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Artikel

Access_open Sleutelpersonen in de sport

De aftrap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Prof. dr. Hans Nelen en Dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht en redacteur voor Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.

Dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Dr. mr. Roland Moerland is universitair docent criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.
Essay

Drugsgebruik, exces en criminaliteit

Een historisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden history of drugs, tobacco, drug policy, civilizing process, opium
Auteurs Dr. Stephen Snelders
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the problem of excessive drug use from a historical perspective. Cultural ambivalence towards excessive use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs has roots going back into the seventeenth century. A case study is presented of the introduction and adaptation of tobacco in the Dutch republic. Dutch national and colonial drug regulation is discussed. It is concluded that regulations have been primarily motivated by anxieties about excessive behaviour among the labouring classes, endangering public order, and non-white users in the colonies. This has led to criminalization of excessive behaviour, and to the creation of a criminal underground economy.


Dr. Stephen Snelders
Dr. S.A.M. (Stephen) Snelders is research fellow aan de Faculteit Bètawetenschappen en het Freudenthal Instituut/History and Philosophy of the Sciences van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Welzijn, primaire levensbehoeften en delinquentie bij adolescenten

Etiologische assumpties van het Good Lives Model getoetst

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden GLM, Rehabilitation, Juvenile delinquency, Life satisfaction, Youth
Auteurs Colinda Serie PhD, Prof. dr. Stefaan Pleysier, Prof. dr. Johan Put e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A recent rehabilitation theory, the ‘Good Lives Model’ (GLM), states that interventions that work towards a higher well-being can reduce recidivism risk more sustainably by promising a happier, pro-social life, rather than just a less harmful one. Although the GLM theory appears promising, limited empirical research has examined its underlying assumptions, applicability and its effectiveness. Research into the GLM with youth is even more limited. Therefore, in the current study, we investigate the main etiological assumptions of the GLM in a large group of adolescents between 14 and 18 years old from the general population (N=5.776), by means of self-report survey data on well-being, primary human goods and delinquency. The results show that a lower subjective global well-being is related to delinquent behavior. Especially the primary human goods of relatedness and working towards a financially stable future appear to be important goals for interventions aimed at rehabilitation of juvenile offenders.


Colinda Serie PhD
C.M.B. Serie is PhD-onderzoeker aan de KU Leuven.

Prof. dr. Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. Pleysier is hoofddocent aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de KU Leuven en coördinator van de Onderzoekslijn Jeugdcriminologie en Jeugdrecht aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC).

Prof. dr. Johan Put
Prof. dr. J. Put is gewoon hoogleraar jeugd- en welzijnsrecht aan de KU Leuven.

Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
Prof. dr. C. de Ruiter is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychologie, verbonden aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Tussen de regels door: hoe slachtofferschap bevestigd, bevraagd en ontkend wordt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden victimization, framing, #MeToo, sexual violence, observer interpretation
Auteurs Drs. Eva Mulder en Dr. mr. Alice Bosma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Using frame analyses, the authors explore how people confirm, question or deny victimization, or refrain from interpretation. A frame consists of a problem definition (acts), the diagnosis of causes (identifying actors), and moral judgments. Results confirm that the interaction between factors defines the interpretation of victimization. Similar acts (for instance the consumption of alcohol) are ascribed different meanings depending on the type of frame. The positioning of actors in a frame determines who or what is perceived responsible for the (moral) judgment.


Drs. Eva Mulder
Drs. E. Mulder is promovenda bij INTERVICT van Tilburg University.

Dr. mr. Alice Bosma
Dr. mr. A.K. Bosma is universitair docent bij het Department of Criminal Law van Tilburg University.
Artikel

Gekkenhuis of poppenkast

Over de rol van de psychiatrische behandeling in het veilig houden van de toekomstige maatschappij

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden forensic psychiatry, risk assessment, risk management, re-socialization, mental health treatment
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joke Harte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Forensic psychiatric treatment plays a mayor role in keeping society safe. However, the expectations about what can be achieved with forensic treatment do not seem to be realistic. This complicates the chances of a successful re-socialization. It is foreseen that the number of patients will increase significantly in the upcoming years.
    More effective treatment programs and instruments for risk assessment are needed. For this, the causal relationship between psychopathology and delinquency must be better understood. This requires more criminological research.


Prof. dr. Joke Harte
Prof. dr. J.M. Harte is hoogleraar bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Preventie en de aanpak van radicaliseren en terrorisme: een herziening

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden Radicalisation and Terrorism, American Wars, Activism of Hope, Mental Health and Prevention
Auteurs Carl H.D. Steinmetz
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    About half (54%) of Dutch mental health care have patients who radicalize. This delivery room for radical losers deserves more attention. The GGZ will then have to emerge from the stalled discourse, that radicalization is not a psychiatric disorder. An important breeding ground for these and other ‘delivery rooms’ are apart from factors like social and psychological influences, and grievances about social, economic and health inequalities (Bhui et al., 2014), the wars that are initiated annually by the United States from 1798, with or without the help of the United Kingdom, the European Union and therefore the Netherlands. This article argues that ‘fire should not be fired with fire’. It is argued for the implementation of Activism of Hope (Lleshi, 2018) with its own grandfathers, such as Martin Luther King, Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela. Finally, an action perspective for all young people in the tumultuous phase of adolescence is proposed for education- and care institutions.


Carl H.D. Steinmetz
Carl H.D. Steinmetz is managing director at Expats & Immigrants B.V.
Artikel

De emotionele beleving van kwalitatief onderzoekers bij onderzoek naar kwetsbare groepen en gevoelige thema’s

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden narrative review, qualitative research, emotions, sensitive topics, vulnerable groups
Auteurs Ciska Wittouck en Gwen Herkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A narrative review was conducted to develop more coherent awareness and knowledge regarding emotional experiences of qualitative researchers studying sensitive topics or vulnerable groups, as discussions about this topic are currently fragmented and scattered. Qualitative researchers experience many painful as well as enjoyable emotions, which can influence their personal, social and professional lives. These emotions are recurrently reported in relation to the unpredictability of qualitative research and the different roles of qualitative researchers. More structural and individual attention for emotional experiences of qualitative researchers is necessary, for instance, in academic (doctoral) training and general handbooks on qualitative research.


Ciska Wittouck
Ciska Wittouck is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.

Gwen Herkes
Gwen Herkes is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Lid van het Nederlandse matriciaat’

Interview met Abram de Swaan

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden violence, compartimentalization, social theory
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article Bas van Stokkom and Marc Schuilenburg discuss work and life of the Dutch sociologist Abram de Swaan. The article is based on an interview the authors conducted with de Swaan as well as themes that de Swaan developed in his published work. The article discusses in particular themes such as violence and compartimentalization, the work of Norbert Elias, and public sociology.


Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is senior onderzoeker bij de Vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Komt een 112-melding bij de politie

Triage op de politie-meldkamer bij personen met verward gedrag

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Verwarde personen, Triage, Gevaar, passend vervoer, psycholance
Auteurs André Wierdsma, Yvette van Strien, Philip den Hollander e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National thematic projects and local authorities aim to improve shelter and transport facilities for mentally disordered non-offenders. A pilot project in the south-western part of the Netherlands investigated the efficiency of psychiatric expertise in the triage process of the police emergency control room.
    To evaluate incoming emergency telephone calls in terms of the type of mentally disordered behavior, the sort and degree of dangerousness, and the urgency and type of response required.
    Between November 2016 and January 2017 social psychiatric nurses did weekend shifts on the emergency control room. Incoming telephone calls concerning public nuisance or disordered behavior were administered using the triage tool developed by the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care. Nurses had access to regional information systems and were explicitly allowed to follow up on cases where continuity of care was an issue.
    A total of 155 calls were evaluated producing a representative image of calls concerning mentally disordered behaviour. Results show that this type of emergency calls is not overly frequent, in many cases not extremely urgent (response time target >1 hour: 67%), and about 65% could be followed up by the general practice centre or specialised (psychiatric) healthcare services. More than half (55%) of the emergency calls involved people previously in contact with psychiatric services. Most common types of danger were public disorder (28%) and suicide risk (21%). However, in 29% of cases type of danger was unclear and 14-20% of the triage tool was inconclusive.
    Triage by mental health specialists at the police emergency control room is not efficient because many cases are not very urgent and information quality is often too low to preclude street-triage. Yet screening and follow up of mentally disturbed persons can be improved by close collaboration between control room and psychiatric services.


André Wierdsma
André Wierdsma is universitair docent, afdeling psychiatrie aan het Erasmus MC.

Yvette van Strien
Yvette van Strien is adviseur acute zorg bij Traumacentrum ZuidWest-Nederland.

Philip den Hollander
Philip den Hollander is chef Meldkamer bij de Politie Rotterdam.

Aram van Reijsen
Aram van Reijsen is psychiater acute dienst bij Bavo-Europoort.
Artikel

Een held valt niet – morele dilemma’s als een gevierde insider in de fout gaat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden hero, moral entrepreneur, Bill Cosby, Jimmy Savile, Gerrit Achterberg
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert en Danaé Stad MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bill Cosby, Jimmy Savile and Gerrit Achterberg lived in different periods, in the US, UK, and the Netherlands. They were heroes because of what they accomplished during their professional careers but all three turned out to have committed serious crimes. Disclosure is painful, not only for the hero who comes to fall but also for the community that finds itself redefining moral standards when losing a celebrated insider. For this reason, the crimes of these three men have been concealed and kept secret for years. In comparing the three cases, this article tries to find out who decides on keeping the hero on his feet, how this is done, and if this changes over time.


Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert is universitair docent bij de sectie strafrecht en criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Danaé Stad MSc
Danaé Stad MSc studeerde criminologie aan de VU en is werkzaam bij het Regionaal Informatie en Expertise Centrum Amsterdam-Amstelland (RIEC-AA).
Artikel

Artsen en moreel ondernemerschap. De casus van de normalisering van verslavende opioïde pijnstillers in de Verenigde Staten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Opioid crisis, Addictive painkillers, Medical doctors, Moral entrepreneurs, Big Pharma
Auteurs Dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, I am using Becker’s concept of moral entrepreneur to analyse the role of pain specialists in the labelling process, which has led to the normalisation of the use of opioid painkillers in the United States and ultimately to the death over 200.000 Americans. In general, the literature on labelling centres on crusading reformers, and the criminalisation and stigmatisation of transgressive behaviour. Here I will focus on the moral entrepreneurship of medical experts. What was their role in the normalisation process of opioid painkiller use and are there any similarities with the strategies of crusading reformers? My findings, based on qualitative analysis of documents such as newspaper articles and academic publications, show that, with two exceptions, pain specialists use the strategies of moral crusaders. First, in their narratives, pain specialists represented themselves as neutral objective experts without the emotional stance of moral crusaders. The second exception, which is related to the first, is that there was less emphasis in their narrative on creating villains, as they could not blame openly standard medical practice because they needed the support of the established medical world in order to normalise and legalise opioid painkillers.


Dr. Thaddeus Müller
Thaddeus Müller Docent criminologie, Lancaster University t.muller@lancaster.ac.uk
Boekbespreking

Reserve-onderdelen

Inzichten in de orgaanhandel en een pleidooi voor de vermarkting van orgaandonatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Auteurs Dr. Michelle Habets
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Michelle Habets
Dr. M.G.J.L. Habets is medisch-ethicus en onderzoeker bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Vincent Geeraets
Vincent Geeraets werkt als universitair docent bij de afdeling rechtstheorie en rechtsgeschiedenis van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Boekbespreking

Begripvolle rechters

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2017
Auteurs Prof. dr. Harald Merckelbach
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Harald Merckelbach
Prof. dr. H.L.G.J. Merckelbach is hoogleraar rechtspsychologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Praktijk

Herstelbemiddeling tijdens detentie

Een voorbeeld uit de praktijk van Perspectief Herstelbemiddeling

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2017
Auteurs Mariëlle van den Berg
Auteursinformatie

Mariëlle van den Berg
Mariëlle van den Berg was tot eind augustus 2017 werkzaam bij Perspectief Herstelbemiddeling.

    In this article the question is addressed how language played a pivotal role in the process of concealing and denying the use of doping in professional cycling in the period 1990-2012. The author concludes that the popular argument that the ‘Walls of Silence’ within professional cycling were based upon a system of ‘omertà’, is not convincing. Rather than that they were forced to keep their mouths shut, the people involved in the doping industry granted themselves a right to silence. The analysis also shows that the common vocabulary within cycling facilitated the processes of denial, as the concepts used – like preparation, recuperation, medical supervision and so on – are vague and ambiguous.


prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt
Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Street-level bureaucracy en verwijzingen naar gedragsinterventies in Nederlandse penitentiaire inrichtingen

Discrepanties tussen beleid en praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden prison, treatment, reducing recidivism, correctional treatment referrals, street-level bureaucracy theory
Auteurs Anouk Bosma MSc, Dr. Maarten Kunst, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Studies indicated that detainees are not always allocated to treatment programs based on official guidelines. Street-level bureaucracy theory suggests that this is because government employees do not always perform policies as prescribed. This study aimed to assess whether this also applies to the allocation of offenders to treatment in Dutch penitentiary institutions. This was studied among a group of 541 male prisoners who participated in the Recidivism Reduction program. The results showed that official policy guidelines were, in most cases, not leading when referring detainees to behavioral interventions. Instead, treatment referrals were influenced by a broad range of risk factors, as well as the length of an offender’s sentence.


Anouk Bosma MSc
A.Q. Bosma MSc is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. M.J.J. Kunst is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Jacqueline de Savornin Lohman

Ouwer-power in de strafrechtshervorming

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden penal reform, restorative justice, victim support, feminism, criminal justice politics
Auteurs prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Jacqueline de Savornin Lohman is a ‘positive criminologist’ avant la lettre. In this interview, she tells about her belief in personal people’s willingness and ability to deal with problems (such as the reception of refugees), the discouraging role of government in this respect, her internment in a Japanese camp in the Netherlands’ Indies during WW II, the persons who have inspired her most (e.g. Louk Hulsman) and her initial disbelief in the idea of a ‘glass ceiling’ for women in a male-dominated academia. She would, however, be confronted with some stunning examples of everyday sexism – such as reactions that she did not need a tenured position at the university, because she does not have to maintain a family. Being active in the women’s movement, also led her to engage in critical victimological studies – mainly on sexual violence. The main part of the interview deals with the practical consequences she has drawn from her critical action-theory on criminal justice ‘Allowed evil?’ (Kwaad dat mag?) from 1975, such as her role in the establishment of the Dutch liberal democrat party D’66, her involvement in the Coornhert League for Penal Reform, her attempts to establish a platform for various practical, critical social work initiatives in the penal field and indeed the establishment of one of the first mediation projects in the Netherlands – which she saw boycotted by the Ministry of Justice, that, in the late 1980s, instrumentalised the victim’s voice for a stiffening of the penal system.


prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is werkzaam als hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit, Erasmus School of Law, sectie Criminologie.
Discussie

Access_open Positieve criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden securitas, rule of law, Polizeiwissenschaft, politeia, democracy
Auteurs prof. dr. Bob Hoogenboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Positive security is a very promising development in criminology. The ‘movement’ reconnects the current debate on crime with the origins of ancient Greek thinking on the positive nature of politeia, policy and policing. Securitas - providing safety and security for the common good - has a long and rich tradition. Good governance is about many things, but foremost about providing security in society. Polizeiwissenschaft in 18th and 19th century Prussia made a distinction between Wohlfahrt- and Sicherheitspolizei.
    The latter is outright dangerous because security becomes equated with negative connotations: the other, the enemies of the state, the drug war and more recently the war in terror. In times like these the positive qualities of securitas become inflated. Human rights, privacy and the rule of law are no longer viewed in positive terms. Therefore I advocate the positive security movement. But the author is worried about two things. Firstly, the current Zeitgeist which is charged with xenophobia and war like languages. And, secondly the fact that the ‘movement’ is limited to a few rebels with a cause. The mainstream of criminology is not really interested in reconnecting with the philosophical positive roots of securitas. Mainstream criminology fosters the status quo and is financially too depended on the state to actually follow the new heroes of positivity. The only way out is to develop a following but this requires academics to actually take a stand.


prof. dr. Bob Hoogenboom
Prof. dr. Bob Hoogenboom is hoogleraar fraude en regulering aan de Nyenrode Business Universiteit.
Diversen: Artikelen

Outlawbikers voor de rechter: een analyse van rechterlijke uitspraken in de periode 1999-2015

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden outlaw motorcycle clubs, OMCG, ‘1%-MC’, organized crime
Auteurs Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland en Jeanot David MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The fight against outlaw motorcycle gangs is high on the Dutch criminal justice agenda. Yet, much is unclear about the extent to which Dutch outlaw motorcycle clubs are involved in (organized) crime, and the exact role club membership plays in the crimes committed by individual members. This study analyses all court decisions between 1999 and 2015 that were made publicly available through the Rechtspraak.nl database to yield insight in the frequency and nature of (members of) outlaw motorcycle clubs’ court appearances. Results show that members of outlaw biker clubs are convicted for violence and drug offending. In a third of all incidents, fellow club members are among the co-offenders. Membership of an outlaw motorcycle club is often used to put pressure on victims. Non-members also make use of the violent track record of outlaw bikers.


Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. A.A.J. Blokland is bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.

Jeanot David MSc
J.P.G. David MSc was ten tijde van het onderhavige onderzoek werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent bij de afdeling Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
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