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‘Dat hij mij niets verwijt. Dat was heel belangrijk voor me.’

Herstelbemiddeling na een verkeersongeval

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2019
Auteurs Mieke Wouters
Auteursinformatie

Mieke Wouters
Mieke Wouters is communicatie- en beleidsadviseur bij Perspectief Herstelbemiddeling en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Femke Ruitenbeek-Bart
Femke Ruitenbeek-Bart is verbonden aan de Erasmus School of Law en werkt aan een proefschrift over de ervaringen van veroorzakers van letselschade in de civiele letselschadepraktijk.

Iris Becx
Iris Becx is victimoloog en is promovenda aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Ze doet onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden van Restorative Justice binnen conflictoplossing van verkeersongevallen en medische incidenten.
Artikel

Access_open Sanctionering van verkeersongevallen

Op het kruispunt van taakstraffen, verkeersdelicten en herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Verkeersongevallen, Verkeersdelicten, taakstraf, Wegenverkeerswet
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution seeks to bring together three themes in a descriptive and exploratory manner: (a) community service orders, (b) traffic offences and (c) restorative justice; the Dutch situation is central. To this end, the Dutch legal regulation regarding community service orders is first explained. Attention is also paid to existing empirical research on the effectiveness of community service orders in terms of reduction of recidivism (section 2). Furthermore, the sanctioning of traffic offences is discussed as well as the consequences for this of the current bill that seeks to sharpen criminal liability for serious traffic offences (section 3). Subsequently, it is examined which restorative justice provisions or modalities are available and how restorative community service orders are and can be designed (section 4). Finally, I describe my ideal when it comes to the sanctioning of traffic offences in the form of a continuum in which a special role is reserved for restorative community service orders (section 5). The contribution ends with a conclusion (section 6).


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is als bijzonder hoogleraar herstelrecht en universitair hoofddocent straf- en strafprocesrecht verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Hij is daarnaast rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg en bestuurslid van Stichting Mens en Strafrecht. Hij is redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Ingrid Marit
Ingrid Marit is bemiddelaar bij Moderator. Forum voor herstelrecht en bemiddeling vzw.
Artikel

Gevallen helden van bedrijfsleven en openbaar bestuur

De ‘fall from grace’ van witteboordencriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, status degradation, sanctioning, executives, punishment
Auteurs Prof. dr. Wim Huisman en Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminology, it is generally assumed that the high social status of white-collar offenders prevents them of being targeted by criminal law enforcement. But when they do, they suffer greater social and economic damage because of this high social status. Empirical research on the consequences of criminal law enforcement and conviction for white-collar offenders is scarce, and limited to the US and the UK. This paper used biographies of convicted former executives in business and public office in the Netherlands, to analyse these consequences and the process of the ‘fall from grace’ of white-collar offenders. The consequences are described in four life-domains: health, the private sphere, the occupational sphere and the social sphere. The results show that Dutch executives, in line with findings for the Anglo-American white-collar offenders, experience status degradation and suffer much collateral damage of criminal law enforcement. After the initial horror of imprisonment, they endure prison life fairly well. Individual competences and remaining social and economic capital enable them to return to normal life, although they cannot return to pre-conviction levels of social status.


Prof. dr. Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
Drs. Dennis Lesmeister is veroordeeld in de Klimop-zaak en is geassocieerd onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Strafrecht door de ogen van een witteboordencrimineel

Gevolgen en beleving van strafrechtspleging door vervolgden voor witteboordencriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Strafrechtspleging, Witteboordencriminaliteit, Detentiebeleving, Strafdoelen, Strafrechtelijk beleid
Auteurs Prof. mr. Wim Huisman en Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Internationally, research on the experiences of white-collar offenders with the criminal justice system and the consequences of prosecution and conviction is scarce. Such research becomes more relevant, as the response to white-collar crime has become more punitive and more offenders are convicted. This paper presents the experiences of the co-author as a convicted white-collar offender as an autobiographical case-study. In this cases study, the consequences and experiences during four phases (investigation, prosecution, sentence-execution and post-sentencing) are analysed on four live-domains: health, private life, social life and professional life. Such an approach could be a blueprint for further and more systematic study of the experiences with and consequences of criminal justice for white-collar offenders. Such study can shed light on the effects and actual achievement of goals of punishment for white-collar crime.


Prof. mr. Wim Huisman
Prof. mr. W. Huisman is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
Drs. D.R. Lesmeister is als geassocieerd onderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Moral entrepreneurs in de 21ste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Moral entrepreneurs, Becker, Discourse, Crusading reformer, Symbolic interactionism
Auteurs Dr. Olga Petintseva en Prof. Tom Decorte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introductory article of this special issue on ‘moral entrepreneurs’ in the 21st century, we situate different notions of moral entrepreneurship. Particularly foregrounding Howard Becker’s definition, we discuss its origins and use in subsequent research. The question that we’ve put forward in the ‘call for papers’ for this special issue is to what extent the notion is relevant in contemporary research and who is considered as ‘moral entrepreneur’. The research papers discuss ‘entrepreneurial’ practices of university ethic commissions, medical professionals, police officers and the leaders of cannabis social clubs. We conclude that the underlying rationales and discourses of moral entrepreneurs that the authors identify, reflect contemporary neoliberal ideals.


Dr. Olga Petintseva
Olga Petintseva Postdoctorale onderzoeker FWO Vlaanderen, Universiteit Gent – Vrije Universiteit Brussel olga.petintseva@ugent.be

Prof. Tom Decorte
Tom Decorte Professor criminologie, Universiteit Gent tom.decorte@ugent.be
Artikel

Een wolf onder de wolven. Ethiek en Ethische Commissies in criminologisch onderzoek naar ‘the powerful’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Ethics committees, The powerful, Moral entrepreneurs, Ethics creep, Arms trader
Auteurs Dr. Rita Faria en Dr. Yarin Eski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For quite some years now, crimes of ‘the powerful’ have been studied by criminologists. While researching crimes of ‘the powerful’, researchers aim to maintain and safeguard their integrity and ethics. However, there seems to be a friction between, on the one hand, ethics of the researchers themselves and on the other hand, ethics (policies) of universities. Obviously, not only do they have to justify their actions and decisions to themselves and ‘science’ as a whole, they must justify their research to ethics committees (EC’s) of universities. It could result in complex and difficult situations when researchers suspect that EC’s themselves may be instruments and products of the powerful groups they are studying. In that case, EC’s might undermine ethics and research integrity themselves. What do certain EC- ‘conditions’ look like for research ethics and to which extent do they have to be adjusted or reconsidered when criminologists are researching ‘the powerful’? The key question that will be answered in this contribution is as follows: how can criminologist (re)act ethically responsibly when confronted with (un)ethical committees? To answer this and other relevant questions, after reviewing literature, we reflect on a biographical study of a legal arms trader. We then elaborate on the ‘ethics creep’ (Haggerty, 2004) that seems to haunt social sciences nowadays.


Dr. Rita Faria
Rita Faria Docent criminologie, University of Porto rfaria@direito.up.pt

Dr. Yarin Eski
Yarin Eski Docent criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam y.eski@vu.nl
Artikel

Herstelrecht en slachtoffers van bedrijfsgeweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Corporate violence, Health, concepts of participation
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Whether and under which conditions restorative justice can be applied to cases of corporate violence is explored starting from the phenomenon of corporate violence, defined as acts committed by corporations in the course of their regular activities but with harmful consequences for people’s health. Specific characteristics of different types of corporate violence are presented, as well as victims’ needs, experiences and expectations. The applicability of restorative justice, but also the need of its rethinking, is discussed through an analysis of the role of its key actors and the concepts of participation and restoration.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar herstelrecht en victimologie aan de KU Leuven.
Artikel

Access_open Slachtoffers van bedrijfsgeweld

Empirische verkenning van een vergeten groep – ook in het herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden victims, corporate violence, restorative justice
Auteurs Katrien Lauwaert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores victimisation by corporate violence on the basis of case studies, interviews and focus groups with victims and professionals carried out in the European project Victims and Corporations. The typical characteristics of victimisation by corporate violence are described, as well as the harmful effects for victims and their social context. The problematic aspects of tackling corporate violence through criminal procedures lead to a first evaluation of the possible contribution of restorative processes to this field on the basis of interviews and a focus group with restorative justice professionals.


Katrien Lauwaert
Katrien Lauwaert is beleidscoördinator van Moderator Forum voor herstelrecht en bemiddeling vzw, bijzonder hoogleraar restorative justice aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Bianchi-leerstoel) en senior affiliated researcher bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie.
Artikel

Access_open Het monstertruckdrama in Haaksbergen en het vertrek van burgemeester Gerritsen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden blame games, crisis, resignation, local authority, mayor
Auteurs Sandra L. Resodihardjo, Marloes Meijer en Brendan J. Carroll
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Following a crisis, questions are often raised about how this crisis could have happened and whether someone is to be blamed for the crisis or its bad management. The blame game can become fierce as actors try to avoid, shift or mitigate blame in order to stay in office. In 2014, a festival took place in Haaksbergen where a monster truck drove into the audience, killing three people and injuring many others. Not enough safety measures had been taken to prevent the tragedy. Many actors were to blame for that, including the local authority which had granted the permit. Other actors blamed for the events were the mayor, the monster truck driver, and the organization organizing the festival. In the end, the mayor of Haaksbergen resigned. Instead of becoming more accommodative in his response as his blame levels increased, the mayor continued to be quite defensive, stating that the permit would be granted again – even with today’s knowledge. As one council member stated it, one cannot defend something which cannot be defended.


Sandra L. Resodihardjo
Sandra L. Resodihardjo is werkzaam aan de Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Management Research.

Marloes Meijer
Marloes Meijer is werkzaam aan de Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Management Research.

Brendan J. Carroll
Brendan J. Caroll is werkzaam aan de Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Management Research.
Kroniek

Het adolescentenstrafrecht in Nederland: de stand van zaken vier jaar na invoering van de Wet adolescentenstrafrecht

Kroniek van het jeugdrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Youth justice – Jeugdstrafrecht, Adolescence – Adolescentie, Young adults – Jongvolwassenen, Age limits – Leeftijdsgrenzen, Judicial decision-making – Rechterlijke besluitvorming
Auteurs Prof. mr. Ton Liefaard en Dr. Stephanie Rap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On 1 April 2014, the Dutch Act on Adolescent Criminal Law entered into force. With this law, the age limit in article 77c of the Criminal Code, which allows for the application of juvenile criminal law to young adults, was stretched from 21 to 23 years. In this article stock is taken of the developments that have taken place in the four years after the introduction of this law. In practice, article 77c Criminal Code is increasingly being applied in case of young adult suspects, however still to a little extent. Among others, this has to do with confusion about the target group that qualifies for the adolescent criminal law. The access to and justification for the application of the law show a very diverse picture.


Prof. mr. Ton Liefaard
Prof. mr. T. Liefaard is hoogleraar kinderrechten en bekleedt de UNICEF-leerstoel Kinderrechten in de Afdeling Jeugdrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Stephanie Rap
Dr. S.E. Rap is universitair docent bij de Afdeling Jeugdrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

    The article provides a description of the issues and considerrations facing Flemish victim-offender mediators on the job. Instead of focusing on professinal risks and caveats present within victim-offender mediation, the authors concentrate on the positive concept of ‘enabling high quality mediations’. A description is given of the frames that are felt to be helpful towards mediators, stressing the need to act with due creativity if needed. Moreover, in order to enable high quality victim-offender mediations, conditions need to be met, more specifically a common acknowledgment of the need for teamwork. The latter implies conditions such a sound legal basis, a deontological code, formal procedures and constant interaction with practice.


Pieter Verbeeck
Pieter Verbeeck is lid van het coördinatieteam van Moderator Forum voor herstelrecht en bemiddeling vzw en is verantwoordelijk voor het communicatiebeleid.

Hilde Deboeck
Hilde Deboeck is lid van het coördinatieteam van Moderator Forum voor herstelrecht en bemiddeling en is verantwoordelijk voor het personeelsbeleid.

Vincent Geeraets
Vincent Geeraets werkt als universitair docent bij de afdeling rechtstheorie en rechtsgeschiedenis van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Risico’s rondom de eindovereenkomst bij mediation in strafzaken

Over (de)juridisering, strijdige belangen en management van verwachtingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden vaststellingsovereenkomst, Eisen vaststellingsovereenkomst, Strijdige belangen, Eindresultaat, procesbegeleider
Auteurs Janny Dierx en Marlène Panis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Penal mediation is currently gaining ground within the Dutch criminal law system. The practice of penal mediation is still young, however, and therefore vulnerable. Common criminal practice as well as legislation are not yet thoroughly compatible with practicing penal mediation. The authors of this contribution explore some of the dangers mediators in penal cases face while drafting party-agreements that are to be taken into consideration by the judicial authorities.
    The article identifies the responsibilities of penal mediators who at the same time serve the interests of victims and offenders as well as take into account expectations judicial authorities might have. The responsibility of penal mediators is especially delicate whenever mediation parties seek to influence the outcome of the criminal lawsuit through mediation. Criminal law is a highly-regulated field, which – albeit unconsciously – seduces the mediator his- or herself to lose track of the main restorative goals of the mediation process. The authors point out some of the traps penal mediators can and should avoid. The article for instance elaborates the inadequacy of current Dutch regulations to arrange financial compensations and damages through penal mediation. Also, the article enumerates examples of over-juridification as well as the lacking of it. Furthermore, avoidable pitfalls such as McDonald-icing of penal mediation, the uselessness of so-called sunny-weather-vouchers, the dangers of copy-paste-agreements and – the worst – putting the height of their own – currently fixed – fees above party interests, are being addressed.


Janny Dierx
Janny Dierx is jurist en MfN-mediator. Zij is bestuurder van De Mediation Coöperatie en mediator in strafzaken. Ze is commissielid van het Schadefonds Geweldsmisdrijven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Marlène Panis
Marlène Panis is mediation functionaris bij de Rechtbank Zeeland-West-Brabant, zelfstandig mediator en hoofdredacteur van het Infoblad Mediation in Strafzaken.
Artikel

State-corporate crime en niet-democratische regimes: betrokkenheid van bedrijven in internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden state-corporate crime, international crimes, state crime, business and human rights
Auteurs Annika van Baar MA MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Most state-corporate crime research is focused on crime or harmful outcomes in or by democratic states. The goal of this article is to investigate the applicability of this concept to relations between economic actors and non-democratic state actors. The concept of state-corporate crime is applied to three contexts in which corporations have become involved in international crimes such as genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Each representing a turning point in the academic and public perception of ‘business and human rights’, the contexts that are analysed are Nazi Germany (1993-1945), Apartheid South Africa (1948-1994) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC; 1996-now). It is concluded that in non-democratic states with totalitarian of authoritarian regimes (such as Nazi Germany and Apartheid South Africa), the concept of state-corporate crime is applicable and explanatory. In such strong states, economic and state actors make use of mutual benefits while, on the whole, state-interests prevail. As a result, the harmful outcome of the dynamics between corporations and states can best be described as corporate facilitated state crime. In weak states (such as the DRC) economic actors are generally more powerful while their involvement in international crimes also runs via non-state actors. The blurred lines between economic actors and state actors (and their interests) makes it difficult to apply the concept, in its different forms, to state-corporate cooperation in weak states and ‘new’ wars.


Annika van Baar MA MSc
Annika van Baar, MA MSc, is post-doc onderzoeker Resilient Societies – Resilient Rule of Law, Faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: a.vanbaar@uu.nl.
Artikel

‘Troostmeisjes’: Over de structurele ontkenning van seksuele slavernij en voortschrijdende victimisatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden comfort women, denial, sexual slavery, discourse analysis
Auteurs dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Samenvatting

    In 2015, South-Korea and Japan came to a ‘final’ agreement concerning the ‘comfort women’ issue. This contribution reveals that this deal signals the next stage in a process of denial through which Japanese authorities have structurally denied the women’s’ victimhood. Taking a discourse analytical approach, the contribution investigates this historical process of denial and its implications. The analysis shows that denial takes several forms and performs different functions throughout the process. It demonstrates that denial is an interactional phenomenon, has different psychologies underlying it, and that it operates on different levels. Denial ultimately contributes to a state of continued victimization.


dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Artikel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden denial, speech act, discourse theory, performative function of language, cultural criminology
Auteurs prof. dr. Hans Nelen en dr. mr. Roland Moerland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introductory article of this special issue on the language of denial, some relevant concepts in relation to denial, speech act and discourse theory are explored. Stanley Cohen’s distinction between literal, interpretative and implicatory denial is illuminated, as well as the contribution of various scholars on the performative function of language. At the end of the article the relevance of these concepts for (cultural) criminology is explained.


prof. dr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.

dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Dr. mr. Roland Moerland is universitair docent criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

De rol van sociale media bij rampen en (mini)crises

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Sociale media, Crises, Crisiscommunicatie, geruchten
Auteurs Menno van Duin, Vina Wijkhuijs en Jan Eberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professionals dealing with crises are more or less forced to a next level of crisis communication and crisis management. This is because of the influence of social media. Messages on Twitter, Facebook and other social media can have a significant impact on the course of developments during a crisis. Sometimes in a positive way, when help is mobilized quickly and people can be informed almost instantly. On other occasions the impact is more negative, when for instance rumors lead to false accusations or threats. In the past several years, crisis management authorities have built up more experience with the use and application of social media and monitoring tools. There are still cases where officials and professionals are taken by surprise because of the shift stream of messages and their impact on public opinion and crisis control. But also lessons have been learned, e.g. in terms of online and offline reactions, cooperation with the public, and rumor control.
    This article gives an overview of research results in literature and summarizes the outcomes of a case study research project.


Menno van Duin
Menno van Duin is lector crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Vina Wijkhuijs
Vina Wijkhuijs is senior onderzoeker Lectoraat Crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Jan Eberg
Jan Eberg is hoofddocent en onderzoeker integrale veiligheid (HU).
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