Zoekresultaat: 17 artikelen

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    In recent years, big data technology has revolutionised many domains, including policing. There is a lack of research, however, exploring which applications are used by the police, and the potential benefits of big data analytics for policing. Instead, literature about big data and policing predominantly focuses on predictive policing and its associated risks. The present paper provides new insights into the police’s current use of big data and algorithmic applications. We provide an up-to-date overview of the various applications of big data by the National Police in the Netherlands. We distinguish three areas: uniformed police work, criminal investigation, and intelligence. We then discuss two positive effects of big data and algorithmic applications for the police organization: accelerated learning and the formation of a single police organization.


Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg is bijzonder hoogleraar Digital Surveillance aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en universitair docent aan Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Melvin Soudijn
Melvin Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid Nationale Politie en research fellow bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Artikel

Exploring narrative, convictions and autoethnography as a convict criminologist

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden convict criminology, narrative, autoethnography, reflexivity, post-colonial perspective
Auteurs Dr. Rod Earle
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Convict criminology draws from personal experience of imprisonment to offer critical criminological perspectives on punishment and prisons. In this article I discuss how some of these are aligned with questions of narrative and post-colonial perspectives in criminology. I use autoethnographic vignettes to communicate the experiences of imprisonment that inform the development of convict criminology, and I explore their relationship to narrative criminology’s interest in personal stories.


Dr. Rod Earle
Dr. Rod Earle is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Health, Wellbeing and Social Care, The Open University, UK.
Artikel

Alsof slachtofferschap een verhaal is: de narratieve victimologie en haar grenzen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden victimology, narrative criminology, cultural criminology, Susan Brison, Hans Vaihinger
Auteurs Prof. dr. Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article adopts German philosopher Hans Vaihinger’s Philosophy of “as if” as a vehicle to sketch the main features of the emerging research domain of narrative victimology, as well as address some of its limitations. Vaihinger emphasizes the importance of useful untruths, i.e. things we know to be untrue, but nevertheless behave as if they are not, if that strengthens their use as instruments for us to find our way more easily in the world. This applies to our daily lives, but also to our societal institutions and the models and metaphors that underlie our approaches to (social) science. The paper argues that the narrative metaphor of the historical event is often more apt to enhance our understanding of victimological phenomena than that of the mechanism, which is the default metaphor of (social) science. The paper subsequently describes four areas of inquiry of narrative victimology: victimisation’s impact on (life) stories; narratives in the aftermath of victimization; narratives of victim’s experiences with justice processes and the coincidence and juxtaposition of the victims’ narrative with narratives of other significant parties. For all its merits however, the narrative metaphor is also a “useful untruth”, equipped with its own limitations, for instance the difficulty of language in describing first hand experiences of victims and the possibility that narrative structures will be imposed upon victim experiences.


Prof. dr. Antony Pemberton
Prof. dr. Antony Pemberton is hoogleraar herstelrecht aan het Leuven Institute of Criminology, KU Leuven en senior onderzoeker aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum voor Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam. Als onderdeel van die laatste functie is hij tevens gedetacheerd als hoogleraar victimologie aan Tilburg University.
Kroniek

‘Partners in crime’? De rol van de antropologie in de criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden criminal anthropology, Criminology, anthropology
Auteurs Dr. Brenda Oude Breuil
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminology, as an inherently interdisciplinary field, has built on anthropology (and other social sciences) in its development. This contribution addresses the question which insights in criminology have most been inspired by anthropology. First, it looks into the ‘criminal anthropology’ of Lombroso; then it embarks on an appreciation of the ethnographic research design within criminology (as first adopted by the Chicago School); and, finally, it assesses the link between anthropology, and cultural and global criminology. I conclude that anthropology has been valuable to our discipline on four levels: methodologically (in the importance of the ethnographic research design), theoretically (in its role in the development of symbolic interactionism and structuralism, for example), geographically (in the global scope of anthropological research), and analytically, in its experience with ‘doing ethnography’ in economically, politically and culturally embedded ways.


Dr. Brenda Oude Breuil
Dr. B.C.M. Oude Breuil is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen in Utrecht.
Artikel

Integratief seksindustriebeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland

Succes voor een unieke sociale beweging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden sekswerk, Nieuw-Zeeland, decriminalisering, sociale beweging, beleidsverandering
Auteurs Dr. Joep Rottier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contrary to its allies in other countries, the sex industry decriminalization movement in New Zealand, embodied by the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective (NZPC), achieved its goal in 2003. This article explores the reform of the sex industry policy in this country on the basis of a Social Movement Concept. Apart from the specific New Zealand culture, particularly the interaction between three social political aspects – awareness, political opportunities, and a strong social movement organisation – can be identified as crucial factors in realizing a decriminalized sex industry environment. The enactment of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 meant a unique and huge success for a small sex workers movement.


Dr. Joep Rottier
Dr. Joep Rottier, onderzoeker, promoveerde in december 2018 aan de Universiteit Utrecht op de effecten van het seksindustrie decriminaliseringbeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland. Hij is bestuurslid van het Platform SekswerkExpertise Nederland.
Artikel

Veiligheid uit de glazen bol?

Naar verantwoorde toepassingen van big data in het veiligheidscomplex

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden Big data, Security, good governance
Auteurs Remco Spithoven en Siri Beerends
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The promises of Big Data, predictive policing and artificial intelligence hold a key position in the public debate for quite some time now. Optimists tell that it is possible to predict where criminal events will occur before they take place. This would implicate a major shift towards a crime and insecurity preventive society, feeding on our cultural longing for a secure future. Therefore we give algorithms and deep learning access to more and more aspects of our lives. But how realistic and desirable is the application of Big Data techniques in the area of security?
    In this article we put focus on the research question ‘In which way can Big Data and predictive policing support good governance of security?’, that has led our study. By exploring the central concepts, the processes behind them and their results in the domain of public security, we conclude that there are only rather disappointing results from the application of these techniques: crime and insecurity have not dropped when the police and other organizations turned to Big Data techniques. Instead, many negative side effects occurred. We search for explanations in six central academic critiques on the application of these techniques in the area of security.
    We have found several ways to guaranty principles of good governance in the application of Big Data techniques, but these require a firm paradigm shift on Big Data in general. The heuristics of security professionals should not be overshadowed by technological promises: the professional should always be in the loop, must understand the way predictions come into existence and must be able to correct flaws and bugs of (semi-)automated decisions. We conclude that safeguarding public security must remain human work in which Big Data techniques can assist.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Saxion en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Siri Beerends
Siri Beerends is cultureel socioloog, onderzoeker en schrijver bij SETUP en pro‍movenda aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

De emotionele beleving van kwalitatief onderzoekers bij onderzoek naar kwetsbare groepen en gevoelige thema’s

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden narrative review, qualitative research, emotions, sensitive topics, vulnerable groups
Auteurs Ciska Wittouck en Gwen Herkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A narrative review was conducted to develop more coherent awareness and knowledge regarding emotional experiences of qualitative researchers studying sensitive topics or vulnerable groups, as discussions about this topic are currently fragmented and scattered. Qualitative researchers experience many painful as well as enjoyable emotions, which can influence their personal, social and professional lives. These emotions are recurrently reported in relation to the unpredictability of qualitative research and the different roles of qualitative researchers. More structural and individual attention for emotional experiences of qualitative researchers is necessary, for instance, in academic (doctoral) training and general handbooks on qualitative research.


Ciska Wittouck
Ciska Wittouck is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.

Gwen Herkes
Gwen Herkes is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.
Artikel

Walk this way

The impact of mobile interviews on sensitive research with street-based sex workers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden mobile and walking methods, multisensory methods, ethnography, sex work, prostitution, ethical and sensitive research
Auteurs Dr Lucy Neville en Dr Erin Sanders-McDonagh
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article draws on a piece of ethnographic research carried out with outreach workers in London working with street-based sex workers (SBSWs). The aim of the research was to determine the efficacy of the services offered to this hard-to-reach client group. The charitable organization has a long history (20+ years) working with SBSWs in the Kings Cross area; we evaluated their drop-in and outreach services for this client group, many of whom have high-level needs due to substance misuse and mental health issues. We initially conducted semi-structured interviews with women at the drop-in services, but encountered a number of ethical and logistical issues that prompted us to consider alternative methodological approaches. This article explores our use of mobile interviews with SBSWs and the outreach team who encounter them, which we argue gives us unique insights into the realities and lived experiences of both women who work (and sometimes live) on the street and the outreach team members who engage with this hard-to-reach group. We argue that mobile interviews offer a highly effective way of conducting research with a vulnerable population, and enabled us to gain a unique perspective into best practice around effectively and ethically researching hard-to-reach groups. Critically, we maintain that these walking interviews gave detailed insights into the lives of SBSWs that would not have been possible using more traditional methods. We provide empirical data in this article from these walking interviews, including fieldnote excerpts, and consider the value of using mobile and innovative methods for criminological research with hard-to-reach populations.


Dr Lucy Neville
Dr Lucy Neville is Lecturer in Criminology, University of Leicester.

Dr Erin Sanders-McDonagh
Dr Erin Sanders-McDonagh is Senior Lecturer in Criminology, University of Kent.
Artikel

Een wolf onder de wolven. Ethiek en Ethische Commissies in criminologisch onderzoek naar ‘the powerful’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Ethics committees, The powerful, Moral entrepreneurs, Ethics creep, Arms trader
Auteurs Dr. Rita Faria en Dr. Yarin Eski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For quite some years now, crimes of ‘the powerful’ have been studied by criminologists. While researching crimes of ‘the powerful’, researchers aim to maintain and safeguard their integrity and ethics. However, there seems to be a friction between, on the one hand, ethics of the researchers themselves and on the other hand, ethics (policies) of universities. Obviously, not only do they have to justify their actions and decisions to themselves and ‘science’ as a whole, they must justify their research to ethics committees (EC’s) of universities. It could result in complex and difficult situations when researchers suspect that EC’s themselves may be instruments and products of the powerful groups they are studying. In that case, EC’s might undermine ethics and research integrity themselves. What do certain EC- ‘conditions’ look like for research ethics and to which extent do they have to be adjusted or reconsidered when criminologists are researching ‘the powerful’? The key question that will be answered in this contribution is as follows: how can criminologist (re)act ethically responsibly when confronted with (un)ethical committees? To answer this and other relevant questions, after reviewing literature, we reflect on a biographical study of a legal arms trader. We then elaborate on the ‘ethics creep’ (Haggerty, 2004) that seems to haunt social sciences nowadays.


Dr. Rita Faria
Rita Faria Docent criminologie, University of Porto rfaria@direito.up.pt

Dr. Yarin Eski
Yarin Eski Docent criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam y.eski@vu.nl
Artikel

The Dual-use of Drones

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Drones, Dual use, Responsible design, Ethiek van technologisch innovatie
Auteurs Peter Novitzky, Ben Kokkeler en Peter-Paul Verbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drones en drone-gerelateerde cybertechnologieën nemen een vlucht in het veiligheidsdomein in de vorm van toepassingen door het leger, de politie, brandweer, private beveiligingsbedrijven, en ook deurwaarders, agrariërs en burgerinitiatieven. Drones werden in eerste instantie ontwikkeld voor militaire doeleinden. Hun aanpassingsvermogen als universele platforms voor beeldregistratie en goederenvervoer leidt tot hoge verwachtingen rond toepassing in het civiele domein. Dit artikel onderzoekt de ethische aspecten van “dual use” van drones en gerelateerde technologieën. Verschillende dimensies van dual use worden verkend: de technologisch ontwikkeling, maar ook de ontwikkeling van wet- en regelgeving in Amerika en Europa. Voor het Nederlandse veiligheidsdomein is relevant dat dit artikel bijdraagt aan het signaleren van de noodzaak om de ontwikkeling en toepassing van drones in breder perspectief te bezien. Drones en hun toepassingen maken deel uit van de internationale markt van militaire organisaties en van veiligheidsorganisaties in het publieke en private domein. Bovendien maken ze veelal deel uit van geïntegreerde systemen en van wereldwijde platforms voor consumentenelektronica. Dit artikel is een van de resultaten uit het door NWO gefinancierde project 'Responsible Design of Drones and Drone Services: Towards an Ethical and Juridical Tool For Drone Design and Risk Assessment' (Project no. 313-99-318). Het project was gericht op het ontwikkelen van een instrument voor ontwikkeling en gebruik van dronetoepassingen uitgaande van methoden als Responsible Research & Innovation (RRI) en Value Sensitive Design (VSD).


Peter Novitzky
Peter Novitzky is postdoctoral researcher verbonden aan de Wageningen University. Email: peter.novitzky@wur.nl.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid aan Avans Hogeschool. Hij is daarnaast senior consultant bij de Europese Technopolis Group, kantoor Amsterdam, waar hij evaluaties en verkenningen uitvoert rond ehealth en smart cities. Email: bjm.kokkeler@avans.nl.

Peter-Paul Verbeek
Peter Paul Verbeek is hoogleraar Filosofie van mens en techniek aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: p.p.c.c.verbeek@utwente.nl.
Artikel

Over de grenzen van de criminologie

Internationale betrekkingen en de criminologie van internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden international criminology, international relations, international crimes
Auteurs dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminologists decided over the last few decades that it is important to study international crimes, meaning genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, from a criminological perspective. With the international community taking up the responsibility to protect populations from these crimes and the prominence of international criminal justice on the world stage, it is argued that international criminology should embrace international relations more as an important sub-discipline.


dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn
Dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn is universitair docent bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie en onderzoeker bij het Center for International Criminal Justice, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: m.weerdesteijn@vu.nl.
Artikel

Geweld op school als handelingsalternatief?

Een partiële toets van het perceptie-keuzeproces uit de situationele-actietheorie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden randomised scenario study, Situational Action Theory, propensity, scenario criminogeneity
Auteurs Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this replica study in adolescents (N=1,040) we analyse to what extent characteristics of the environment like the presence of provocation and monitoring of teachers are related to choosing a violent response in a school context. The study starts from a key hypothesis of Situational Action Theory (SAT) and uses a randomised scenario study that allows for randomisation of environmental stimuli, while taking into account individuals’ propensity to break rules (as measured by their moral beliefs and emotions and ability to exercise self-control). The results demonstrate that high propensity adolescents are very strongly triggered by scenario criminogeneity (the accumulation of absence of monitoring and presence of provocation), while low propensity individuals are to a higher degree situationally resistant. The findings are in line with one of the key ideas of SAT.


Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. J.R. Pauwels is professor in het vakgebied criminologie aan de vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht (UGent) en directeur van de onderzoeksgroep IRCP (Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy).
Artikel

Scientific misconduct: how organizational culture plays its part

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden scientific misconduct, organizational culture, social control
Auteurs Rita Faria PhD student
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Scientific misconduct takes place at the heart of higher education organizations. Organizational culture (meso level) shapes scholars’ behaviors and perceptions (micro level) about what should be problematized while conducting research and teaching. In this paper it is argued that there are organizational mechanisms at place by which organizational goals (funding) and professional goals (recognition) become indistinguishable. The mechanisms are: pressure, loose social control, scarce resources and lack of alternatives. Scholars may strategically react to these mechanisms by accepting, fitting in, resisting or giving up. It is at the heart of these mechanisms and strategies that problematic behaviors may emerge.


Rita Faria PhD student
Rita Faria is Lecturer at the School of Criminology – Faculty of Law of the University of Porto (Portugal).
Artikel

Gezichtsbedrog

Over de verbeelding van kleptomanie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Marlene Dumas, Géricault, kleptomania, ethics of representation
Auteurs prof. dr. Willem de Haan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An analysis is made of how the painting The Kleptomaniac (2005) by Marlene Dumas – especially through its title – represents a certain kind of criminal and what ethical implications this has. A discussion of art historical research on the genesis of the original Portrait of a kleptomaniac (ca. 1820) from which Dumas has taken the title for her painting, is followed by a discussion of the history of the concept of kleptomania in psychiatry and an analysis of how that concept is reproduced by Dumas’ painting and, in particular, its title: The Kleptomaniac. By giving a painting of a male face this title in 2005 a type of criminal is represented in a way that does not do justice to the history of the concept and the phenomenon itself. By mobilizing a contested and obsolete psychiatric concept for an artistic project, the ambiguity which the painter intended is not left intact but, in fact, destroyed by an allusive title which mystifies the subject while having a disorienting effect on the viewer of the painting.


prof. dr. Willem de Haan
Prof. dr. Willem de Haan is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie en senior research fellow bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Met biografieën een beter begrip van witteboordencriminaliteit?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, corporate crime, biographies, case studies
Auteurs Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central question of this article is whether biographies can be a source for criminological research on white-collar crime and how they can contribute to the explanation of white-collar crime. To answer this question, 35 Dutch biographies were studied. Following the legal ambiguities of white-collar crime, not all of these biographies are about criminal offences. And following the dominant anthropomorphic approach to corporate crime, some of these are corporate biographies. Many biographies confirm current criminological explanations of the causation of white-collar crime. Yet, biographies also offer additional insights, for instance about the causal relevance of the private life of white-collar offenders.


Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar bij de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@vu.nl.
Artikel

Geen angst, maar onbehagen

Resultaten van een Q-studie naar subjectieve sociale onveiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden anti-social behavior, public perception, risk aversion
Auteurs Remco Spithoven, Gjalt de de Graaf en Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    People vary in their perceptions and opinions, and that seems to be the case for the way they perceive anti-social behavior too. Scientific literature concerning the fear of crime hypothesizes diversity in the public’s perception of anti-social behavior and crime. But this fear of crime research tradition has been criticized repeatedly for its conceptual and methodological arrears. The focus has particularly been narrowed to ‘fear’ of ‘crime’, being measured by surveys. So, it is not very surprising that there has not been a thorough empirical focus on the assumed diversity in the perception of crime and anti-social behavior. To fill in this gap, the main research question in this article is: which differences in the perception of anti-social behavior exist within contemporary Dutch society? Using Q-methodology, five different factors were found in the perception of anti-social behavior. These factors have been labeled respectively: ‘disaffected residents’, ‘untroubled liberals’, ‘anxious communitarians’, ‘concerned spectators’ and ‘non-averse professionals’. These factors showed the empirical reality of the assumed diversity in the public perception of anti-social behavior. In all of these factors, people seem to address crime and anti-social behavior to a decrease of social standards and values in Dutch society, instead of worrying about chances and consequences of personal victimization. This was even the case for people who signalized crime and anti-social behavior in their own neighborhood. What really stands out is that people strongly agreed about the unacceptability of crime and anti-social behavior. People seem to have an aversion against these rude types of behavior. Altogether this image does not comply to the mainstream image of a ‘crime fearing society’. People do not seem to fear crime, but they seem to be worried and agitated about the moral conditions of the Dutch society in a wider framework. This might be a more reassuring illustration than a ‘crime fearing society’, but this proposition needs further and additional quantitative assessment.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven MSc is promovendus bij het lectoraat Participatie en Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling aan de Hogeschool Utrecht, in samenwerking met de leerstoel Burgerschap en Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en docent integrale veiligheidskunde bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. E-mail: remco.spithoven@hu.nl

Gjalt de de Graaf
Dr. Gjalt de Graaf is universitair hoofddocent bestuurswetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam.

Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. J.C.J. (Hans) Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar veiligheid & burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam. E-mail: j.c.j.boutellier@vu.nl
Artikel

Klokkenluiden en veiligheid

De wegen die werknemers bewandelen bij verschillende typen misstanden op het werk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden whistle-blowing, safety, employee, report, wrongdoing
Auteurs Doris van van Dijk, Marijke Malsch, Gezinus Wolters e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands whistle-blowing regulations are still unbalanced and ineffective in the protection of whistle-blowers and the prevention of misconduct at work. This article focuses on the question how whistle-blowing behaviour is influenced by the type and severity of the wrongdoing. The study also examines to whom employees would report (internally and/or externally), if they would report anonymously, and why they would do that or not. As far as the authors know, this is one of the first studies on whistle-blowing behaviour that systematically investigates the characteristics of the wrongdoing by using vignettes. In a two by two design, two kinds of wrongdoing (safety problem or embezzlement) at two levels of severity are plotted against each other. When confronted with severe wrongdoing, respondents intend to blow the whistle more often (externally) than with mild wrongdoing. Of the four cases, the difference between mild and severe embezzlement is most pronounced. Internally, a difference is found between the vignettes in reporting anonymously. Most respondents prefer to report to their direct supervisor, especially when a mild safety problem occurs. With severe embezzlement however, respondents prefer to report to a confidential adviser within the company. Outside the company, reporting to one’s trade union is most popular. Nearly all respondents would only report externally after an internal report has not yielded any results, or they would not report outside the company at all. They often argue that it is an internal problem and that the company could be harmed if the wrongdoing would be disclosed. This argument is used in all vignettes. Anonymity is still considered important by the majority of the respondents. It is recommended in this article that policymakers specify whistle-blowing regulations that are adaptable to the specific characteristics of the wrongdoing and the reporting employee(s).


Doris van van Dijk
Mr. D. (Doris) van Dijk MSc is junior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). E-mail: dorisvandijk@zonnet.nl

Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de rechtbank Haarlem en in het Hof Den Bosch. E-mail: mmalsch@nscr.nl

Gezinus Wolters
Dr. Gezinus Wolters is universitair hoofddocent cognitieve psychologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Wim Huisman
Prof. mr. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@vu.nl
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