Zoekresultaat: 8 artikelen

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Victimologie en corruptie: over de slachtoffers van een (al dan niet) slachtofferloos delict

Een multidisciplinaire verkenning

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden bribery, corruption, victims, victimless crimes, victim identification
Auteurs Suzanne van Dijk MSc en Mr. drs. Moniek Hutten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is no clear answer to the question if corruption makes victims. Currently an (international) discussion is taking place about this matter. On the one hand it can be discussed that corruption in general does not know any direct victims and that corruption can even take place without any damage. On the other hand it is known that corruption can cause tremendous public and financial damage, with society as a whole as the victim of this crime, whether or not in primary gradation. In the underlying article these two perspectives will be discussed and applied on two cases. Special attention will also be paid to the impact and relevance of pointing out the victims.


Suzanne van Dijk MSc
S.L. van Dijk MSc is criminoloog bij het FIOD – Anti-Corruptie Centrum.

Mr. drs. Moniek Hutten
Mr. drs. M. Hutten is vaktechnisch adviseur en criminoloog bij het FIOD – Anti-Corruptie Centrum.
Artikel

The concept of violence in (times of) crisis

On structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden structural violence, institutional violence, anti-institutional violence, economic crisis, Greece
Auteurs Marilena Drymioti
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Attempting to understand the Greek narrative of crisis, this paper examines the most prominent forms of violence that emerged in the period of acute economic recession and political upheaval in Greece namely structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence. This paper aims to highlight existing theoretical gaps and avoid common fallacies of the current body of knowledge. In contrast to some of the more common features of the discussion on violence, this note sets out to: a) acknowledge that violence is not necessarily a physical act, b) acknowledge that the outcomes of violence performances might not be physical either, c) specify and adequately distinguish agency and structural dynamics and d) address the cultural and contextual aspects of violence. Vital to this endeavor is to acknowledge, identify and understand the interactive relation between different forms of violence that emerge during the same period of time in a context in which conflict escalates.


Marilena Drymioti
Marilena Drymioti is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Top-down and out?

Reassessing the labelling approach in the light of corporate deviance

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden labelling, corporate crime, moral entrepreneurs, peer group, late modernity
Auteurs Anna Merz M.A.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Multi-national corporations are increasingly facing attention and disapproval by different actors, including authorities, public and (non-) commercial organizations. Digital globalization and especially social media as a low-cost, highly interactive and multidirectional platform shape a unique context for this rising attention. In the literature, much attention has been devoted to top-down approaches and strategies that corporations use to avoid stigmatization and sanctioning of their behaviour. Reactions to corporate harm are, however, seldom researched from a labelling perspective. As a result, corporations are not considered as objects towards whom labelling is targeted but rather as actors who hamper such processes and who, as moral entrepreneurs, influence which behaviour is labelled deviant. Based on theoretical analysis of literature and case studies, this article will discuss how the process of labelling has changed in light of the digitalized, late-modern society and consequently, how the process should be revisited to be applicable for corporate deviance. Given a diversification of moral entrepreneurs and increasingly dependency of labelling and meaning-making on the online sphere, two new forms of labelling are introduced that specifically target institutions; that is bottom-up and horizontal labelling.


Anna Merz M.A.
Anna Merz is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Gevallen helden van bedrijfsleven en openbaar bestuur

De ‘fall from grace’ van witteboordencriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, status degradation, sanctioning, executives, punishment
Auteurs Prof. dr. Wim Huisman en Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminology, it is generally assumed that the high social status of white-collar offenders prevents them of being targeted by criminal law enforcement. But when they do, they suffer greater social and economic damage because of this high social status. Empirical research on the consequences of criminal law enforcement and conviction for white-collar offenders is scarce, and limited to the US and the UK. This paper used biographies of convicted former executives in business and public office in the Netherlands, to analyse these consequences and the process of the ‘fall from grace’ of white-collar offenders. The consequences are described in four life-domains: health, the private sphere, the occupational sphere and the social sphere. The results show that Dutch executives, in line with findings for the Anglo-American white-collar offenders, experience status degradation and suffer much collateral damage of criminal law enforcement. After the initial horror of imprisonment, they endure prison life fairly well. Individual competences and remaining social and economic capital enable them to return to normal life, although they cannot return to pre-conviction levels of social status.


Prof. dr. Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
Drs. Dennis Lesmeister is veroordeeld in de Klimop-zaak en is geassocieerd onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Een wolf onder de wolven. Ethiek en Ethische Commissies in criminologisch onderzoek naar ‘the powerful’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Ethics committees, The powerful, Moral entrepreneurs, Ethics creep, Arms trader
Auteurs Dr. Rita Faria en Dr. Yarin Eski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For quite some years now, crimes of ‘the powerful’ have been studied by criminologists. While researching crimes of ‘the powerful’, researchers aim to maintain and safeguard their integrity and ethics. However, there seems to be a friction between, on the one hand, ethics of the researchers themselves and on the other hand, ethics (policies) of universities. Obviously, not only do they have to justify their actions and decisions to themselves and ‘science’ as a whole, they must justify their research to ethics committees (EC’s) of universities. It could result in complex and difficult situations when researchers suspect that EC’s themselves may be instruments and products of the powerful groups they are studying. In that case, EC’s might undermine ethics and research integrity themselves. What do certain EC- ‘conditions’ look like for research ethics and to which extent do they have to be adjusted or reconsidered when criminologists are researching ‘the powerful’? The key question that will be answered in this contribution is as follows: how can criminologist (re)act ethically responsibly when confronted with (un)ethical committees? To answer this and other relevant questions, after reviewing literature, we reflect on a biographical study of a legal arms trader. We then elaborate on the ‘ethics creep’ (Haggerty, 2004) that seems to haunt social sciences nowadays.


Dr. Rita Faria
Rita Faria Docent criminologie, University of Porto rfaria@direito.up.pt

Dr. Yarin Eski
Yarin Eski Docent criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam y.eski@vu.nl

    The economic analysis of (potential) disasters is an important method to determine the efficacy and efficiency of investments in disaster prevention and mitigation. The Dutch National Risk Assessment (NRA) provides an integrated, whole-of-government and all-hazard approach to Dutch national security. The strategy does not only intend to identify capacity gaps and define measures regarding individual threats and risks, but also to enhance capability planning and policy development concerning overall national security. The approach is multi-disciplinary and based upon scenarios which are evaluated and graded in terms of impact and likelihood according to a unified scoring method. Economic impact is one of the criteria in the NRA risk assessment methodology. This article provides a review of the (applied) scientific literature of the many economic tools and methods that have been used worldwide to estimate the (potential) impact of disasters and provides concrete applications at the micro and macro levels to Dutch cases and scenarios that were developed during the five annual cycles of the NRA's existence (2007-2011). We discuss pros and cons of applied methodologies.


Peter van Bergeijk
Peter van Bergeijk is hoogleraar Internationale economie en Macro-economie aan het International Institute of Social Studies van de Erasmus Universiteit.

Marcel Mennen
Marcel Mennen is algemeen secretaris van het Analistennetwerk Nationale Veiligheid en senior onderzoeker CBRN aan het Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, Centrum voor Veiligheid te Bilthoven.
Artikel

Je geld kwijt, en dan?

Financiële schade bij slachtoffers van onterechte bankafschrijvingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden unauthorized cash withdrawal, bank account, identity fraud, financial damage
Auteurs Dr. Johan van Wilsem, Dr. Nicole van der Meulen en Dr. Maarten Kunst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Identity fraud is a rapidly growing problem, as shown by recent volume estimates from victim surveys. Little is known however about the amount of financial damage among victims of this crime, especially in the Dutch context. This article studies victims of unauthorized cash withdrawal from their bank account, which is one of the most common forms of identity fraud. For this, we use data on 180 victims from the representative LISS panel. The results show that the financial implications of this type of crime experience vary widely between victims. While many victims are disadvantaged for only a small amount of money (for almost 40 per cent is about less than 50 euros ), a quarter of this group suffers from substantial money loss of more than 500 euros. Nevertheless, the vast majority (85 per cent) are completely reimbursed by their banks. Eventually, only in rare cases victims suffer significant permanent money loss. Remarkably, the low educated are significantly less often reimbursed by their banks.


Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Nicole van der Meulen
Dr. N.S. van der Meulen is universitair docent bij de Afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. M.J.J. Kunst is universitair docent bij de Afdeling Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Mediaberichtgeving over calamiteiten: de magie meester?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2009
Trefwoorden mediaberichtgeving, calamiteiten, voorspelbaarheid, magiefactor
Auteurs Prof. dr. ir. Bastiaan Zoeteman en Drs. ir. Wouter Kersten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Authorities are increasingly challenged by the globalised media to improve their way of communication to the public. This applies particularly for the management of calamities. In the past government was acting at the top of the information pyramid, but this is no longer the case. Professionals and citizens have become more self reliant and active in collecting information. The hierarchical communication structure has been replaced by a network structure. In case the government is not handling this changed situation adequately it is likely to result in loss of authority and of communication efficiency.In this paper results are presented of two studies carried out in the period 2005-2007 involving in total 110 calamities. The general purpose of the study was to analyze the changing communication landscape of risks and calamities in order to provide government authorities with recommendations to improve communication effectiveness e.g. by applying communication instruments adapted to the new situation. In this context the predictability of the size of the media attention for a calamity has been assessed. If media attention can be predicted in an early phase of the calamity this will provide extra reaction time to authorities and may help to e.g. nominate a spokesperson at the right level from the beginning.The results show that media attention can be reasonably well predicted on the basis of a limited number of criteria. Powerful predictive criteria are e.g. economic damage, number of evacuated people, and a general criterion called the magic factor. This is a container criterion including aspects such as newness, hugeness and related aspects which have as common denominator that they stimulate imagination and have a highly emotional content.Although the study focused on external safety calamities the predictive methodology is also applicable for other types of calamities which have similar time-space characteristics, such as terrorist attacks. Media will however never be completely predictable. Therefore intuition, local expertise, and repeated assessment of the likely media attention are needed to come to a reliable overall judgement.


Prof. dr. ir. Bastiaan Zoeteman
Bastiaan C.J. Zoeteman is bijzonder hoogleraar Duurzaamheidsbeleid in Internationaal Perspectief bij Telos, Universiteit van Tilburg. E-mail: zoeteman@uvt.nl.

Drs. ir. Wouter Kersten
Wouter C. Kersten is onderzoeker bij Telos, Universiteit van Tilburg.
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