Zoekresultaat: 417 artikelen

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Artikel

Over de vraag naar de kwaliteit van de bemiddelaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Bemiddelaar, kwaliteit, Rechtskarakter herstelrecht, Strafrechtspleging
Auteurs Leo Van Garsse
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some believe that the credibility of restorative justice can be increased if more attention is given to the quality of the mediator, as well as methods to select people with the right profile or by training. At first glance this seems a legitimate aim: mediation services should offer quality. Reflecting on practical experience and research into mediation between offenders and victims in Flanders, the author problematizes these assumptions. The quest for tangible quality to ensure ‘credibility’ refers to a neo-liberal approach aimed at reducing risks and promoting the client’s satisfaction. In this article the author confronts the apolitical approach of client satisfaction with alternative ideas about (restorative) justice. Ideally, the mediator is critical of established (legal) authorities and professional expertise. Mediation is political in nature, even if the mediator relies on neutrality. The mediator must be aware of his – inevitable – political stance and should be ready to be interrogated on this matter.


Leo Van Garsse
Leo Van Garsse is oud-herstelbemiddelaar en momenteel werkzaam bij het vicariaat Mechelen – Vlaams Brabant als stafmedewerker voor territoriale pastoraal.

Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Dr. Jan Kornelis Dijkstra
Dr. J.K. Dijkstra is universitair hoofddocent bij de faculteit gedrags- en maatschappijwetenschappen van de Universiteit Groningen.
Redactioneel

Georganiseerde misdaad in de 21ste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden organized crime
Auteurs Prof. dr. Toine Spapens, Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff en Prof. dr. Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past decades, organised crime internationalised rapidly as a result of increasing mobility and ‘open’ borders. At the same time developments in information and communication technology have led to modernisation of existing types of crime and the introduction of novel ones. Finally, criminals have benefited from increasingly diversified migration streams. In the Netherlands and Belgium, organised crime appeared on the agenda in the 1990s. For a long time emphasis was on ‘trade crimes’ i.e. trafficking in drugs and humans, as well as human smuggling, followed by the production of synthetic drugs and cannabis. More recently the Low Countries are confronted by more visible manifestations of organised crime, for example rapid growth of outlaw motorcycle gangs. Criminals also try to utilise their capital to invest in businesses and real estate and to influence local politics.


Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff
Prof. dr. E.W. Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en lector Veiligheid, openbare orde en recht bij Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Prof. dr. Wouter Stol
Prof. dr. W.Ph. Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.
Artikel

Organisatiestructuren van jihadistische netwerken in Nederland

Verschillen en overeenkomsten tussen 2000 en 2013

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden jihadist networks, social network analysis, organizational structures, foreign fighters
Auteurs Dr. Jasper de Bie en Dr. Christianne de Poot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper uses social network analysis to study and compare the organizational structures and division of roles of three jihadist networks in the Netherlands. It uses unique Dutch police data covering the 2000-2013 period. This study demonstrates how the organizational structures differ between different networks. The earliest network has a hierarchical cell structure with a clear division of labour, while the later networks are horizontal and dense networks with less clear orientation on tasks. The core member types in the jihadist networks also differ. The earliest network contains international jihad veterans with clear leadership skills, while the later networks contain home-grown radicals with less status and often a lack of expertise. Furthermore, several jihadists evolve over time, when they used to be supporters, but become core members in posterior networks.


Dr. Jasper de Bie
Dr. J.L. de Bie is onlangs gepromoveerd aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de faculteit rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is senior onderzoeker bij het WODC van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie en tevens lector Forensisch Onderzoek aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn.

Dr. Tina Kretschmer
Dr. T. Kretschmer is assistant professor bij de faculteit gedrags- en maatschappijwetenschappen van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Dr. Liza Cornet
Dr. L.J.M. Cornet is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Dr. Katy de Kogel
Dr. C.H. de Kogel is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Slachtoffer van arbeidsuitbuiting?

Een kwalitatieve studie naar ideaaltypische trajecten die leiden tot zelfidentificatie als slachtoffer van mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden self-identification, labour exploitation, human trafficking, victimology, grounded theory
Auteurs Niki Tielbaard MSc., Dr. Masja van Meeteren en Xenia Commandeur MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although the Netherlands criminalised some forms of labour exploitation as human trafficking, many cases remain undetected. This is probably due to low self-identification among victims. Whereas research revealed factors obstructing self-identification among victims, it remains unclear how some victims do arrive at self-identification. Drawing on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with victims and professionals, this qualitative study identifies two ideal-typical pathways to self-identification. In the first trajectory self-identification is gradually formed through information gathering and deteriorating working conditions. In the second trajectory self-identification is triggered by a sudden vital event.


Niki Tielbaard MSc.
N.M Tielbaard is masterstudent Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en was stagiaire bij FairWork te Amsterdam en masterstudent Veiligheidsbeleid en Rechtshandhaving aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Masja van Meeteren
Dr. M.J. van Meeteren is Universitair Hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Xenia Commandeur MA
Drs. X.D. Commandeur is onderzoeker mensenhandel
Artikel

Cannabis Social Clubs through the lens of the drug user movement

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Cannabis Social Clubs, supply, cannabis policy, self-organization, drug user movement
Auteurs Mafalda Pardal MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are a model of non-profit production and distribution of cannabis among a closed circuit of adult cannabis users. The CSC model can thus be seen as a middle-ground option between prohibition and full (legal) commercialization. Initially founded in Spain during the 1990s, this form of collectives has emerged elsewhere in Europe (notably in Belgium), mainly as a result of grassroots initiatives and self-regulation. Uruguay remains the only jurisdiction to have legalized and regulated the CSC model. This paper discusses the goals and practices of CSCs against the backdrop of the drug user movement. Our goal is to draw a comparison to other drug users’ organizations and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research into CSCs. In this analysis, we rely on a review of the relevant literature in this field and on preliminary findings from an ongoing study examining CSCs in Belgium. A preoccupation with reducing the harms associated with drug use seems to be an underlying guiding principle for CSCs and other drug users’ organizations, but further research into CSCs’ practices is needed to understand whether and how those are implemented. We found other common points between the broader drug user movement and the efforts of CSCs, both in terms of potential pitfalls and areas for positive impact. We suggest that the model warrants additional attention from both the research and policy-making community.


Mafalda Pardal MSc
Mafalda Pardal, MSc, is onderzoekster en doctoraatskandidate aan het Instituut voor Sociaal Drugsonderzoek, Universiteit Gent, België). Momenteel werkt zij aan een driejarig onderzoeksproject rond de cannabis social clubs in België. Daarvoor werkte zij als analiste bij RAND Europe, waar ze onderzoek deed rond drugsbeleid, migratie en strafrechtelijk beleid.

    It has become evident that the use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is becoming an important societal issue, with ramifications extending beyond elite sport. A particular concern of authorities is that the majority of PIEDs are not legally obtained through a physician, by means of a prescription, but instead are illegally purchased on the illicit market. Currently little research exists on the illegal production and supply of PIEDs. However, understanding illicit PIED markets is important for policy decisions as knowledge on the production and supply of these substances may assist in designing law enforcement efforts, harm reduction initiatives and other measures. This article will, therefore, focus on the production and supply of PIEDs in Belgium and the Netherlands. Specifically, it will examine the general characteristics of PIED suppliers and the ways in which the behaviour of dealers are influenced by cultural factors. In particular the role of the legal profession of PIED suppliers is examined, taking the fitness industry as an example. This research is based on a content analysis of 64 PIED-dealing cases initiated by criminal justice agencies in the Netherlands (N=33) and Belgium (N=31). This article illustrates that the dealing of PIEDs is a rather specialised business and that not everyone has the suitable ties, opportunities and/or knowledge to enter the PIED market. Many PIED dealers are already devoted to a gym, sport, medical, or other subculture before becoming involved in dealing. Importantly, the embeddedness of PIED-related supply-side activities in legitimate professions, roles, and institutional settings form an integral part of the market culture these dealers engage in. We, therefore, need to examine the production, distribution and use of PIEDs, as embedded within a diverse combination of social, economic and cultural processes, in which none is simply reducible to the other.


dr. Katinka van de Ven
Dr. Katinka van de Ven is werkzaam als Lecturer in Criminology aan de Birmingham City University. Zij is daarnaast oprichter en coördinator van het Human Enhancement Drug Network (HEDN) (www.humanenhancementdrugs.com).

    GHB is an anaesthetic that in Netherlands since the 1990s is used as a drug by various groups. Although GHB is often defined as a ‘party drug’, particularly in rural areas it is also used in street cultures. GHB is mainly used recreationally, but a minority uses the drug frequently and/or becomes addicted. GHB use and associated problems are disproportionately spread across the Netherlands and are concentrated in certain rural areas (‘trouble spots’), especially in low SES villages or neighbourhoods. Predominantly based on qualitative research, this article describes supply and use of GHB in rural ‘trouble spots’. The profile of experienced current GHB users in rural areas is characterized by a wide age range, a low level of education, often multiple psychosocial problems and poly drug use. They are almost exclusively ‘white’, in majority male users, of whom a large part has been arrested on several occasions. From a supply perspective, GHB could spread quickly because of the short distribution chain, the limited social distance between dealers and users, as well as the closeness an reticence of user groups. Even though as a drug GHB is very different from methamphetamine, there are striking similarities in set and setting characteristics between rural GHB use in the Netherlands and rural methamphetamine use in the US.


Dr. Ton Nabben
Dr. Ton Nabben is onderzoeker en docent op het Bonger Instituut voor Criminologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is medeauteur van het jaarlijks verschijnende Antenneonderzoek naar trends in alcohol, tabak en drugs bij jonge Amsterdammers. In 2010 kwam zijn proefschrift uit over het gebruik van uitgaansdrugs in Amsterdam.

prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf
Prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Dr. Ben Vollaard
Dr. B.A. Vollaard is universitair docent economie aan de Universiteit Tilburg.

Prof. dr. mr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. mr. H. Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Criminele carrières van ordeverstoorders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2016
Auteurs Drs. Tom van Ham, Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland, Dr. Henk Ferwerda e.a.
Auteursinformatie

Drs. Tom van Ham
Drs. T. van Ham is als onderzoeker verbonden aan Bureau Beke.

Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en als bijzonder hoogleraar verbonden aan de Universiteit van Leiden.

Dr. Henk Ferwerda
Dr. H.B. Ferwerda is directeur van Bureau Beke.

Prof. dr. Theo Doreleijers
Prof. dr. Th.A.H. Doreleijers is emeritus hoogleraar kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie.

Dr. Otto Adang
Dr. O.M.J. Adang is lector Openbare Orde & Gevaarbeheersing bij de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Geweld op school als handelingsalternatief?

Een partiële toets van het perceptie-keuzeproces uit de situationele-actietheorie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden randomised scenario study, Situational Action Theory, propensity, scenario criminogeneity
Auteurs Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this replica study in adolescents (N=1,040) we analyse to what extent characteristics of the environment like the presence of provocation and monitoring of teachers are related to choosing a violent response in a school context. The study starts from a key hypothesis of Situational Action Theory (SAT) and uses a randomised scenario study that allows for randomisation of environmental stimuli, while taking into account individuals’ propensity to break rules (as measured by their moral beliefs and emotions and ability to exercise self-control). The results demonstrate that high propensity adolescents are very strongly triggered by scenario criminogeneity (the accumulation of absence of monitoring and presence of provocation), while low propensity individuals are to a higher degree situationally resistant. The findings are in line with one of the key ideas of SAT.


Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. J.R. Pauwels is professor in het vakgebied criminologie aan de vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht (UGent) en directeur van de onderzoeksgroep IRCP (Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy).
Artikel

Ideologische vertekeningen binnen straf- en herstelrecht

Oorsprongsverhalen en de dwaling van zelfbeschadiging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Oorsprongsverhalen, Zelfbeschadiging, Chaos, Harmonie
Auteurs Vincent Geeraets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Adherents to restorative justice are to be commended for systematically questioning whether the manner in which criminal law is currently organised is a good thing. The debate about criminal justice and restorative justice is therefore an important one. It is also a debate which is occasionally marred by a reliance on ideology. In this article, a number of ideological claims are identified and discussed. First, both adherents to criminal law and supporters of restorative justice invoke an ‘origin story’ to defend their view. The origin story of criminal law consists of the idea that without criminal law the world would be a chaos, i.e. the world would resemble the state of nature as depicted by Hobbes. In contrast: the origin story of restorative justice revolves around the idea that without central authority people tend to resolve their conflicts harmoniously. I argue that neither types of origin story can withstand scrutiny. Secondly, in both the context of criminal law (e.g. Antony Duff) and restorative justice (e.g. Jacques Claessen), it is claimed that an individual by violating the rules harms himself as a person. The point of punishment (criminal justice) respectively reparation (restorative justice) therefore is to enable the offender to restore himself and to once again take up his role of citizen. I argue that the claim of self-harm may be based on a primitive worldview. Moreover, I show that this claim can be used to describe criminal law respectively restorative justice in terms that are too harmonious. In this way we lose sight of the coercion and violence that is involved in both contexts.


Vincent Geeraets
Vincent Geeraets is docent rechtstheorie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, VU Amsterdam.
Artikel

Begrip, rust, recht en regie: naar een verklaringsmodel voor de werking van herstelbemiddeling

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Verklaringsmodel, Effecten, Recidivevermindering, procedure, attributie
Auteurs Bas Vogelvang en Gert Jan Slump
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on a literature research and program evaluation of the practice of Victim in Focus (Slachtoffer in Beeld) in 2013, two issues are addressed: What are the possible effects of victim offender mediation? Which active mechanisms will cause or contribute to these effects? The authors describe the current context and developments in The Netherlands concerning restorative justice and then describe the effects and possible active mechanisms such as satisfaction, diminishing fear, anger and shame, information and consent, procedural justice, reduction of recidivism, compliance. In a synthesis of active mechanisms they present four domains or mediating factors: from incomprehension to comprehension (cognitive restoration); from unease to ease (emotional restoration); from injustice to justice (moral restoration); from powerless to powerful feelings (restoration of control). The victim offender mediation as a ritual has an impact or is supposed to have an impact on these four domains for both victims and offenders. Within the four domains four activities or interactions within victim offender mediation are presented: creating understanding through inter-subjectivity; expression of fear, trauma and shame; doing justice by excuses/apologies and restorative actions; regaining self control. Further research is needed to validate the model and to get more insight in essential or primary and secondary aspects in the explanation of the impacts of victim offender mediation.


Bas Vogelvang
Bas Vogelvang is lector Reclassering en Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Gert Jan Slump
Gert Jan Slump is criminoloog, sociaal-maatschappelijk ondernemer en consultant, adviseur en trainer. In 2010 was hij medeoprichter van de Stichting Restorative Justice Nederland en sindsdien ontwikkelt hij samen met organisaties en professionals binnen het netwerk rond herstelrecht en herstelgericht werken in Nederland allerlei projecten op dit terrein. Hij is een veelgevraagd spreker op dit terrein. Gert Jan is ook actief op het terrein van professionaliseringsvraagstukken, onder meer binnen de jeugdzorg.
Artikel

Moving beyond the other

A critique of the reductionist drugs discourse

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden drug use, drug users, drug policy, drug reform, media, discourse, the other
Auteurs Stuart Taylor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper uses the UK as a vehicle through which to argue that a dominant reductionist drugs discourse exists which simplifies understandings of drug use and drug users leading to socio-cultural misrepresentations of harm, risk and dangerousness. It contends that at the centre of this discourse lies the process of othering – the identification of specific substances and substance users as a threat to UK society. Interestingly, within the wider context of global drug policy reform this othering process appears to be expanding to target a wider variety of factors and actors – those policies, research findings and individuals which contest normative notions, resulting in the marginalisation of ‘alternative voices’ which question the entrenched assumptions associated with drug prohibition. The paper concludes that there is a need for collective action by critical scholars to move beyond the other, calling for academics to be innovative in their research agendas, creative in their dissemination of knowledge and resolute despite the threat of being othered themselves.


Stuart Taylor
Stuart Taylor is senior lecturer in criminal justice in the School of Law at Liverpool John Moores University, UK.
Artikel

The Other: een introductie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden outsiders, marginalization, social sciences, othering, criminology
Auteurs Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed en Prof. dr. Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This introductory article describes who ‘the other’ is and what the place of ‘the other’ is in social scientific studies. The concept of ‘the other’ became the central object of study with the emergence of anthropology. In sociology and criminology the focus of study has been on ‘the other’ in ‘our’ midst. Although there are ‘positive others’, such as significant others, the other is more often perceived as unwanted, dangerous, threatening and even as an enemy. The other is socially constructed, usually on the basis of cultural and socio-economic differ­ences that set ‘the other’ apart from the powerful. Critical and cultural criminologists have therefore since the 1960s focused on ‘the other’ and how they are created in processes of marginalization and how they are subjected to criminalization.


Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed
Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed is universitair docent bij de Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

De Marokkanenpaniek: de sociale constructie van ‘Marokkanen’ als folk devils

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden moral panic, folk devils, othering, ethnicity, Moroccans
Auteurs Abdessamad Bouabid MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the nineties, the ‘Moroccan community’ experiences a negative group-image based on a small group of male youths who ‘stand out’ in social problems such as nuisance, crime and Islamic radicalisation. This negative group image is largely constructed through negative societal reactions in the media on incidents in which Moroccan Dutch youngsters play a prominent role. This article examines such negative societal reactions in the media on three recent incidents: the 2007 Slotervaart riots, the 2008 Gouda ‘bus incident’ and the 2010 Culemborg riots. It concludes that the societal reactions to these incidents in the media, are exaggerated, symbolise ‘the Moroccans’ as folk devils and construct them as moral and cultural Others. Finally, it concludes that these negative societal reactions to ‘Moroccans’ in Dutch media can be seen as a disproportional and misplaced, but natural reaction of a dominant cultural majority to a threat to their cultural and moral hegemony, by ‘the Moroccans’ as a social deviant minor­ity.


Abdessamad Bouabid MSc
Abdessamad Bouabid, MSc is PhD-kandidaat en docent bij de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
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