Zoekresultaat: 117 artikelen

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Artikel

Trajecten van vrouwelijke gedetineerden

Weinig jeugddelinquenten, veel late starters

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Vrouwelijke gedetineerden, Interviews, Criminele carrière
Auteurs An Nuytiens en Jenneke Christiaens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, an ongoing Flemish qualitative research on life histories and criminal careers of women in prison is discussed. We conducted autobiographical interviews with 40 female prisoners aged between 20 and 69 years. Considering our target group, we didn’t always succeed in conducting an autobiographical interview. In practice we often conducted a classic open in-depth interview. By means of file analysis, we reconstituted the criminal career of every interviewed woman. Thanks to the retrospective approach we could reveal a diversity of trajectories. We identified three pathways: (1) youth offenders, (2) early adult-onset offenders and (3) late adult-onset offenders. Remarkably, quite a lot of women are late starters. Three risk factors – to a greater or lesser extent – play a role in these pathways: a problematic educational situation in childhood, drugs and negative love affairs.


An Nuytiens
A. Nuytiens is onderzoekster bij de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, an.nuytiens@vub.ac.be.

Jenneke Christiaens
Prof. dr. J. Christiaens is hoofddocent bij de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, jenneke.christiaens@vub.ac.be.
Artikel

Oorzaken van het mijden van onveilige situaties bij mannen en vrouwen

Een contextuele analyse op basis van de ‘collective efficacy’-theorie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Angst voor criminaliteit, Mijdgedrag, Collective efficacy
Auteurs Dr. Wim Hardyns, Prof. dr. Stefaan Pleysier en Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two explanations can be found for the unequal geographical concentrations of avoidance behaviour: (1) the demographic composition of residential areas, and (2) the social and structural contextual effects of residential areas. Different studies all over the world have shown that women report more fear of crime than men. In this article we study contextual as well as individual determinants of avoidance behaviour for men and women separately to gain a better insight in the explanation of individual differences in avoidance behaviour. The theoretical framework of this study is derived from the collective efficacy theory. In the present study a contextual model was tested on a 2009 survey of 2,080 residents from 40 municipalities in Flanders (Belgium), by using block-wise multilevel analyses on data from the Social Cohesion Indicators in Flanders Survey (SCIF-survey), the Security Monitor and the registered crime statistics. The results indicate that economic disadvantage in the residential area increases the risk on avoidance behaviour both for men and women, because these areas often have high disorder and violent crime rates. With regard to the social ecology of crime this study shows that more research is needed on the differences in contextual effects of structural area characteristics on avoidance behaviour.


Dr. Wim Hardyns
Dr. W. Hardyns is verbonden aan de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA) en het Centre for the Study of Urban Crime and Delinquency (UCD) binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent. Op 1 november 2010 heeft hij zijn doctoraal proefschrift verdedigd met de titel: Social cohesion and crime. A multilevel study of collective efficacy, victimisation and fear of crime, wim.hardyns@ugent.be.

Prof. dr. Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. Pleysier is als docent verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) van de K.U. Leuven, stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be.

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is codirecteur van het Centre for the Study of Urban Crime and Delinquency, Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA-UCD) binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent, lieven.pauwels@ugent.be.
Artikel

Downloaders van kinderporno

Een overzicht van de literatuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderporno, Downloaden, Zedencriminaliteit, Literatuurstudie
Auteurs Anton van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Unlike the physical abusers of children, little is known about downloaders of child pornography. The key questions in this article are: who are the downloaders, what are their backgrounds, why and how they download child pornography, how they behave offline and online and what types of downloaders can be distinguished? A simple answer to these questions is currently impossible to give. There is more, preferably longitudinal, research needed on risk factors for downloading child pornography and the various types of downloaders. Combating the downloaders requires a lot of the police in terms of international cooperation and up to date knowledge and expertise. This also served the treatment practices, which is partly dependent on a properly conducted police investigation.


Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. A.Ph. van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke. E-mail: a.vanwijk@beke.nl.
Artikel

Gekocht, maar niet gekregen

Slachtofferschap van online oplichting nader onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Online oplichting, Slachtofferschap, Slachtofferenquête, Lage zelfcontrole
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consumer fraud seems to be widespread, yet little research is devoted to understanding why certain social groups are more vulnerable to this type of victimization than others. The present paper deals with internet consumer fraud victimization, and uses an explanatory model that combines insights from self control theory and routine activity theory. The results from large-scale victimization survey data among the Dutch general population (N=6,201) reveal that people with low self-control run substantially higher victimization risk, as well as people performing ‘risky’ routine activities, such as online shopping and participation in online forums. Though a minority share of the self-control-victimization link is indirect – because people with low self-control are more involved in risk-enhancing routine activities – a large direct effect on internet fraud victimization remains. This suggests that, within similar situations, people with poor impulse control respond differently to deceptive online commercial offers.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Contactadres: postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. Tel. 071-5277418. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Het aanbod van herstelgerichte interventies aan slachtoffers van geweldsmisdrijven

Is een beschermende of proactieve aanpak wenselijk?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden slachtoffers, victimologie, geweldsmisdrijven, slachtofferhulp, bemiddeling, bescherming
Auteurs Tinneke Van Camp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Evaluative studies show that victims are generally satisfied with their participation in a restorative intervention, even when concerning violent crime. Therefore, we don’t have to ask whether restorative justice should be offered to victims of crime, but how it should be offered. Using the victimological literature, we explore the appropriateness of two opposing models with regard to the offer in violent crime cases. The protective model, as for instance endorsed by victim support services in Québec, is based on the concern for the protection of vulnerable victims. The proactive model, as inscribed in the 2005 law on the general offer of mediation in Belgium, is based on the informed consent principle. Both models respect the needs of victims, while ranking these needs differently. The available empirical and theoretical observations on the subject do not unilaterally support or reject either model. We, therefore, present a complementary, albeit theoretical model, i.e. the integration of the invitation to a restorative intervention within victim support services.


Tinneke Van Camp
Tinneke Van Camp is doctoraatsstudent aan de École de Criminologie, Université de Montréal (Canada), en vrijwillig medewerker van het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, KULeuven.
Artikel

Terug bij af?

Terugkeer en re-integratie van Bulgaarse vrouwen na uitbuiting in de prostitutie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden prostitutie, Bulgarije, remigratie, slachtofferschap
Auteurs MsC Loes Kersten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This research aimed to describe the remigration of Bulgarian women who had been exploited in prostitution in the Netherlands. The difficulties they encountered during their attempt to reintegrate in their environment of origin was one of the main points of interest. Files of Bulgarian women registered as victims have been analyzed in both the Netherlands and in Bulgaria. Interviews were held with current Bulgarian sex workers, former victims of trafficking and several professionals involved in the wellbeing of these women. In many cases remigration turned out to be a temporary situation as many women returned to the Netherlands later on. Partly for that reason it appeared difficult to keep track of their situation after they (initially) came back to Bulgaria. Many women encounter the very problems that contributed to the situation of trafficking in the first place. This makes it difficult to change their marginal position: prostitution remains a well paid option if the circumstances that have led to their exploitation in prostitution remain the same. This does not necessarily lead to repeated victimization, but at least to only a limited difference that reintegration programs can make.


MsC Loes Kersten
L.G.P. Kersten MsC was student criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en voerde dit onderzoek uit in het kader van haar afstudeerproject, kersten.loes@gmail.com.
Artikel

Digitale en traditionele bedreiging vergeleken

Een studie naar risicofactoren van slachtofferschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Bedreiging, Slachtofferschap, Cybercriminaliteit, Internet
Auteurs dr. Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Computers and the internet offer new ways to offenders for committing crimes. The present article uses routine activity theory and large-scale victimization survey data (N=6,896) to study digital threat victimization (i.e. threats people receive by email or chat rooms) in the general population. It assesses risk factors for digital threats and compares them with risk factors for receiving traditional threats and a mixture of digital and traditional threats. The results show that youngsters and offenders of digital crime run higher risks of all types of threat victimization. In extension, outdoor routine activities increase the risk not only of traditional threats but of digital threats as well, while the same holds for certain computer activities (e.g. having a profile on Hyves). These findings point towards the connection of social interactions between people in the physical and digital world. Finally, the results suggest that impulsive people are more vulnerable to threat victimization.


dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent criminologie, Universiteit Leiden, J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Titel

Het (on)grijpbare onveiligheidsgevoel: Een exploratie van de structuur binnen het onveiligheidsconcept van mannen en vrouwen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 01 2006
Trefwoorden Risico, Model, Slachtoffer, Overlast, Auteur, Media, Diefstal met braak, Fout, Bedreiging, Identificatie
Auteurs De Groof, S.

De Groof, S.
Titel

Zit criminaliteit in de menselijke genen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 02 2005
Trefwoorden Geweld, Delinquent, Kind, Menselijke gedraging, Fysiek geweld, Risico, Aansprakelijkheid, Adoptiekind, Biologische ouder, Erkenning
Auteurs Parmentier, S.

Parmentier, S.
Titel

Partnergeweld in Nederland: Een secundaire analyse van de Intomart-onderzoeken naar huiselijk geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 01 2005
Trefwoorden Geweld, Huiselijk geweld, Slachtoffer, Delinquent, Seksueel geweld, Ouders, Aandeel, Enquête, Politie, Aansprakelijkheid
Auteurs Wittebrood, K. en Veldheer, V.

Wittebrood, K.

Veldheer, V.
Artikel

Filteren op internet

De rol van de Nederlandse overheid in het blokkeren van kinderpornografische websites

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden filteren, internet, kinderporno, politie
Auteurs Rutger Leukfeldt, Wouter Stol, Rik Kaspersen e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The distribution of child pornography on the internet is observed as a major social problem. In the Netherlands a lively political-social discussion has emerged concerning the manner in which this can be prevented. The discussion moves between two polarities. On the one hand the dangers of internet censure are emphasised and on the other hand the need for a clamp down in which every measure seems to be justified. The present government wants to combat child pornography and by doing so answer the moral indignation of society. A means that the Dutch government, and on her behalf the police, uses, is blocking websites with child-pornographic content. The possibilities of the Dutch government to filter effectively, however, are restricted. The accuracy of existing filters is low and it is easy to get around filters. In addition, opportunities are restricted by constitutional rights. A filter that stops all websites with child pornography is bound to stop legal internet traffic too. That is at odds with the constitutional rights of freedom of expression and freedom of information gathering. The realisation of a filter that respects fundamental rights and still is able to block child pornography requires a lot of police manpower. This comes at the expense of the tracking down of criminals who produce and distribute child pornography. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the use of the child-pornography filter leads to the purposes for which they are deployed, such as hindering the sale of child pornography or reducing the abuse of children. The police, therefore, is assigned to a task that requires a considerable amount of time, but the benefits of which are unclear.


Rutger Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt is junior onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van de NHL Hogeschool. E-mail: e.r.leukfeldt@ecma.nhl.nl.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool, bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit Nederland en onderzoeker aan de Politieacademie. E-mail: w.ph.stol@ecma.nhl.nl.

Rik Kaspersen
Rik Kaspersen is emeritus hoogleraar Informatica en Recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: hwkkas@xs4all.nl.

Joyce Kerstens
Joyce Kerstens is docent-onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van de NHL Hogeschool. E-mail: j.kerstens@ecma.nhl.nl.

Arno Lodder
Arno Lodder is universitair hoofddocent van de Afdeling Informatica en Recht, Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: a.r.lodder@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

De aard en omvang van belaging in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden belaging, stalking
Auteurs Suzan van der Aa en Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over nine years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provision there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the prevalence and nature of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. In order to generate these findings the results of the national Police Monitor of 2001 were analysed. Of the 88,607 respondents 24 percent reported a lifetime rate of stalking victimization and for 1.2 to 3.1 percent of the respondents the harassment had begun in the 12 months previous to the study. With almost one in three women (28.6%) and almost one in five men (19.2%), women were significantly more likely to report having been stalked at some time during their lives. In line with previous research age was significantly related to life-time stalking with younger people having greater odds of reporting victimization. (Cor)relations were furthermore found between stalking and having a job, being originally of another than the Dutch nationality and education. But, apart from gender, the odds ratios for those socio-demographic variables were only very small. In most cases (65.6%) the stalker only used one method of harassment with unwanted telephone calls being the method that appeared most in isolation (65.7%). 59.1% of the victims indicated that they felt threatened because of the repetitive harassment. A remarkable finding was that in over 56 percent of the cases the identity of the stalker was unknown.


Suzan van der Aa
Suzan van der Aa is promovenda en onderzoeker bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg. Postadres: Warandelaan 2, 5000 LE Tilburg. E-mail: s.vdraa@uvt.nl.

Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is senior-onderzoeker en projectleider bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg. E-mail: a.pemberton@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Wie kwaad doet, kwaad ontmoet?

Over de samenhang van slachtofferschap en daderschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden slachtofferschap, daderschap
Auteurs Carin Reep en Ko Oudhof
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How many criminal suspects become victims themselves? A high correlation of offence and victimisation is to be expected because of a marked similarity between offenders and victims. We assume that offenders strongly fulfil the lifestyle and environment criteria, associated with an increased risk of victimisation. By studying self-reported victimisation data from 39.978 respondents, matched to registered criminal suspects, we verified our assumption that criminal suspects are at considerably higher risk of being victims. This correlation is especially high for crimes of violence and for people suspected of multiple crimes.


Carin Reep
Ir. C.M.M. Reep is statistisch onderzoeker, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. cbgh@cbs.nl.

Ko Oudhof
Drs. J. Oudhof is senior statistisch onderzoeker, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. kodf@cbs.nl.
Artikel

Additioneel seksueel gedrag van kinderpornodownloaders

Onderzoek naar additioneel seksueel gedrag met kinderen in een groep van 38 kinderpornodownloaders met behulp van gecombineerde zelfrapportage en polygrafie (Sexual History Disclosure Polygraph Examinations)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden cybercrime, polygrafie, zelfrapportage, kinderporno, risicoprofiel
Auteurs Jos Buschman en Don Krapohl
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a study on Post-Conviction Polygraphy in the Netherlands. Importantly, it exclusively focuses on cybercrime offenders. The study was designed to systematically address the different child sexual behaviours exhibited by 38 subjects who were in treatment for possessing child abuse images. The results gave indications that post-conviction polygraphy can provide additional data to inform the development of theory in this area and contribute to the treatment, supervision and more effective containment of offending behaviour, and the reduction of future victimization.


Jos Buschman
Jos Buschman is senior diagnosticus aan de Dr. S. van Mesdagkliniek, Groningen. E-mail: j.buschman@fpcvanmesdag.nl.

Don Krapohl
Don Krapohl is president van de American Polygraph Association.
Artikel

Onbekend, maar wel bemind

Inbraakpreventief advies in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden preventie, woninginbraak, slachtofferschap, sociale ongelijkheid
Auteurs Leen Symons, Johan Deklerck, Dave Gelders e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the mid-90s, people can obtain ‘burglary prevention advice’ in Belgium, which means that a burglary prevention adviser will carry out a free assessment of the dwelling regarding the protection against a burglary and will recommend security measures as needed. In 2008, a large-scale survey by postal mail, commissioned and financed by the Belgian Ministry of Internal Affairs, was conducted to examine three main questions concerning burglary prevention advice in Belgium. Firstly, who receives a burglary prevention visit, or in other words what are the demographic characteristics of the citizens who obtain advice? Secondly, what is the extent to which these persons are satisfied with the visit and which elements, related to the advice, are associated with this (dis)satisfaction? Finally, do these citizens implement the proposed prevention measures and what is the role of the financial incentives (e.g. a tax deduction and an investment subsidy) concerning this implementation? Using a stratified random sample, 2,123 citizens were selected of whom ultimately 1,193 persons answered and returned the questionnaire. This paper presents the main findings of this study. We will also draw attention to the risk of an increased societal dualization and exclusion in the field of community safety when burglary prevention becomes predominantly the responsibility of the individual. The results of our survey for instance suggest that certain groups in society, namely the lower educated, tenants and apartment dwellers, are insufficiently sensitized to call upon these advisers. Furthermore, mainly the higher educated and those with higher incomes plan to make use of the possibility of tax deduction.


Leen Symons
Leen Symons werkt als praktijkassistent bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). E-mail: leen.symons@law.kuleuven.be.

Johan Deklerck
Johan Deklerck is als hoofddocent verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). E-mail: johan.deklerck@law.kuleuven.be.

Dave Gelders
Dave Gelders is als universitair docent verbonden aan de School voor Massacommunicatieresearch (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). E-mail: dave.gelders@soc.kuleuven.be.

Dr. Stefaan Pleysier
Stefaan Pleysier is coördinator van het Expertisecentrum Maatschappelijke Veiligheid (KATHO-Ipsoc), en deeltijds verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven).E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@katho.be.

    Jan van Dijk reageert op de discussie naar aanleiding van zijn artikel De komende emancipatie van het slachtoffer.


Jan van Dijk
Jan van Dijk is als hoogleraar victimologie verbonden aan INTERVICT, Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Psychisch welbevinden van gedetineerde vrouwen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2009
Trefwoorden detentie, vrouwen, psychische gezondheid, gevangeniservaringen
Auteurs Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom, Drs. Barbara Menting en Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Incarcerated women have specific characteristics, needs, health problems, and have different experiences and adjustment problems to prison than men. Based on a survey of 251 female inmates, this paper analyses the association between imported factors, deprivation factors and psychological complaints. Depressive complaints, irritability, and risk of self-harm were all predicted through examination of both imported and deprivation factors. Psychological problems before detention was the most significant imported factor predicting psychological complaints. The most important deprivation factors were treatment by staff and other inmates and environmental stress. Posttraumatic stress complaints were predicted only by imported factors (traumatic events and psychological problems before detention). Next to the importation and deprivation factors, this paper suggests inclusion of a third group of factors: relations with children and family, which may be an independent group of factors in addition to the factors related to the prison environment.


Dr. Anne-Marie Slotboom
Dr. M. Slotboom is universitair docent, afd. strafrecht en criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, a.slotboom@rechten.vu.nl.

Drs. Barbara Menting
B. Menting MsC is aio, afdeling ontwikkelingspsychologie, faculteit psychologie en pedagogiek, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, B.Menting@psy.vu.nl.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is senior onderzoeker, Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), Leiden en hoogleraar methoden en technieken van criminologisch onderzoek, VU, Amsterdam, CBijleveld@nscr.nl.
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