Zoekresultaat: 28 artikelen

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Artikel

Wel of geen identiteitscontrole? Het dilemma van de ‘rule enforcer’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Identity control, Police, Rule enforcer, Selectivity, Discretionary space
Auteurs Dra Inès Saudelli
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is common knowledge that the police in executing its duty as “rule enforcer” disposes of certain discretionary powers. Because of the heavy workload and the often ambiguous legislation, the police officer needs to decide on a selective basis when, how and towards whom he/she will act. These discretionary powers are present in proactive identity controls and already provoked strong reactions in the past. The media accused the police of over-controlling certain minority groups. With this ethnographic study into the Belgian practice of identity controls, in which we observe and interview police officers, we wish to get a better view of the way in which identity controls are executed. Although the research is still ongoing, we have already been able to establish that the decision-making process is based on a police feeling which police officers claim to have and which is formed by (a combination of) different triggers attracting their attention.


Dra Inès Saudelli
Inès Saudelli Onderzoeker criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel ines.saudelli@vub.ac.be
Artikel

Access_open Oververtegenwoordiging van jongeren met een migratieachtergrond in de strafrechtketen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden disproportionate minority contact, DMC, juvenile justice, ethnicity, adolescents
Auteurs Dr. Albert Boon, Melissa van Dorp MSc en Drs. Sjouk de Boer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the United States, the term disproportionate minority contact (DMC) is used to refer to the disproportionate number of minority youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system. Statistics on DMC in the United States put the issue on the political agenda and measures have been taken to reduce the inequality. In the Netherlands, there are some studies on the representation of ethnic minority groups in suspect statistics, but data regarding all ethnic groups at various stages of the juvenile justice chain are lacking. Due to this lack of information, DMC is not mentioned in Dutch research literature and is not a political issue. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to explore whether DMC existed in the Netherlands and whether elements of the US policy could be applied to the Dutch situation. To investigate this, the likelihood (odds ratio (OR)) was calculated for young people with a migration background to be registered and held as a suspect, to participate in an alternative punishment program (Halt) and their likelihood of incarceration. It turned out that the OR for young people with a non-Western migration background to be registered as a suspect was more than three times as high, with an OR of 5 or higher for some ethnic groups. The chances of a Halt-settlement were much lower for young people with a non-Western background. The odds of ending up in a youth prison was over six times higher for youngsters with a non-Western background compared to their Dutch native peers. For young people of Caribbean and Moroccan origin the likelihood was more than ten times higher. These results showed that DMC is present at all examined stages in the Dutch juvenile justice chain. The large overrepresentation of young people with a migration background (especially of Moroccan and Caribbean origin) shows that further research is needed in order to develop programs to reduce DMC. To establish this, it is important to register the ethnic origin of the individuals at all stages of the juvenile justice chain.


Dr. Albert Boon
Dr. A.E. Boon is psycholoog/onderzoeker bij Lucertis/De Jutters: kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie (Parnassia Groep) en bij Curium-LUMC, de afdeling kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie Universiteit Leiden.

Melissa van Dorp MSc
M. van Dorp, MSc is psycholoog/onderzoeker bij Lucertis/De Jutters: kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie (Parnassia Groep) en bij de Academische Werkplaats Risicojeugd.

Drs. Sjouk de Boer
Drs. S.B.B. de Boer is psycholoog/onderzoeker bij Lucertis/De Jutters: kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie (Parnassia Groep).
Artikel

Selectieve ‘culturalisering’ in de praktijk van de jeugdbescherming in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden youth justice, Roma, Caucasian migrants, refugees, selectivity, deviance
Auteurs dr. Olga Petintseva
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper focuses on the practice of youth justice (termed ‘youth protection’ in Belgium) in which professional actors ascribe deviant behaviour of youngsters to different cultural and migration backgrounds. Intra-European Roma migrants and refugees from the Northern Caucasus in Belgium are chosen as case studies. Discourse analysis of 55 youth court files and 41 expert interviews with professional actors show that deviant behaviour of these young people is explained in different manners. Two discourses are identified: ‘criminal vagabonds’ and ‘war torn children’. These discourses and their effects in practice differ tremendously for both groups. The broader discussion this article touches upon is the selective inclusion and exclusion in the institutions of formal social control, through social practices of culturalisation.


dr. Olga Petintseva
dr. Olga Petintseva is doctor-assistent aan de vakgroep criminologie, strafrecht en sociaal recht, Universiteit Gent. Haar onderzoeksinteresse situeert zich binnen de narratieve criminologie, cultuurstudies en sociolinguïstiek. E-mail: olga.petintseva@ugent.be.
Artikel

Veilig uitgaan: tegenstrijdige gevoelens over inzet politie en andere maatregelen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden tegenstrijdigheden, assemblage, angst voor criminaliteit, uitgaansgebieden, veiligheidsbeleving
Auteurs Jelle Brands en Irina van Aalst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Urban nightlife areas are widely renowned for their emotionally charged nature, affording greater opportunities for transgressions of social norms compared to daytime contexts. Yet, the ways nightlife consumers experience safety in the public spaces of nightlife areas has received limited attention in the academic literatures. This article approaches experienced safety in the public spaces of nightlife areas as emerging from encounters between human and non-human (material, social, cultural) elements grounded in time and space. Such elements include the characteristics of the built environment, the design of public space, police presence, lighting and also first and secondhand experiences and popular media discourses more generally. We hypothesized that encounters between such elements necessarily renders some ambiguity in experienced safety, in the sense that the effect of a particular element on experienced safety is always coproduced in the unfolding encounter. By drawing on a series of interviews with Dutch students in Utrecht, various types of ambiguity are shown to exist depending on both the particularities of the situation at hand and based on differences between individual circumstance and life course. Ambiguity is also shown to exist in the sense that mentioned elements may both comfort and alarm participants at the same time. Our findings infer that we should implement ‘safer nightlife’ initiatives that are tailored to particular contexts, situations and publics. The results also suggest that current interventions seeking to stimulate safety in urban nightlife settings might not be as successful in reducing/enhancing (un)safety as (popular) policy and media discourses have suggested.


Jelle Brands
Jelle Brands is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Irina van Aalst
Irina van Aalst is universitair docent aan het departement Sociale Geografie en Planologie van de Faculteit Geowetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Redactioneel

Criminele groepen: een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Criminal groups, Gangs, Youth groups, Hybrid groups, Online offline
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks, Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland en Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminal groups have traditionally been the focus of criminological research because of the collective dimension of many criminal activities or deviance. However, what constitutes a ‘criminal group’ or how specific criminal groups, like gangs, should be defined, remains open for discussion in the scientific literature. This introductory article highlights a number of recent developments illustrating the blurring boundaries between various criminal groups as defined by both insiders and outsiders. In addition, it suggests that the rise of social media and smartphones is changing the structure and dynamics of criminal groups. Future research should focus on how these (new) criminal groups originate, develop and function, but should also address the role of the group in criminal activities.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. A.A.J. Blokland is bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
Prof. dr. F.M. Weerman is bijzonder hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Veroordeeld tot (g)een baan

Hoe delict- en persoonskenmerken arbeidsmarktkansen beïnvloeden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Trefwoorden employment experiment, employment chances, labour market, conviction, ethnicity
Auteurs Dr. Chantal van den Berg, Dr. Lieselotte Blommaert, Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research showed that job applicants with a criminal record have lower chances of obtaining employment compared to job applicants with no criminal record. At the same time empirical studies showed that having a job is especially beneficial for ex-delinquents, as employment was found to lower recidivism. The current study uses an experimental design to look into the influence of a criminal record on employment chances. For this purpose, 520 resumes and motivation letters were sent in response to vacancies published on the internet. All were identical except for the stated offence type (no offence, violent offence, property offence, or sexual offence), duration between conviction and application, business sector and ethnicity of the applicant. Results show no effect for type of offence or no offence on employment chances. However, a strong effect is found for ethnicity. Ethnic minorities with no conviction were even found to have lower chances of receiving a positive reaction compared to applicants with a Dutch name and a conviction for a violent offence.


Dr. Chantal van den Berg
Dr. C.J.W. van den Berg is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Lieselotte Blommaert
Dr. E.C.C.A. Blommaert is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is directeur van het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Methoden en Technieken aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Stijn Ruiter
Prof. dr. S. Ruiter is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Sociale en ruimtelijke aspecten van deviant gedrag aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Over warmte, gezelligheid en ontspanning: positieve veiligheid in stedelijke uitgaansgebieden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden positive criminology, experienced safety, assemblage, nightlife areas
Auteurs dr. Jelle Brands
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    From a geographical perspective, this article explores positive images of safety in the context of nightlife areas. It also considers the ways by which nightlife visitors’ experienced safety might be nurtured, as an alternative to how experienced lack of safety might be ‘prevented’. From our interviews, we find safety to emerge from interactions between many (im)material elements, and the nightlife consumers themselves. We argue that positive safety can be understood as something that envelopes and at the same time is reworked by individuals, but that does not necessarily require a conscious understanding. From this finding, we offer a different logic and rhetoric regarding safety in nightlife spaces.


dr. Jelle Brands
Dr. Jelle Brands is werkzaam bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden.
Diversen

Tilting at windmills

In pursuit of gang truths in a British city

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden gangs, violence, weapons, organisation
Auteurs Simon Hallsworth BSc (Hons) Sociology, LSE en Louise Dixon PhD
Auteursinformatie

Simon Hallsworth BSc (Hons) Sociology, LSE
Professor Simon Hallsworth is Executive Dean for the Faculty of Art, Business and Applied Social Science at University Campus Suffolk.

Louise Dixon PhD
Dr. Louise Dixon is Associate Professor at Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand).
Artikel

‘Onze kinderen zijn geen terroristen’

Families van Belgische en Nederlandse Syriëgangers over het vertrek van hun geliefden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden foreign fighters, armed struggle, families, Syria, radicalization
Auteurs Dr. Marion van San
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since March 2013 a sizeable number of Belgian and Dutch youngsters have joined the armed conflict in Syria. According to recent estimates, Belgium has 438 foreign fighters in Syria, the Netherlands 160. Very little is known about who these people are and what made them decide to join the armed struggle. There is also a lack of information regarding their families. The research on which this article is based comprised interviews with twenty families with at least one member who has left for Syria. In addition, former teachers of these youngsters were asked to reflect on their students’ actions. The central questions of this article concern the views of family members on the youngsters’ decision to join the armed struggle, whether or not there were signs of radicalization prior to their leaving, and whether all of them actually did go through a process of radicalization.


Dr. Marion van San
Dr. M. van San is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het RISBO (Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam).
Artikel

Effecten van detentie op het vinden van werk en een woning

Twee veldexperimenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden experiment, imprisonment, employment, housing, reentry
Auteurs Dr. Anja Dirkzwager, Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland, Kimberley Nannes MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper we examine to what extent a prison record negatively affects employment and accommodation outcomes after release from prison. Two randomized field experiments were conducted in which we had fictitious persons respond by email to online job openings and online advertisements for rented accommodations. In total, we responded to 384 job openings and to 231 advertisements for rented accommodations. Contrary to expectations, applicants with a prison record were not less likely to receive a positive response from employers than applicants without a prison record. Applicants with a non-western background, however, were less likely to receive a positive response. In the housing experiment, we did find a significant effect of having a prison record. Former prisoners were less likely to receive a positive response during their search for a place to live.


Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Kimberley Nannes MSc
K. Nannes, MSc was stagiair bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel.

Marieke Vroonland MSc
M. Vroonland, MSc was stagiair bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel
Artikel

Detentiebeleving van strafrechtelijk gedetineerden zonder verblijfsrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden detention, detention experiences, importation theory, deprivation theory, foreign national prisoners without legal residence
Auteurs Mieke Kox MA, Steven de Ridder MSc, An-Sofie Vanhouche MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The detention experiences of male criminal foreign national prisoners without legal residence receive little attention in penological literature. A qualitative study amongst 30 prisoners with and 16 prisoners without legal residence in the penitentiary institution Tilburg shows that contacts with the social network and the preparation of the reintegration in society are (more) complicated for foreign national prisoners without legal residence. Besides, communication with the staff is more difficult for this group. These factors have negative impact on their detention experiences. The results show that both deprivation and importation theory apply to foreign national prisoners without legal residence. However, importation aspects – especially the lack of legal residence – may substantially and systematically increase the deprivation and result in additional exclusion and isolation mechanisms for this particular group.


Mieke Kox MA
M. Kox, MA is werkzaam bij de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, waar zij promotieonderzoek uitvoert naar de betekenis van het immigratiebeleid voor aangehouden en/of gedetineerde illegaal verblijvende vreemdelingen en de invloed hiervan op hun terugkeerintenties. Tijdens het onderzoek in de PI Tilburg in 2012 was zij als onderzoeker bij de Universiteit Utrecht werkzaam.

Steven de Ridder MSc
S. de Ridder, MSc is assistent bij de vakgroep Criminologie en doctoraal onderzoeker binnen de onderzoekslijn Penalty & Society van de onderzoeksgroep Crime & Society van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Zijn doctoraat richt zich op de detentiebeleving en de invrijheidstellingsprocedures van strafrechtelijk gedetineerde vreemdelingen.

An-Sofie Vanhouche MSc
A.-S. Vanhouche, MSc is verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep Crime & Society, onderzoekslijn Penalty & Society, van de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Ze voert een doctoraatsonderzoek naar de rol van voeding in gevangeniscontext en was tijdens het onderzoek in de PI Tilburg als onderzoeker bij dit project betrokken.

Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. dr. M. Boone is bijzonder hoogleraar penologie en penitentiair recht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en universitair hoofddocent strafrecht en criminologie aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens
Prof. dr. K. Beyens is hoogleraar penologie en voorzitter van de vakgroep Criminologie, faculteit recht en criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Ze coördineert de onderzoekslijn Penalty & Society binnen de onderzoeksgroep Crime & Society
Artikel

Een remix van het strafproces? Een hiphop-theorie van het herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden hip-hop, herstelrecht, culturele criminologie, populaire cultuur, commodificatie
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hip-hop and restorative justice may seem odd bedfellows, but according to Antony Pemberton they have more in common than many would assume. In the first place hip-hop shares a common history, at least with restorative justice's modern incarnations, spanning four decades, to become a similarly global phenomenon. Much of the social ecology shaping RJ is similar to hiphop. In addition hiphop's criticism of criminal justice almost goes without saying. Almost no source offers similar scathing critique of criminal justice and penal institutions as rap lyrics. Pemberton concludes that rituals in hip-hop are connected with the need to deal with conflict. The way respect and disrespect can coincide in rap-battles might offer insights in the way similar dialectics can be navigated within restorative justice processes. The extent to which this is possible is necessarily limited. Pemberton finds that hip-hop – with the exception of graffiti- does not seem currently to criticize the key neo-liberal values of the American Zeitgeist. The much maligned chasm between the old-school and the new school can be situated in this observation. Where hip-hop, as a social movement, used to deploy the depiction of injustice as a means to underline the necessity of social change, the current motto appears to be rich or die tryin”. The life of the thug and the gangsta is depicted as the epitome of the American Dream. Here Pemberton sees grounds for a cautionary warning for restorative justice, which is nurtured by a similar neo-liberal undercurrent in a number of jurisdictions.


Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is werkzaam aan het International Victimology Institute van Tilburg University.
Artikel

‘Resistance Through Rituals’, ‘Policing the Crisis’ and the present conjuncture

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden conjuncture, neo-liberalism, hegemony, subcultures, exceptional state
Auteurs Dr. Tony Jefferson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article deals with three questions. What did resistance mean in the 1970s and what does it mean today? Have the rituals of resistance changed over time? What is the status today of moral panic theory? These questions directly refer to ‘Resistance Through Rituals’ (1976) and ‘Policing the Crisis’ (1978). For that reason, one of the authors answers these key questions in a contemporary framework of hegemony, security and neoliberal politics, and points to the continuing relevance of the political and critical tradition of British cultural studies.


Dr. Tony Jefferson
Dr. Tony Jefferson is emeritus hoogleraar aan Keele University (UK). E-mail: tonyjefferson45@gmail.com

    In this article a longitudinal effect study is described of resilience training Diamant. The training focuses in particular on adolescents with a dual identity who do not have work, are not enrolled in an education, feel unfairly treated (relatively deprived), have low self-esteem, and are at risk of social isolation. The training can be considered as a method to prevent development of criminal behaviour and possibly radicalisation. Certified trainers work with small groups of 10 to 15 adolescents to increase their resilience and help them finding their place in society. The present research focused on the following questions: (1) Does this training have a positive effect on self-esteem among the participants? (2) Does social isolation decrease as a consequence of the training? (3) Does the training reduce feelings of relative deprivation and help participants better deal with conflicts? Participants were interviewed before and halfway the training and directly after completing the training. A follow-up measurement three months after the end of the training examined effects on the longer term. In total 44 semi-structured interviews were held. Interviews were written out and coded using a two-step procedure: In the first step two researchers independently coded each interview. Second, when necessary, changes in the coding scheme were made. Then each interview was coded separately by the two researchers and disagreements were discussed until full agreement was reached. The results show that Diamant has a positive effect on self-esteem of participants. Also, participants overall showed an increase in connectedness to society. Third, Diamant reduced feelings of relative deprivation and participants indicated they could better deal with conflicts. Based on these results it is concluded that Diamant is effective in regard to its goals which were evaluated in this study. Limitations of the research and possibilities for future studies are discussed.


Allard R. Feddes
Dr. Allard Feddes is als postdoctoraal onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: A.R.Feddes@uva.nl.

Liesbeth Mann
Drs. Liesbeth Mann is als promovenda verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: L.Mann@uva.nl.

Nathalie de Zwart
Nathalie de Zwart, BSc, was ten tijde van het onderzoek als onderzoeksassistente verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: dezwart.n@gmail.com.

Bertjan Doosje
Prof. dr. Bertjan Doosje is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, en het Amsterdam Institute for Social Sciences (AISS) ‘Challenges to Democratic Representation’. Hij is als bijzonder hoogleraar bekleder van de FORUM Frank Buijs-leerstoel voor Radicaliseringsstudies. E-mail: E.J.Doosje@uva.nl.
Artikel

De straat praat? De performance van ‘street credibility’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Performance, street credibility, (gangsta) rap, identity
Auteurs Robby A. Roks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article deals with the performance of ‘street credibility’. A dramaturgical analysis of the lyrics and videos of 15 rap artist from The Hague sheds light on the various ways they try to achieve a credible street reputation as rappers. In their frontstage presentation they highlight their street knowledge, strike violent poses, and claim affiliation to certain infamous local gangs or neighborhoods. Backstage, however, these performances are being deconstructed by other actors who participate in the local street culture and who form a critical, metaphysical audience of the presentations of the rappers.


Robby A. Roks
Drs. Robby A. Roks is als promovendus verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: Roks@law.eur.nl
Artikel

Ruimtelijke criminologie

Van woonbuurt tot cyberspace en van politiestatistiek tot space-time budgets

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden environmental influences, social ecology, environmental criminology, studies in the Netherlands and Belgium
Auteurs Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels, Dr. Frank Weerman, Dr. Wim Bernasco e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the publication of a special issue in TvC (the Dutch Journal of Criminology) on the spatial distribution of crime, about fifteen years ago, a vast number of developments have been observed in the field of social ecology and environmental criminology. During this period many studies have been undertaken in the Netherlands and Belgium. However, there still is room for progress, e.g. through the study of new contexts beyond the traditional boundaries of residential neighbourhoods and through the use of promising new methodologies and technological developments. This special issue provides some examples of such innovative research on environmental influences on crime. In this introductory article the authors provide an overview of the background of the theme, and discuss recent theoretical and methodological developments. They move on to discuss contemporary studies that have been carried out in the Netherlands and Belgium, and outline some desirable and necessary future developments. Finally, the authors provide the reader with an overview of the other contributions to this special issue.


Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Wim Bernasco
Dr. W. Bernasco is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Beate Volker
Prof. dr. B.G.M. Volker is hoogleraar ‘Sociologie van het Sociaal Kapitaal’ en als zodanig verbonden aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Universiteit van Utrecht.
Artikel

Mores leren of moeilijk zijn

Groepsprocessen en delinquent gedrag onder studenten en ‘Marokkaanse’ jongens

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden group dynamics, peer pressure, delinquent behavior, students, ethnic youth
Auteurs Dr. Jan Dirk de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article deals with group dynamic processes. In particular it deals with behavioral adaptation. A theory will be presented about the group dynamic processes in which behavioral adaptation takes place. This theory will be used to analyze the delinquent behavior of a group of students. At the end of the article the group dynamic processes of the students will be contrasted with those of a group that seems to be very different, namely a group of ‘Moroccan’ street boys from Amsterdam. Differences become most visible in the reaction of the social environment towards the group behavior and the response of the group itself to this reaction. ‘Moroccan’ street boys respond to the negative reaction of the society with secondary deviance. They are caught up in a vicious circle of group dynamics from which the students manage to escape.


Dr. Jan Dirk de Jong
Dr. J.D.A. de Jong is universitair docent aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid, Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, j.d.a.de.jong@vu.nl.
Artikel

Bijzonder optreden bij openbare ordehandhaving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden governance, street-level-bureaucracy, exemplary urban practitioners, role models, preventive safety strategy in urban disorder
Auteurs Ton van der Pennen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on a research in which we are looking for exemplary urban professionals who seem to be successful in pursuing the social goals they set together with their partners. In urban disadvantaged neighbourhoods, it is not always the standard procedure that gets things done. In the Netherlands decades of urban renewal in its various forms have not solved problems permanently. This does not mean that success is never attained. What seems to have helped in some cases is the presence of a type of practitioner who goes beyond standard procedure. These are professionals, as the ‘casting cop’ we introduce in this article, who do not give up and who are able to succeed where others have failed. Most likely these are experienced practitioners who learned how to cope. Most likely they are actors who inspire others.What we ask is how these practitioners in urban districts do their job in controversial, politically sensitive policy processes that might develop in unintended and surprising ways. In other words we have as a central question: through what ways of working and relating do exemplary urban practitioner (try to) get things done?The professionals we call exemplary are not always taking the common routes to realize their goals. They will not automatically follow the routines of problem solving and because of that they can make a difference. They are critical about mainstream practices and try to find solutions starting from the perspectives of citizens. When we talk about ‘ways of working and relating’ we refer to the qualities these professionals put to use in the planning and decision making processes of urban renewal. It has to do with personal qualities like attitude and experience, but also with strategic skills such as networking with policy partners. ‘Getting things done’ means solving problems or better stated exploiting opportunities. More broadly is their aim to transform what is called ‘urban problem districts’ into ‘livable neighborhoods’.


Ton van der Pennen
Drs. A.W. (Ton) van der Pennen is senior onderzoeker aan het onderzoeksinstituut OTB van de TU Delft. E-mail: A.W.vanderPennen@tudelft.nl
Artikel

Kindsoldaten in conflictgebieden wereldwijd

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden child soldiers
Auteurs Drs. MSc Jantien Stuifbergen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the current literature on child soldiers, many assumptions are made about the use of child soldiers worldwide. The duration of conflicts and thus increasing number of battle related deaths would influence the use of child soldiers. Another assumption is that child soldiers are mainly used in civil wars. In this article, these assumptions are tested empirically and the characteristics of conflicts in which child soldiers are used and conflicts in which they are not used are compared. However, conducting quantitative research on child soldiers is not easy. Many data are obtained through interviews and are based on unconfirmed reports and observations, which raises questions about how the data should be assessed. This study is an explorative study into the possibilities of testing some of the current assumptions.


Drs. MSc Jantien Stuifbergen
Drs. J.A.M. Stuifbergen, MSc is docent/onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, Master International Crimes and Criminology, j.a.m.stuifbergen@vu.nl.
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