilled to a higher degree after the most recent fires than after those that occurred decades ago. The legal settlement after the New Year’s fire in Volendam (2001) appears – at least on paper – to have been more just from the victim’s point of view than the ones after the other incidents. Empirical research into the experienced social justice after the New Year’s fire can be valuable to assess the factors that can lead to a just settlement after disasters.


Michael Blommers
Michael Blommers is een in de praktijk werkzame onderzoeker en verbonden aan Spuistraat 10 Advocaten te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De emotionele beleving van kwalitatief onderzoekers bij onderzoek naar kwetsbare groepen en gevoelige thema’s

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden narrative review, qualitative research, emotions, sensitive topics, vulnerable groups
Auteurs Ciska Wittouck en Gwen Herkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A narrative review was conducted to develop more coherent awareness and knowledge regarding emotional experiences of qualitative researchers studying sensitive topics or vulnerable groups, as discussions about this topic are currently fragmented and scattered. Qualitative researchers experience many painful as well as enjoyable emotions, which can influence their personal, social and professional lives. These emotions are recurrently reported in relation to the unpredictability of qualitative research and the different roles of qualitative researchers. More structural and individual attention for emotional experiences of qualitative researchers is necessary, for instance, in academic (doctoral) training and general handbooks on qualitative research.


Ciska Wittouck
Ciska Wittouck is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.

Gwen Herkes
Gwen Herkes is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.
Artikel

Prepping and verstehen

A narrative criminological perspective

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Verstehen, narrative, prepping, experience, ethnography
Auteurs Michael F. Mills en Jennifer Fleetwood
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Talk, chat, and stories are ubiquitous in ethnographic research. Engaging with the recently burgeoning literature around narrative criminology, this article argues that considerations of stories and storytelling can add much to cultural criminologists’ pursuit of ‘criminological verstehen’ (Ferrell, 1997). In doing so, we focus on one case study: ethnographic research grounded within the USA’s contemporary ‘doomsday’ prepping subculture. The article considers the value of attending to narrative during the pursuit of verstehen at two levels. First, we address the importance of storytelling upon entry to the ethnographic field – drawing attention to how the narratives researchers share, and their respect for certain stories, can facilitate deep and experiential access to stigmatized fields of activity (such as prepping). Second, we explore how narrative remains in play during immediate experiences. In particular, we argue that fleeting excitements featured in prepping lifestyles are often shaped by the significance of the ‘moments’ in which they occur to numerous personal narratives. We therefore contend that, for ethnographers interested in verstehen, a consideration of narrative offers a means to expand and deepen empathetic appreciation of participants’ worldviews and activities.


Michael F. Mills
Michael F. Mills is Lecturer in Criminology, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent.

Jennifer Fleetwood
Jennifer Fleetwood is Senior lecturer in Criminology, Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London.
Artikel

De geschatte waarde van het preventieprogramma Brandveilig Leven op basis van de contingente waarderingsmethode (CV – Contingent Valuation)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden willingness-to-pay, contingent valuation, impact assessment, community fire safety
Auteurs David Bornebroek, Ron de Wit, Marc van Buiten e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Regional Fire Services collectively aim at preventing fire, casualties and damage. The main activity is informing citizens about fire risks and the appropriate measures they can take. From both a political and social perspective, it is valuable to know what the return of the Community Fire Safety program is. One way to chart the return of the program is a comparison of the cost of, and society’s willingness-to-pay for, the program. To estimate this willingness-to-pay, this article applies the contingent valuation method to a national representative sample of 806 Dutch citizens. The results show that willingness-to-pay of an average Dutch household is estimated to be between € 25.00 and € 35.67 per year provided the Community Fire Safety program improves the fire safety by 10%. At the national level, this amounts to 200 – 270 million euro annually. This value is seven to ten times more than the approximate costs of the current Community Fire Safety program.


David Bornebroek
David Bornebroek is manager/directeur van Twente Safety Campus en Teamleider (Brand) Veilig Leven en projectleider Risk Factory bij Brandweer Twente.

Ron de Wit
Ron de Wit is plaatsvervangend commandant van de Brandweer Twente.

Marc van Buiten
Marc van Buiten is universitair docent aan de faculteit Engeneering Technology aan de Universiteit Twente.

Ira Helsloot
Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar Besturen van Veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit.
Artikel

The Dual-use of Drones

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Drones, Dual use, Responsible design, Ethiek van technologisch innovatie
Auteurs Peter Novitzky, Ben Kokkeler en Peter-Paul Verbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drones en drone-gerelateerde cybertechnologieën nemen een vlucht in het veiligheidsdomein in de vorm van toepassingen door het leger, de politie, brandweer, private beveiligingsbedrijven, en ook deurwaarders, agrariërs en burgerinitiatieven. Drones werden in eerste instantie ontwikkeld voor militaire doeleinden. Hun aanpassingsvermogen als universele platforms voor beeldregistratie en goederenvervoer leidt tot hoge verwachtingen rond toepassing in het civiele domein. Dit artikel onderzoekt de ethische aspecten van “dual use” van drones en gerelateerde technologieën. Verschillende dimensies van dual use worden verkend: de technologisch ontwikkeling, maar ook de ontwikkeling van wet- en regelgeving in Amerika en Europa. Voor het Nederlandse veiligheidsdomein is relevant dat dit artikel bijdraagt aan het signaleren van de noodzaak om de ontwikkeling en toepassing van drones in breder perspectief te bezien. Drones en hun toepassingen maken deel uit van de internationale markt van militaire organisaties en van veiligheidsorganisaties in het publieke en private domein. Bovendien maken ze veelal deel uit van geïntegreerde systemen en van wereldwijde platforms voor consumentenelektronica. Dit artikel is een van de resultaten uit het door NWO gefinancierde project 'Responsible Design of Drones and Drone Services: Towards an Ethical and Juridical Tool For Drone Design and Risk Assessment' (Project no. 313-99-318). Het project was gericht op het ontwikkelen van een instrument voor ontwikkeling en gebruik van dronetoepassingen uitgaande van methoden als Responsible Research & Innovation (RRI) en Value Sensitive Design (VSD).


Peter Novitzky
Peter Novitzky is postdoctoral researcher verbonden aan de Wageningen University. Email: peter.novitzky@wur.nl.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid aan Avans Hogeschool. Hij is daarnaast senior consultant bij de Europese Technopolis Group, kantoor Amsterdam, waar hij evaluaties en verkenningen uitvoert rond ehealth en smart cities. Email: bjm.kokkeler@avans.nl.

Peter-Paul Verbeek
Peter Paul Verbeek is hoogleraar Filosofie van mens en techniek aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: p.p.c.c.verbeek@utwente.nl.
Artikel

State-corporate crime en niet-democratische regimes: betrokkenheid van bedrijven in internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden state-corporate crime, international crimes, state crime, business and human rights
Auteurs Annika van Baar MA MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Most state-corporate crime research is focused on crime or harmful outcomes in or by democratic states. The goal of this article is to investigate the applicability of this concept to relations between economic actors and non-democratic state actors. The concept of state-corporate crime is applied to three contexts in which corporations have become involved in international crimes such as genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Each representing a turning point in the academic and public perception of ‘business and human rights’, the contexts that are analysed are Nazi Germany (1993-1945), Apartheid South Africa (1948-1994) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC; 1996-now). It is concluded that in non-democratic states with totalitarian of authoritarian regimes (such as Nazi Germany and Apartheid South Africa), the concept of state-corporate crime is applicable and explanatory. In such strong states, economic and state actors make use of mutual benefits while, on the whole, state-interests prevail. As a result, the harmful outcome of the dynamics between corporations and states can best be described as corporate facilitated state crime. In weak states (such as the DRC) economic actors are generally more powerful while their involvement in international crimes also runs via non-state actors. The blurred lines between economic actors and state actors (and their interests) makes it difficult to apply the concept, in its different forms, to state-corporate cooperation in weak states and ‘new’ wars.


Annika van Baar MA MSc
Annika van Baar, MA MSc, is post-doc onderzoeker Resilient Societies – Resilient Rule of Law, Faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: a.vanbaar@uu.nl.
Diversen

Access_open ‘The closer you are the more information you get’ – interview met professor Emanuel Marx

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden etnographic research, Violence, Manchester school, going native
Auteurs prof. dr. Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This is an interview with one of the most important social anthropologists of the 20th century – prof. Emanuel Marx.


prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: dina.s@uu.nl.
Artikel

Hoe IS-glossy Dabiq harten van westerse moslims wint

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden jihadism, radicalization, propaganda, denial, Dabiq
Auteurs Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed, Layla van Wieringen MSc., Kyra van den Akker BSc. e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    IS propaganda is assumed to contribute to radicalization of Western Muslims. How IS propaganda reaches the hearts and minds of Western Muslims and consequently fuels radicalization is nonetheless an understudied topic. Through content analysis of all fifteen issues of IS-glossy Dabiq this article demonstrates how IS propaganda works in Dabiq. First, IS attunes in Dabiq to factors that foster radicalization according to the literature. IS does so by its discussion in Dabiq of injustice done to Muslims worldwide, the image of the Western enemy, and its positive presentation of the individual and group identity of IS fighters. Second, in Dabiq IS paves the way for embracing violent means, such as terrorist attacks on Western civilians through a discourse of ‘denial’.


Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed
Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed werkt als universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij verricht onderzoek naar radicalisering en in het bijzonder de betekenis die radicalisering heeft voor geradicaliseerde moslims, levensverhalen, subculturen en de betrokkenheid van bekeerlingen bij jihadistische groeperingen.

Layla van Wieringen MSc.
Layla van Wieringen, BSc., is werkzaam bij de Hulplijn Radicalisering in Utrecht. Eerder heeft zij de bacheloropleiding Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond. Verder heeft zij de master Investigative and Legal Psychology aan het United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute gevolgd.

Kyra van den Akker BSc.
Kyra van den Akker, BSc., volgt in aansluiting op de bacheloropleiding Criminologie de master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit.

Fleur Crolla BSc.
Fleur Crolla, BSc., volgt de master Crisis and Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden en de master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit. Daarvoor heeft zij de bacheloropleiding Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond.

Irene Senatori MSc.
Irene Senatori, MSc., heeft de bachelor- en masteropleiding Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond.
Artikel

‘Troostmeisjes’: Over de structurele ontkenning van seksuele slavernij en voortschrijdende victimisatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden comfort women, denial, sexual slavery, discourse analysis
Auteurs dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Samenvatting

    In 2015, South-Korea and Japan came to a ‘final’ agreement concerning the ‘comfort women’ issue. This contribution reveals that this deal signals the next stage in a process of denial through which Japanese authorities have structurally denied the women’s’ victimhood. Taking a discourse analytical approach, the contribution investigates this historical process of denial and its implications. The analysis shows that denial takes several forms and performs different functions throughout the process. It demonstrates that denial is an interactional phenomenon, has different psychologies underlying it, and that it operates on different levels. Denial ultimately contributes to a state of continued victimization.


dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Artikel

Het ultieme kwaad: de daders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden genocide, typology of perpetrators, ordinary people, crimes of obedience, terror
Auteurs prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Genocide is so cruel and extreme that a first natural reflex is to distance ourselves from the perpetrators and qualify them as deranged criminals, psychopaths and sadists – very different from us ordinary people. Although some of the perpetrators fit this description, most perpetrators are ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances who commit so-called crimes of obedience. A genocidal regime is usually led by a criminal mastermind, who is supported by a number of fanatics and opportunistic careerists who take advantage of the situation to make themselves a career. Many of these perpetrators are special cases who deliberately participated in the genocide. Perpetrators in the middle cadre as well as the rank and file members are however often very ordinary people who just go along and follow the flow out of ideological conviction, fear or material gain.


prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
prof. dr. A.L. (Alette) Smeulers is hoogleraar internationale criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Hunting Worlds Turned Upside Down

Paulus Potter’s Life of a Hunter

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Art, green criminology, non-speciesism, human-animal relationships
Auteurs prof. dr. Piers Beirne en dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Life of a Hunter (c.1647) is an extraordinary painting by the young Dutch artist Paulus Potter. Its fourteen panels tell the tale of a well-heeled gentleman who likes to hunt and to kill “game” and “exotic” animals. The hunting world is turned upside down when the animals capture the hunter and put him on trial. He is condemned to death, roasted alive and doubtless consumed by the very creatures who had earlier been his quarry. In this essay we try to interpret Potter’s painting. Is it an allegory of the chaotic politics of the mid-17th century Dutch Republic? Does it represent an early modern animal trial? Our tentative conclusion is that Life of a Hunter expresses a Montaignian-inspired moment of transition in cultural attitudes towards human-animal relationships: its restricted vision of animal cruelty is not against animal cruelty tout court and its inversion of two links in the great chain of being is very far from being altogether pro-animal.


prof. dr. Piers Beirne
Prof. dr. Piers Beirne is Professor of Sociology and Legal Studies in the Department of Criminology at the University of Southern Maine. Hij is de founding co-editor van het tijdschrift Theoretical Criminology en de auteur van tal van boeken waaronder Animal Abuse (2009, Rowman and Littlefield).

dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nederlandse politie en verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

    In this article I will explore the concept of transgression within the realm of rock music using the biography of Lou Reed, known for such songs as ‘Walk on the Wild Side’ and ’I’m Waiting for the Man’. I discuss Lou Reed’s social transgressions as a reaction to and resistance toward institutions of social control such as family, media and the music industry, which stigmatized him as an outsider. This study, which is based on secondary material, such as biographies, interviews and songs, shows how Lou Reed transgressed social norms with respect to drugs, sex, and gender.


Thaddeus Müller
Dr. Thaddeus Müller is verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: Muller@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Regionale risicoprofielen ter versterking van veiligheidscapaciteiten

Overzicht en evaluatie tegen de achtergrond van het externe-veiligheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Regional Risk Assessment, all-hazards approach, multi-criteria evaluation, likelihood estimation, risk diagram.
Auteurs Charles Vlek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A regional risk profile (RRP) is a systematic ordering – by likelihood and impact seriousness – of identified hazards and threats in one of the Netherlands’ 25 safety regions. Since 2010, RRPs follow the Dutch National Risk Assessment (NRA) as a basis for prioritising regional safety capacities. In Europe, RRPs are proliferating, and the corresponding risk-assessment approach is further spreading internationally. The methodology comprises risk identification, scenario development, multi-criteria impact evaluation, expert likelihood estimation, a two-dimensional risk diagram and an analysis and prioritisation of safety capabilities. A compact overview and discussion is provided of the 25 published RRPs for the Netherlands, each covering between 9 and 40 hazards and threats, along with their most and least worrying risk scenarios. It appears that for many regions pandemic disease, electricity black-out and major flooding are most worrying, while transport accident, industry fire and disturbance of water supply are (relatively) least worrying. Also, in different regions similar risk scenarios (e.g., pandemic disease and electricity black-out) are assessed rather differently, both by likelihood and by impact seriousness. Apparent weaknesses of the RRP (and the NRA) approach so far are, among other: lack of stakeholder involvement, rigid multi-criteria impact evaluation, hybrid methods for likelihood estimation, forced comparison of disparate risk scenarios, and unclear decision rules for risk acceptance. Independent review and validation of major RRP components is recommended for strengthening overall results as a reliable basis for regional safety policies. The ‘new risk thinking’ is considered in view of the long-problematic standard-setting approach about Individual Risk and Group Risk in the framework of Dutch external-safety policies. The RRP approach may be called ambitious and much-demanding. External validation and closer cooperation between safety policy-makers and scientists seem desirable.


Charles Vlek
Prof. dr. Charles Vlek is emeritus hoogleraar omgevingspsychologie en besliskunde aan de Faculteit Gedrags- en Maatschappijwetenschappen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/I, 9712 TS Groningen E-mail: c.a.j.vlek@rug.nl.
Artikel

Twitter tijdens flitscrises

Een onderbenut potentieel?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden Twitter, flash crises, crisis communication, Moerdijk, social media
Auteurs Jelle Groenendaal, Martine de Bas en Ira Helsloot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By pointing to the immense use of Twitter by citizens during crises, communication experts argue that governments should participate more actively on Twitter during crises. Until now, however, little empirical research has been conducted to validate this claim. This article aims at validating this claim and putting forward building blocks for an evidence-based vision on the use of Twitter by governments during flash crises, i.e. large-scale incidents that occur unexpectedly and immediately. The authors analysed 52.806 tweets sent by citizens and governments during a large-scale industrial fire in Moerdijk (2011). They looked at the content of the tweets and sorted them into fourteen categories. The results show that most of the tweets sent by citizens contained no new or relevant information for governments. In addition, the tweets sent by governments were totally ‘snowed under’ in the huge stream of tweets from citizens. Consequently, the tweets sent by governments were very little re-tweeted by Twitter users. The authors conclude that the Moerdijk case does not show a need for a more proactive role of governments on Twitter.


Jelle Groenendaal
Jelle Groenendaal MSc is onderzoeker bij Crisislab en promovendus aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: j.groenendaal@crisislab.nl

Martine de Bas
Martine de Bas MSc is adviseur crisisbeheersing en veiligheid bij de gemeente Papendrecht. E-mail: EM.de.bas@papendrecht.nl

Ira Helsloot
Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar Besturen van Veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voorzitter van stichting Crisislab. E-mail: i.helsloot@crisislab.nl
Artikel

Fysieke belasting van brandweerwerk in relatie tot gezondheid, fitheid en inzetbaarheid van brandweermensen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden firefighting, physical demands, health and fitness, deployability, active recovery, physical safety
Auteurs Eric Mol, Ronald Heus, Ron van Raaij e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on state-of-the-art scientific knowledge, this article reviews the physical aspects of firefighting in relation to physical safety. Firefighting is known to be one of the most demanding occupations. Based on the ‘Occupational Demands Model’ the (physical) strain of firefighting is described. The physical demands of firefighting are determined by a combination of firefighting-specific efforts, the use of personal protective equipment and enviromental and climatological conditions. The effects on the firefighter depend on his/her health and fitness status as well as on his/her hydration and nutrition status and influences the repressive job performance. If the demands and the effects are not in balance, personal safety, health and effectivity of the firefighter’s deployment are in jeopardy and hence his/her physical safety. In the second part of the paper, the relationship between the physical demands of firefighting and health, fitness and deployability of firefighters are described. Finally, a method of maintaining deployability prior to, during and post firefighting activities or training through active recovery is described to improve the preparedness of the individual firefighter.


Eric Mol
Drs. Eric Mol is als docent/onderzoeker verbonden aan het Instituut Sport en Bewegingsstudies (ISBS) van de Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen (HAN). E-mail: eric.mol@han.nl

Ronald Heus
Drs. Ronald Heus is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV).

Ron van Raaij
Drs. Ron van Raaij is als bedrijfsarts/duikerarts werkzaam bij Bedrijfsartsen5 Zuidwest.

Ricardo Weewer
Dr. ir. Ricardo Weewer is lector Brandweerkunde aan de Brandweeracademie van het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV).

George Havenith
Prof. dr. George Havenith is hoogleraar Environmental Physiology and Ergonomics en directeur van het Environmental Ergonomics Research Centre, Loughborough University (UK)
Artikel

Het gebruik van virtual reality in de veiligheidsketen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Virtual reality, augmented reality, physical safety, integrated emergency management system
Auteurs André Groenewoud en Margrethe Kobes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Virtual reality is increasingly used in our society. Also in the field of physical safety this technique is applied. In this article we give an overview of virtual reality applications that are used in the Netherlands in this domain. This overview is divided into the five phases of the integrated emergency management system of the Netherlands. Based on international studies from other fields we try to indicate where in the near future virtual reality also can be used.
    Conclusion of this article is that virtual reality already plays an important role in the physical safety domain, especially because this technique can support the learning ability of the safety organizations in many areas. Because of constant innovation (in technique and application) that takes place, it is expected that in the future even more virtual reality applications in the field of physical safety are possible.


André Groenewoud
Drs. U.A. (André) Groenewoud is freelance onderwijskundige. E-mail: a.groenewoud@oidict.nl

Margrethe Kobes
Dr. Ing. M. (Margrethe) Kobes is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV).
Artikel

De staat van de criminologie van internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden criminology of international crimes, genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity
Auteurs Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman, Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers, Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What do we know about the criminological aspects of international crimes? What do they entail and what are facilitating factors which can help us understand their causes and how should we respond to these crimes? Are international crimes merely a more extreme form of ordinary crimes or are they a different kind of criminality? In the past few years a growing number of scholars both at a national and at an international level have devoted their scholarly attention to this important and urgent research theme. In this special issue we aim to present a number of articles in which different perspectives on this topic are presented. By doing so we hope to enhance our knowledge of this phenomenon and to provide an impulse to further criminological research within this area in both the Netherlands and Belgium. This introductory article gives an overview of the state of the art of international crime criminology in the Netherlands and Belgium, and the rest of the world.


Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman
Mr. dr. R.H. Haveman is freelance Rule of Law-consultant en momenteel gestationeerd in Côte d’Ivoire, roelof.haveman@gmail.com.

Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
Prof. dr. A.L. Smeulers heeft de onderzoekslijn criminologie van de internationale misdrijven aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam opgezet en is sinds 1 september 2011 tevens hoogleraar internationale criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg, a.l.smeulers@tilburguniversity.edu.

Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier
Prof. dr. S. Parmentier is hoogleraar Sociologie van de criminaliteit, het recht en de mensenrechten aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), Rechtsfaculteit, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, stephan.parmentier@law.kuleuven.be.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is senior onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), Den Haag, en Lector Forensisch Onderzoek bij de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie, c.j.de.poot@minvenj.nl.
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