Zoekresultaat: 35 artikelen

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Artikel

Slachtofferbewust en herstelgericht werken in de reclasseringspraktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden slachtofferbewust werken, herstelgerichte detentie, gevangenis, reclassering
Auteurs Jacqueline Bosker en Vivienne de Vogel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The last years victim awareness has received special attention in the Dutch probation service. Three goals are central: respecting the rights and interests of the victim, mapping and increasing victim awareness of the probation client, and working towards the possibilities for recovery. Based on discussions with probation officers, this contribution sketches a picture of how this takes shape in practice. Experience shows that good results are achieved, but that more training and attention to the subject is needed to give it a full place in the probation work.


Jacqueline Bosker
Jacqueline Bosker is lector Werken in Justitieel Kader bij Hogeschool Utrecht.

Vivienne de Vogel
Vivienne de Vogel is lector Werken in Justitieel Kader bij Hogeschool Utrecht en onderzoeker bij De Forensische Zorgspecialisten.
Artikel

De psychische gezondheid van gedetineerden in België en Nederland: een systematisch overzicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden prison, mental disorders, distress, substance use, suicide
Auteurs Drs. Louis Favril en Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A well-established body of epidemiological research suggests that the prevalence of mental health problems (mental disorders, psychological distress, and substance use) in prisoner populations far exceeds that of non-incarcerated people in the surrounding community. Poor mental health in prisoners is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including suicidal behaviour. In the past decade, novel data in Belgium and the Netherlands have been published on this topic, which have not been synthesized to date. The aim of the current systematic literature review was to provide an up-to-date overview of the mental health of prisoners in Belgium and the Netherlands. Based on 24 empirical studies conducted in 1997-2018, the authors conclude that people with mental health problems are overrepresented in Belgian and Dutch prisons, providing both a challenge and a public health opportunity to address the mental health care needs of a vulnerable and hard-to-engage population. Investing in the prevention and treatment of mental health problems not only benefits the prisoners concerned, but equally, society at large.


Drs. Louis Favril
Drs. L. Favril is doctoraatsonderzoeker bij de Faculteit Recht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Een bijzondere groep daders: vrouwelijke langgestraften na afloop van de Tweede Wereldoorlog in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden female, perpetrators, World War II, empirical study, criminal career
Auteurs Drs. Jantien Stuifbergen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Early literature on female perpetrators of World War II focused on labelling the accused as deranged psychopaths, thereby distinguishing the group of perpetrators from the vast subdued and ‘normal’ population. While this perception has changed over the past decades, the perception of female perpetrators has remained limited either way, women are denied having a lot of agency when perpetrating crimes in conflict. Similar to the ‘mad Nazi’-theory these narratives imply that female perpetrators are different from ‘ordinary’ women, as their actions collide with notions of ideal femininity. This empirical research has shown that in the case of female perpetrators of World War II in the Netherlands it seems that they can be seen as ordinary women operating in extraordinary circumstances. In this study, a special group of female war criminals is described. Against the background of early post-war imaging of such women and more recent research on female perpetration during wartime, an analysis of Dutch perpetrators who received severe punishments after the War, is made. Based on unique historical data, the criminal career of these women as World War II perpetrators is analysed. The outcomes show that a notable part already had a criminal record before the war and that the perception of who they were and why they acted the way they did needs reconsideration, since they were not psychologically weak and incompetent. They were generally young, unemployed and low educated and they planned and committed their crimes of treasons in order to create better living conditions for themselves. In fact, one can claim that these women are likely to be ordinary people influenced by dispositional and situational factors.


Drs. Jantien Stuifbergen MSc
Drs. J.A.M. Stuifbergen, MSc is programmacoördinator van de Master International Crimes, Conflict and Criminology en promovenda bij de sectie Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam,
Artikel

Geweld tegen politieambtenaren

Beweegredenen en rationalisering door verdachten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Politie, Geweld tegen politie, Daderperspectief
Auteurs Danaé Stad en Jaap Timmer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper tries to answer the question why defendants use violence against police officers and whether, and if so how, they construct justifications for their own behavior. The study consists of an analysis of the situational aspects of violence against police officers and the characteristics of suspects. In addition, some suspects were interviewed about the incident in which they were involved. They were asked what their perception of the situation was, and what the background of the violence was. They were also asked for their opinion on the image of the police in general, and for their knowledge and perception of the relevant laws and regulations. The conclusion is that the motives for violence against a police officer lie in their belief that all men, police officer or not, are equal and should be treated with respect. Suspects feel treated unfairly and disrespectfully by police officers. Suspects feel that in such cases they are entitled to use force. Suspects are not aware of the differences between their own rights and responsibilities in such a situation and the authority that police officers legally have to use of force in order to perform their legal tasks.


Danaé Stad
Danaé Stad is criminoloog en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Residentiële Jeugdzorg aan de Hogeschool Leiden.

Jaap Timmer
Jaap Timmer is politiesocioloog en universitair hoofddocent Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Street Pastors

Securitas en certitudo in het Britse uitgaansleven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden night-time economy, volunteering, security, Care, Faith
Auteurs dr. Ronald van Steden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper presents the results of a study on Street Pastors in Cardiff, capital city of Wales. Street Pastors are Christian volunteers who look after (intoxicated) people in the nightlife district. In so doing, they provide security through empathy and care. The motives of Street Pastors to engage with partygoers are multi-layered, but their personal faith appears as a key explanation. A certain kind of orthodox ‘certitude’ of being safe (and saved) in a Higher Power gives the pastors their strength to go out on the street, face the unknown and feel compassion for their fellow citizens.


dr. Ronald van Steden
Dr. Ronald van Steden is universitair hoofddocent Bestuurswetenschappen & Politicologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Over de vraag naar de kwaliteit van de bemiddelaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Bemiddelaar, kwaliteit, Rechtskarakter herstelrecht, Strafrechtspleging
Auteurs Leo Van Garsse
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some believe that the credibility of restorative justice can be increased if more attention is given to the quality of the mediator, as well as methods to select people with the right profile or by training. At first glance this seems a legitimate aim: mediation services should offer quality. Reflecting on practical experience and research into mediation between offenders and victims in Flanders, the author problematizes these assumptions. The quest for tangible quality to ensure ‘credibility’ refers to a neo-liberal approach aimed at reducing risks and promoting the client’s satisfaction. In this article the author confronts the apolitical approach of client satisfaction with alternative ideas about (restorative) justice. Ideally, the mediator is critical of established (legal) authorities and professional expertise. Mediation is political in nature, even if the mediator relies on neutrality. The mediator must be aware of his – inevitable – political stance and should be ready to be interrogated on this matter.


Leo Van Garsse
Leo Van Garsse is oud-herstelbemiddelaar en momenteel werkzaam bij het vicariaat Mechelen – Vlaams Brabant als stafmedewerker voor territoriale pastoraal.
Boekbespreking

Plegers van zedenmisdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2016
Auteurs Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk
Auteursinformatie

Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. A. van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke.
Artikel

De remmende werking van huwelijk en arbeid op vermogensdelicten. Rotterdam, 1812-1820

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden property crime, marriage, labour, nineteenth century, Netherlands
Auteurs Bjørn Gallée BA en Jaap Ligthart MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the field of criminology, marriage and labour are important determinants for the decline in criminal behavior. However, these factors are seldom researched in the context of historical criminology. By conducting research into crimes against property in Rotterdam, those brought to the Rotterdam correctional court in the 1812-1820 period, this paper attempts to shed light on the topic. Our findings show that a majority of the delinquents in question were employed, while a minority of those female delinquents were married, yet also in gainful employment in most cases. Male adolescents, who had just entered the labour market, were the largest group of male delinquents. The female population of delinquents consisted mostly of women who were close to marriageable age. Thus, it is suggested that labour and marriage supplied insufficient economical stability to inhibit criminal behavior during the 1812-1820 period.


Bjørn Gallée BA
B. Gallée, BA is werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jaap Ligthart MA
J. Ligthart, MA was in 2013 werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ en promoveert momenteel aan de Universiteit Leiden op financiële problemen van vorsten in de vijftiende-eeuwse Nederlanden.

    This paper looks at how Dutch newspapers dealt with mental disorders and gender in their crime reports in 1930. The Psychopath Acts, which allowed special restriction orders (‘TBR’) to be imposed on mentally disturbed delinquents who were a danger to society, had just come into effect then. The newspapers did not present such TBR criminals as dangerous or mentally disturbed. Instead, the papers used ‘madness’ to explain apparently motiveless crimes such as killing one’s own children. Female perpetrators were no more likely to be labelled mentally ill than male perpetrators.


Clare Wilkinson MA
C. Wilkinson, MA is promovendus aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Terugblikken op de aanloop

Dynamische voorspellers van perioden van detentie gedurende de levensloop van vrouwelijke gedetineerden in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden women, incarceration, risk factors, life history calendars, Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. Katharina Joosen en Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dynamic predictors of periods of incarceration across the life course of female prisoners in the Netherlands were examined, inspired by a Gendered Pathways to Offending framework. Through life course calendars and surveys 397 female prisoners were interviewed. Women who were employed, received benefits, experienced childbirth, or were involved with substance abusing partners were less likely to be incarcerated one year later. Women whose parents had divorced, were addicted to hard drugs, worked as prostitutes, were homeless, had debts, had income from crime or a criminal partner, or received treatment for psychological problems were at increased risk for incarceration one year later.


Dr. Katharina Joosen
Dr. K. Joosen is als postdoc onderzoeker werkzaam bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom
Dr. A. Slotboom is universitair hoofddocent aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Effecten van detentie op het vinden van werk en een woning

Twee veldexperimenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden experiment, imprisonment, employment, housing, reentry
Auteurs Dr. Anja Dirkzwager, Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland, Kimberley Nannes MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper we examine to what extent a prison record negatively affects employment and accommodation outcomes after release from prison. Two randomized field experiments were conducted in which we had fictitious persons respond by email to online job openings and online advertisements for rented accommodations. In total, we responded to 384 job openings and to 231 advertisements for rented accommodations. Contrary to expectations, applicants with a prison record were not less likely to receive a positive response from employers than applicants without a prison record. Applicants with a non-western background, however, were less likely to receive a positive response. In the housing experiment, we did find a significant effect of having a prison record. Former prisoners were less likely to receive a positive response during their search for a place to live.


Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Kimberley Nannes MSc
K. Nannes, MSc was stagiair bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel.

Marieke Vroonland MSc
M. Vroonland, MSc was stagiair bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel
Artikel

Detentie en gevolgen van detentie

Onderzoek in Nederland en België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Detentiebeleid, detentieonderzoek, detentiebeleving, gevangeniscultuur, detentie-effecten
Auteurs Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager en Prof. dr. Dirk Korf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Prison policy in Belgium and the Netherlands is changing rapidly. While Belgium struggles with a persisting prison overcrowding, the Netherlands strongly cuts back on the prison system and is closing an increasing number of prisons. This introductory article to a special issue on detention starts with a short outline of recent changes in Dutch and Belgian prison policy, focusing on developments in detention capacity and prison population. Subsequently we present an overview of empirical criminological research in the Netherlands and Belgium, situated within the international literature, with a specific focus on studies regarding life in detention and effects of detention on prisoners' lives and on their social environment. Finally, we reflect upon existing detention research in both countries, e.g. in terms of gaps in research topics and methodology, and discuss some future developments.


Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens
Prof. dr. K. Beyens is hoogleraar en voorzitter van de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Dirk Korf
Prof. dr. D.J. Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut, faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Het esoterische mensbeeld in Die Zauberflote van Mozart

Wat straf- en herstelrecht daarvan kunnen leren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden esoterische wijsheid, levensloopbenadering, desistance, Die Zauberflöte, Mozart
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The focus of this contribution is on the esoteric view on mankind as depicted in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute. Within this context, the stages of development of the conscience and soul that a man can go through will receive additional attention. This development can also be influenced by external factors. According to esotericists, the purpose or destination of man is that he comes into contact with his divine nature, but also that he identifies himself with this nature and that he will live in accordance with it. Such a life can be characterized by wisdom and love and therefore by virtue (charity), which is the opposite of sin or mis-doing. Before the identified development of man can be visualized based on The Magic Flute, this opera firstly needs to be embedded in the tradition of the freemasonry (‘Royal Art’) and other, older initiation schools. It is therefore important to recognize that the esoteric view on mankind has historical roots and that, only in recent centuries, this view has been marginalized, due to the rise of the scientific view on mankind. Finally, the question is posed what criminal law and restorative justice can learn from the esoteric view on mankind. In response to this question, a starting point will be presented of the development of a spiritual life-cycle approach, which complements the existing life-cycle approach and the related desistance theories within contemporary criminology. Furthermore, the concept of interconnectedness, which plays an important role in the context of the esoteric views on mankind, will be connected to a restorative crime approach, which provides restorative justice with spiritual legitimization.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Universiteit Maastricht.

Dr. Doreen Huschek
Dr. D. Huschek is onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminologie aan de Universiteit van Stockholm.
Artikel

Cirkels voor Ondersteuning, Samenwerking en Aanspreekbaarheid

Hoe vrijwilligers bijdragen aan preventie van zedenrecidive en herstel van binding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden volunteering, rehabilitation, Restorative justice, Family bonds, Sex offenders
Auteurs Mechtild Höing en Audrey Alards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    COSA (Circles of Support and Accountability) have been fully implemented and accepted in the Dutch probation organization. In COSA projects, volunteers support a former sex offender during his rehabilitation, supervised by professionals. Projects offer national coverage and until now, 42 sex offenders have been supported. International effect studies and Dutch research into effective processes offer a scientific framework, offering the theoretical and empirical underpinnings for a COSA intervention model. The normative basis of COSA is found in its specific place in restorative justice. Primarily, COSA strives for restoration of relationships within a moral and responsible community and restoration of the offender. Restoration of family bonds is an option, but needs to be well coordinated with professionals.


Mechtild Höing
Mechtild Höing is werkzaam aan de Avans Hogeschool en is docent-onderzoeker bij Expertisecentrum Veiligheid; zij onderzoekt COSA sinds 2009.

Audrey Alards
Audrey Alards is werkzaam bij Reclassering Nederland; als cirkelcoördinator is zij sinds 2009 werkzaam voor COSA.
Boekbespreking

Small numbers, big problems

Het levensverhaal en (jeugd)delinquente traject van vrouwelijke gedetineerden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2012
Auteurs Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom
Dr. A. Slotboom is universitair hoofddocent aan de Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam, afdeling strafrecht en criminologie.
Artikel

Lood en criminaliteit

Een overzicht van recente studies naar de effecten van een neurotoxisch metaal

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden lead, criminal behaviour, ADHD, IQ
Auteurs Drs. Ap Zaalberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research demonstrates moderate detrimental effects of lead and human health. Interesting from a criminological point of view is the association between lead and delinquent, criminal and aggressive behaviour. In this paper the possible causality of this association will be discussed.


Drs. Ap Zaalberg
Drs. A. Zaalberg is psycholoog en onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum, Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie, a.zaalberg@minvenj.nl.
Artikel

Vrouwen en witteboordencriminaliteit

Theorieën en hypothesen over sekseverschil

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Witteboordencriminaliteit, Vrouwelijke delinquenten, Feminisme
Auteurs Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    White-collar crime is mostly committed by men. It remains to be seen if this will stay this way. Increasing numbers of women succeed in attaining management positions in organizations. Could we therefore expect an increase in female white-collar crime?Criminological theories on female crime and on white-collar crime lead to contradicting hypotheses.Research on white-collar and organizational crime predominantly produces a situational hypothesis explanation according to which we could expect that the rise of women in organizational hierarchies will also bring more female white-collar crime.Research on female delinquency might lead to an opposite gender-difference hypothesis that would predict less white-collar crime, because they have a lesser tendency to show risky behavior.In this article, both assumptions will be elaborated for further research, against the background of possible gender bias in the relation between women and white-collar crime.


Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. W. Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, w.huisman@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

Trajecten van vrouwelijke gedetineerden

Weinig jeugddelinquenten, veel late starters

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Vrouwelijke gedetineerden, Interviews, Criminele carrière
Auteurs An Nuytiens en Jenneke Christiaens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, an ongoing Flemish qualitative research on life histories and criminal careers of women in prison is discussed. We conducted autobiographical interviews with 40 female prisoners aged between 20 and 69 years. Considering our target group, we didn’t always succeed in conducting an autobiographical interview. In practice we often conducted a classic open in-depth interview. By means of file analysis, we reconstituted the criminal career of every interviewed woman. Thanks to the retrospective approach we could reveal a diversity of trajectories. We identified three pathways: (1) youth offenders, (2) early adult-onset offenders and (3) late adult-onset offenders. Remarkably, quite a lot of women are late starters. Three risk factors – to a greater or lesser extent – play a role in these pathways: a problematic educational situation in childhood, drugs and negative love affairs.


An Nuytiens
A. Nuytiens is onderzoekster bij de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, an.nuytiens@vub.ac.be.

Jenneke Christiaens
Prof. dr. J. Christiaens is hoofddocent bij de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, jenneke.christiaens@vub.ac.be.
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