Zoekresultaat: 6 artikelen

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Artikel

Integratief seksindustriebeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland

Succes voor een unieke sociale beweging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden sekswerk, Nieuw-Zeeland, decriminalisering, sociale beweging, beleidsverandering
Auteurs Dr. Joep Rottier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contrary to its allies in other countries, the sex industry decriminalization movement in New Zealand, embodied by the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective (NZPC), achieved its goal in 2003. This article explores the reform of the sex industry policy in this country on the basis of a Social Movement Concept. Apart from the specific New Zealand culture, particularly the interaction between three social political aspects – awareness, political opportunities, and a strong social movement organisation – can be identified as crucial factors in realizing a decriminalized sex industry environment. The enactment of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 meant a unique and huge success for a small sex workers movement.


Dr. Joep Rottier
Dr. Joep Rottier, onderzoeker, promoveerde in december 2018 aan de Universiteit Utrecht op de effecten van het seksindustrie decriminaliseringbeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland. Hij is bestuurslid van het Platform SekswerkExpertise Nederland.
Artikel

Selectieve ‘culturalisering’ in de praktijk van de jeugdbescherming in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden youth justice, Roma, Caucasian migrants, refugees, selectivity, deviance
Auteurs dr. Olga Petintseva
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper focuses on the practice of youth justice (termed ‘youth protection’ in Belgium) in which professional actors ascribe deviant behaviour of youngsters to different cultural and migration backgrounds. Intra-European Roma migrants and refugees from the Northern Caucasus in Belgium are chosen as case studies. Discourse analysis of 55 youth court files and 41 expert interviews with professional actors show that deviant behaviour of these young people is explained in different manners. Two discourses are identified: ‘criminal vagabonds’ and ‘war torn children’. These discourses and their effects in practice differ tremendously for both groups. The broader discussion this article touches upon is the selective inclusion and exclusion in the institutions of formal social control, through social practices of culturalisation.


dr. Olga Petintseva
dr. Olga Petintseva is doctor-assistent aan de vakgroep criminologie, strafrecht en sociaal recht, Universiteit Gent. Haar onderzoeksinteresse situeert zich binnen de narratieve criminologie, cultuurstudies en sociolinguïstiek. E-mail: olga.petintseva@ugent.be.
Artikel

Het besloten club- en het ingezetenencriterium voor coffeeshops

Een natuurlijk experiment

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Trefwoorden natural experiment, realist evaluation, policy evaluation, causality
Auteurs Dr. Marianne van Ooyen-Houben, Drs. Bert Bieleman, Prof. dr. Dirk Korf e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The retail sale of cannabis in coffee shops is tolerated in the Netherlands, provided that certain criteria are met. Two criteria were added in 2012: the private club and the residence criterion. The plan was to implement them first in the southern provinces and later in the other provinces. This created an opportunity for a natural experiment. In an experimental group of seven municipalities in the south and a matched comparison group of municipalities in the other part of the country pre- and post-measurements were conducted. The size of the drug tourism, the number of visits to coffee shops, the illegal cannabis consumer market and the nuisance experienced in the direct vicinity of coffee shops was assessed. Robust changes occurred in the experimental group after implementation of the new criteria. Initial differences between the groups and variation in local implementation caused doubts about drawing causal conclusions. This article analyzes whether such conclusions can be drawn. We conclude that due to the broad design of the research it appears that the observed changes can be attributed to the new criteria despite the methodological shortcomings in the study.


Dr. Marianne van Ooyen-Houben
Dr. M.M.J. van Ooyen-Houben is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het WODC, afdeling Extern Wetenschappelijke Betrekkingen, van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Drs. Bert Bieleman
Drs. B. Bieleman is directeur van Bureau Intraval, gevestigd in Groningen en Rotterdam.

Prof. dr. Dirk Korf
Prof. dr. D.J. Korf is hoogleraar criminologie aan het Bonger Instituut voor Criminologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Kristof De Witte
Prof. dr. K. De Witte is bijzonder hoogleraar aan Maastricht University, Top Institute for Evidence Based Education Research, en universitair hoofddocent aan de Faculty of Business and Economics van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Discussie

Veranderingen in de visie op druggebruik – van een strafrechtelijk naar een gezondheidsparadigma

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden drug policy, paradigms, criminalisation, harm reduction, health problem
Auteurs drs. Franz Trautmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various studies show that the views on the drug problem and appropriate policy responses have undergone profound changes from the 1960s onward. This article is analysing one of these changes, the decriminalisation of drug use, reflecting a fundamental change of view: understanding drug use as a health issue and not as crime. A useful heuristic to understand this type of change is Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm concept. He sees a paradigm as a set of beliefs that are shared by a scientific community and accepted by a wider community. A paradigm change is therefore a socio-psychological process rather than rooted in new scientific or research facts.
    The author analyses the change from the dominance of a crime to the dominance of a health paradigm reflecting its social-historic context, starting with the widely shared concerns about substance use related health problems in the 20th century. These concerns translated into two different views on the essence of these problems, a crime and a health paradigm. The first served as fundament of the international drug control efforts, resulting in the still governing drug prohibition. Yet, the health paradigm was also of influence from the start and gradually gained weight. From the 1970s onwards the health paradigm became more important as part of a wider reform movement. It started in the Netherlands and the UK as bottom-up process criticising criminalising the users of illicit drugs as inappropriate, detrimental for their health and inhumane. The health paradigm was seen as more appropriate.
    The author reflects on the benefits and disadvantages of the health paradigm. Its primary benefit is that it helps to understand the health problems related to drug use. A key disadvantage is its close relationship with the disease paradigm. The latter fits well with the generally negative view on drugs as dangerous or evil. It is encompassing the risk of ‘pathologising’ all forms of drug use and denying phenomena of unproblematic use for, among other things, recreational or spiritual purposes. Like the crime paradigm it can serve for control purposes. The drug user remains subject of control or disciplining policies and is not in charge of his/her own life. An additional problematic issue is that ‘softening’ the approach towards the users seems to be mirrored by a harder, more punitive approach to the producers and sellers of the substances, which are seen as villains, making available the drugs which deserve harsh punishment for ‘devastating’ the lives of users.
    The author concludes with a short discussion of the well-being paradigm as possible alternative for the health paradigm. It covers a broader spectrum than the health paradigm and helps to grasp the negative impact of (problem) drug use, reducing well-being, but is also useful in understanding the positive sides, enhancing well-being.


drs. Franz Trautmann
Drs. Franz Trautmann was Senior Drug Policy Advisor bij het Trimbos-instituut in Nederland. Hij werkte meer dan tien jaar aan harm reduction-programma’s in Amsterdam en leidde sinds 1990 tal van nationale en internationale projecten rond de ontwikkeling van preventie, behandeling en harm reduction-programma’s in verschillende landen en kwalitatief, praktijkgericht onderzoek (Rapid Assessment and Response). De laatste vijftien jaar legde hij zich tevens toe op onderzoek naar het functioneren van de internationale drugsmarkt en naar de beleidsrespons daarop. Enkele weken na het aanleveren van de laatste versie van zijn bijdrage, op 11 juni 2016, overleed hij geheel onverwacht.

Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. T. Boekhout van Solinge is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling criminologie van de Universiteit Utrecht
Artikel

Openbaar brandmeldsysteem: historie, kosten en opbrengst

Onderzoek naar historie, kosten en opbrengst van het openbaar brandmeldsysteem in de veiligheidsregio Twente

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Brandmelding, Kosten-baten analyse, Veiligheidsopbrengst, Openbaar meldsysteem, Incidentrapporten
Auteurs Ron de Wit en Ira Helsloot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands fire safety regulations require certain types of buildings to have a direct connection between the building fire alarm system and the dispatch centre of the fire brigade. These automatic fire alarm systems are mandatory for example in premises where inhabitants such as small children or elderly people have limited self-evacuation capabilites in case of fire. These automatic fire alarms aim at saving lives by a faster response of the fire brigade. However, the fast majority of these automatic alarms are false. As a result these calls constitute a considerable and undesirable drain on the fire brigade resources. These calls cause unwanted direct costs (salaries) and indirect costs (road accidents due to fire brigade mobilisation) apart from the regular maintenance costs. Up to now no data is available for the costs and benefits of the system of automatic fire alarms. This article describes the results of a study of the automatic fire alarm system in the region Twente. The yearly social costs are calculated at about € 3 million. In order to calculate the benefits all incident reports from automatic fire alarms during a period of 29 months have been investigated. In this period no call form an automatic fire alarm system has occured in which the fire brigade had to deploy its resources for a live saving or evacuation action.


Ron de Wit
Ir. Ron de Wit is brandweerofficier en plaatsvervangend regionaal commandant brandweer in de veiligheidsregio Twente. Daarnaast is hij onderzoeker bij crisislab aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Contactadres: R.A.C. de Wit, Lansinkweg 33, 7553 AG Hengelo. E-mail: rac.dewit@kpnmail.nl.

Ira Helsloot
Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar crisisbeheersing en fysieke veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
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