Zoekresultaat: 111 artikelen

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Jaar 2015 x
Artikel

Access_open ‘Je kan heel goed kritisch zijn op een nette manier’

Kees Schuyt over veranderende wetenschapscultuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Research integrity, sociology, fraud, academic culture
Auteurs dr. Barbra van Gestel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch sociologist and lawyer Kees Schuyt worked as scientific researcher and professor of sociology for the University of Leiden and University of Amsterdam. He has written about forty books and many articles about the welfare state, the philosophy of social science and the sociology of law. Between 2006 and 2014 he was chairman of The Netherlands Board on Research Integrity (LOWI). Recently he wrote the book Between fault and fraud. Integrity and dishonest behavior in scientific research. In this interview, Schuyt talks about the role of scientific integrity in his own career and specifically elaborates on dishonest behavior and scientific competition.


dr. Barbra van Gestel
Dr. Barbra van Gestel is socioloog en als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC).
Boekbespreking

‘Ik was echt zorgvuldig’

De carrière van een wetenschappelijke fraudeur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Scientific misconduct, Diederik Stapel, culture of competition, questionable research procedures, ‘indifferent tolerance’
Auteurs dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article I focus on the academic environment in which social psychologist Diederik Stapel worked and developed his career as a con academic. He published over 50 articles with fabricated data in top tier journals. This article is based on interviews with Stapel himself and document analysis. Especially, I pay attention to his socialization as an academic in his years at the University of Amsterdam, where he did his PhD (1986-2000). In my description of how social psychology developed in the nineties in Amsterdam it becomes clear that there was a strong emphasis on competition and publishing articles in top tier journals. Stapel conformed to this culture of competition and published almost as much as the two leading full professors of his department during the period 1995-2000. In the early nineties Stapel discovered that the use of questionable research procedures (QRPs) was common in social psychology. He realized that without using these procedures it was hardly possible to get good results and publish frequently in top tier journals. Though Stapel resented this partly and was disenchanted by this experience, he did integrate QRPs in his daily academic practice. He actually raised the issue of QRPs in a lecture in Oxford when he received the Jos Jaspars Early Career Award of the EAESP, but there was hardly any substantive response to his presentation. The academic culture in which Stapel developed his career can be described as ‘indifferent tolerant’. Though Stapel does refer to the circumstances which influenced his academic fraud, he does state that he himself is responsible for his massive scientific misconduct.


dr. Thaddeus Müller
Dr. Thaddeus Müller is verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Scientific misconduct: how organizational culture plays its part

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden scientific misconduct, organizational culture, social control
Auteurs Rita Faria PhD student
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Scientific misconduct takes place at the heart of higher education organizations. Organizational culture (meso level) shapes scholars’ behaviors and perceptions (micro level) about what should be problematized while conducting research and teaching. In this paper it is argued that there are organizational mechanisms at place by which organizational goals (funding) and professional goals (recognition) become indistinguishable. The mechanisms are: pressure, loose social control, scarce resources and lack of alternatives. Scholars may strategically react to these mechanisms by accepting, fitting in, resisting or giving up. It is at the heart of these mechanisms and strategies that problematic behaviors may emerge.


Rita Faria PhD student
Rita Faria is Lecturer at the School of Criminology – Faculty of Law of the University of Porto (Portugal).
Artikel

Ethische dilemma’s bij criminologisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Ethical issues, Scientific integrity, Confidentiality, Informed consent, Fabrication and falsification, Ethical commissions
Auteurs Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in scientific malpractice. In the Netherlands, for example, several major cases of plagiarism, fabrication of data and falsification of findings have come to light. The scandal surrounding the Dutch social psychologist Diederik Stapel, who simply made up the results of empirical research, prompted worldwide attention. As a result of these scandals, universities have, in the past few years, increased their efforts to better ensure the integrity of scientific research. In this process it is sometimes overlooked that scientific integrity is not a clear-cut concept. By examining three ethical issues relevant to criminological research, this article aims to illustrate that the assessment of integrity is a complicated matter. The first dilemma relates to maintaining confidentiality: how to ensure that the privacy of respondents is protected and the research will not harm their interests? The second dilemma has to do with the degree of openness and transparency required from the viewpoint of scientific accountability. How transparent can one be when it comes to conducting scientific research based on secret information and closed sources that are only accessible to the researchers? Finally, the third dilemma concerns the independent position of criminological research. What are the possibilities and limitations of free and independent research in the field of criminology?


Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt
Prof. dr. H.G. (Henk) van de Bunt is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Reageren op problematisch wetenschappelijk gedrag voorbij de moralisering: een ander wetenschapsbeleid is mogelijk!

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Science studies, Scientific fraud, Science policy, Knowledge economy, Regulation of sciences
Auteurs Prof. dr. Serge Gutwirth en prof. dr. Jenneke Christiaens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors focus upon the measures taken as a reaction against scientific fraud against the background of the contemporary science policy that turns the practice of science into a knowledge economy. In the light of the availability but obvious underuse of reactive legal means, they question the recourse to proactive ethical control and regulation of the scientific activities. They contend that such science policy is not so much the expression of a reaction against exceptional cases of scientific fraud, than of an endeavour to discipline and control scientist to the constraints of the knowledge economy. For the authors, however, the latter is the problem to be solved: another science policy is needed.


Prof. dr. Serge Gutwirth
Prof. dr. S. (Serge) Gutwirth is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de Faculteit Recht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB).

prof. dr. Jenneke Christiaens
Prof. dr. J. (Jenneke) Christiaens is hoogleraar aan de Faculteit Recht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB).
Artikel

Concurreren voor de waarheid: neoliberalisme en wetenschapsfraude

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden neoliberalism, science, fraud
Auteurs prof. dr. Paul Verhaeghe en Jochem Willemsen Ph.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The phenomenon of scientific fraud has to be studied within the context of neoliberal meritocracy. In this organisational system, the position of the individual within a group (society, university, etc.) is determined by his or her merits in terms of (economic) productivity. Although this sounds fair, neoliberal meritocracy leads to social inequality, unlimited competition between individuals, egoism, priority of quantity over quality, and the irrelevance of ethics. Within the world of scientific research, neoliberal meritocracy leads to sloppy or even fraudulent science, because it incites researchers to prioritize publication criteria before qualitative research.


prof. dr. Paul Verhaeghe
Prof. dr. Paul Verhaeghe is klinisch psycholoog en psychoanalyticus. Hij is hoogleraar aan de Universiteit Gent. Sedert 2000 gaat zijn onderzoek over de effecten van maatschappelijke veranderingen op het individu. In 2012 publiceerde hij Identiteit.

Jochem Willemsen Ph.D.
Jochem Willemsen is doctor in de klinische psychologie en psychoanalytisch psychotherapeut. Zijn onderzoek is gericht op psychopathie en forensische psychotherapie. Hij is docent aan de University of Essex.
Artikel

Positieve veiligheid: een kwestie van vertrouwen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden positive security, trust, agency, public familiarity, social engineering
Auteurs Fenna van Marle
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The concept of security is mainly used in a negative way as it is related to the prevention and repression of matters which are perceived as not secure or not safe. This article provides a definition of positive security in order to provide a starting point for research and for working on positive security in the field. The influence of the belief in the idea of social engineering on the negative view of security is discussed and the way in which this is a hindrance to security. The meaning of the concept of security is outlined by focusing on the origin of this concept, the difference between objective and subjective security and by distinguishing it from the absence of crime. Research on public familiarity is covered which is argued to be an important concept in relation to positive security as it shows the importance of trust and predictability. The statement that trust is crucial to security is further supported by examining this relationship from a psychological perspective. In addition agency is introduced as the second factor, next to trust, as conditions for creating positive security. Finally, the focus is on the practical utility of the operationalisation of positive security for further research on the way positive security is shaped in practice.


Fenna van Marle
Fenna van Marle is Hogeschooldocent Integrale Veiligheidskunde aan de De Haagse Hogeschool.
Artikel

Kwaadwillige intenties beter gedetecteerd met gecombineerde observaties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden afwijkend gedrag, zakkenrollers, signaaldetectietheorie, toezichthouders
Auteurs Dr. Remco Wijn en Dr. Jack Vogels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A single observation of deviant behavior by security officers often provides insufficient information about potential malicious intentions of individuals. This article shows that combining multiple security officers’ observations of deviant behaviors leads to better judgments about possible malicious intentions than judgments of individual officers. In the study described in this paper, experienced supervisors viewed CCTV images of a mall in which pickpockets were active (in reality these pickpockets were confederates). Participants could tag individuals in the footage if they felt that these individuals portrayed deviant behaviors. Using statistics based on signal detection theory, we calculated the accuracy with which individuals in the footage with hostile intentions (i.e., our confederates) were distinguished from individuals without hostile intentions (i.e., the general public). We compared the aggregated individual accuracy scores of participants to accuracy scores of combinations of 2, 3, or 4 participants. Results show that combining observations from two participants leads to higher accuracy than observations of individual supervisors. This effect is mainly caused by an increase in hits (correctly tagged pickpockets). As observations of more participants are added (viz., combinations of 3 or 4 participants) accuracy stagnates. This is mainly caused by an increase in false alarms (judged hostile by participants, but in reality innocent visitors). Implications are discussed for organizations in the security domain and for further research.


Dr. Remco Wijn
Dr. Remco Wijn is research scientist bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences

Dr. Jack Vogels
Dr. Jack Vogels is research scientist bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences.
Artikel

Burgerparticipatie en ‘crafting’ in het lokale veiligheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden neighbourhood professionals, crafting, citizen participation
Auteurs Marco van der Land en Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An increasingly large degree of ‘public craftsmanship’ is demanded from professionals working in neighborhoods where citizens actively participate in security issues. The central question in this article is what role these neighbourhood professionals – mostly civil servants, (community) police officers and welfare professionals – play in facilitating and supporting civic projects in the field of security, how they create their ‘own’ social order outside of the formal policy domain of the organizations involved, and how they keep the public interest in mind. On the basis of three types of neighbourhood based projects – Neighbourhood Watches, ‘The Neighbourhood Governs’, and Residential Budgets – questions about the improvising and ‘crafting’ work of professionals are explored in this article. Such work is much needed in order to successfully establish connections between the different parties involved, navigate between the interests of citizens and organizations, recruit civilians while simultaneously amending their aspirations and expectations, safeguard public interests and ensure the progress of projects. Some professionals back away from these additional tasks and responsibilities they are increasingly face with. In many neighbourhoods much more is required from professionals however than the traditional roles as they were once defined by police, welfare and municipal organizations. In particular, the ‘new’ crafting professionals need to be able to deal with unreasonable expectations of ‘angry citizens’ who tend to dominate citizen participation in local security issues, act impartially and be accountable to the larger public, show personality and street credibility, and, finally, be attentive to unequal outcomes with regard to the distribution of safety and security projects in neighborhoods and districts.


Marco van der Land
Marco van der Land is verbonden aan de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Veiligheid van de Haagse Hogeschool en hoofdredacteur van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.

Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de Leerstoel Veiligheid en Burgerschap van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Centrum voor Ethiek van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
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