Zoekresultaat: 686 artikelen

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Artikel

Recidive na werkstraffen en na gevangenisstraffen

Een gematchte vergelijking

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden recidive, werkstraf, recidive na werkstraf
Auteurs Hilde Wermink, Mr. dr. Arjan Blokland, Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recidivism after a community service is compared to recidivism after imprisonment in a matched sample of adult Dutch offenders. We use longitudinal, official record data to compare recidivism over a maximum of eight years. ‘Propensity score matching’ and ‘matching by variable’ are used to take selection-effects into account. After a community service offenders turn out to recidivate less than after a prison sanction.


Hilde Wermink
H. Wermink Bsc was (voor dit artikel) junior onderzoeker, Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), Amsterdam. h.wermink@LAW.leidenuniv.nl.

Mr. dr. Arjan Blokland
Mr. dr. A.A.J. Blokland is onderzoeker, Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). ABlokland@nscr.nl.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar criminologie, Universiteit Leiden. p.nieuwbeerta@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Drs. Nikolaj Tollenaar
Drs. N. Tollenaar is junior onderzoeker, Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), Den Haag. n.tollenaar@minjus.nl.
Artikel

Kinderdoding gevolgd door een ernstige poging tot zelfdoding

Drie modaliteiten van geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden kinderdoding, zelfdoding
Auteurs Marieke Liem, Prof. dr. Michiel Hengeveld en Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Filicide, the murder of a child by a parent, is a dramatic event. The gravity increases when the perpetrator resorts to committing or attempting suicide. It is assessed to what extent filicide-(para)suicides can primarily be understood as homicidal or suicidal behaviour, or as a separate category of lethal violence. Parents committing filicide-parasuicide differ from filicidal parents and other suicidal parents in sociodemographic, individual and offence-related characteristics. Filicide-(para)suicide seem to constitute a category of lethal violence, different from both filicides and parasuicides.


Marieke Liem
M.C.A. Liem Msc, MPhil is promovendus, Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen en Criminologie, Universiteit Utrecht. m.liem@uu.nl.

Prof. dr. Michiel Hengeveld
Prof. dr. M.W. Hengeveld is hoogleraar psychiatrie, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam. m.w.hengeveld@erasmusmc.nl.

Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt
Prof. dr. F.A.M.M. Koenraadt is hoogleraar forensische psychologie, Universiteit Utrecht. F.A.M.M.Koenraadt@uu.nl.
Artikel

Wie kwaad doet, kwaad ontmoet?

Over de samenhang van slachtofferschap en daderschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden slachtofferschap, daderschap
Auteurs Carin Reep en Ko Oudhof
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How many criminal suspects become victims themselves? A high correlation of offence and victimisation is to be expected because of a marked similarity between offenders and victims. We assume that offenders strongly fulfil the lifestyle and environment criteria, associated with an increased risk of victimisation. By studying self-reported victimisation data from 39.978 respondents, matched to registered criminal suspects, we verified our assumption that criminal suspects are at considerably higher risk of being victims. This correlation is especially high for crimes of violence and for people suspected of multiple crimes.


Carin Reep
Ir. C.M.M. Reep is statistisch onderzoeker, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. cbgh@cbs.nl.

Ko Oudhof
Drs. J. Oudhof is senior statistisch onderzoeker, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. kodf@cbs.nl.
Praktijk

Biocriminologie door de jaren heen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden biocriminologie
Auteurs Katy de Kogel
Auteursinformatie

Katy de Kogel
Dr. C.H. de Kogel is onderzoeker, Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), Den Haag. c.h.de.kogel@minjus.nl.
Artikel

StatRec: inschatting van het recidivegevaar van verdachten van een misdrijf

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden StatRec, recidiverisico, recidivekans
Auteurs Dr. Bouke Wartna, Drs. Nikolaj Tollenaar en Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Using data from judicial documentation on adult adjudicated offenders in the Netherlands, an actuarial risk prediction instrument has been developed. StatRec estimates the four year reconviction rate of adult offenders, based on a limited number of static factors. The metric qualities of the scale are good. StatRec produces a precise estimate of the base rate in the group of individuals with the same combination of background characteristics as the offender. The scale does not use dynamic and situational factors that may influence the risk of reoffending. Taking them into account only slightly enhances the predictive power. StatRec can be used to validate more specific risk assessment tools.


Dr. Bouke Wartna
Dr. B.S.J. Wartna is senior onderzoeker, Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), Den Haag. b.wartna@minjus.nl.

Drs. Nikolaj Tollenaar
Drs. N. Tollenaar is junior onderzoeker, Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), Den Haag. n.tollenaar@minjus.nl.

Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts
Prof. dr. S. Bogaerts is hoogleraar forensische psychologie en victimologie, Universiteit van Tilburg en Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. s.bogaerts@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Onbekend, maar wel bemind

Inbraakpreventief advies in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden preventie, woninginbraak, slachtofferschap, sociale ongelijkheid
Auteurs Leen Symons, Johan Deklerck, Dave Gelders e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the mid-90s, people can obtain ‘burglary prevention advice’ in Belgium, which means that a burglary prevention adviser will carry out a free assessment of the dwelling regarding the protection against a burglary and will recommend security measures as needed. In 2008, a large-scale survey by postal mail, commissioned and financed by the Belgian Ministry of Internal Affairs, was conducted to examine three main questions concerning burglary prevention advice in Belgium. Firstly, who receives a burglary prevention visit, or in other words what are the demographic characteristics of the citizens who obtain advice? Secondly, what is the extent to which these persons are satisfied with the visit and which elements, related to the advice, are associated with this (dis)satisfaction? Finally, do these citizens implement the proposed prevention measures and what is the role of the financial incentives (e.g. a tax deduction and an investment subsidy) concerning this implementation? Using a stratified random sample, 2,123 citizens were selected of whom ultimately 1,193 persons answered and returned the questionnaire. This paper presents the main findings of this study. We will also draw attention to the risk of an increased societal dualization and exclusion in the field of community safety when burglary prevention becomes predominantly the responsibility of the individual. The results of our survey for instance suggest that certain groups in society, namely the lower educated, tenants and apartment dwellers, are insufficiently sensitized to call upon these advisers. Furthermore, mainly the higher educated and those with higher incomes plan to make use of the possibility of tax deduction.


Leen Symons
Leen Symons werkt als praktijkassistent bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). E-mail: leen.symons@law.kuleuven.be.

Johan Deklerck
Johan Deklerck is als hoofddocent verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). E-mail: johan.deklerck@law.kuleuven.be.

Dave Gelders
Dave Gelders is als universitair docent verbonden aan de School voor Massacommunicatieresearch (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). E-mail: dave.gelders@soc.kuleuven.be.

Dr. Stefaan Pleysier
Stefaan Pleysier is coördinator van het Expertisecentrum Maatschappelijke Veiligheid (KATHO-Ipsoc), en deeltijds verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven).E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@katho.be.
Artikel

Empirisch onderzoek in de Nederlandse criminologie

Een inventarisatie van 25 jaar methoden en technieken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden empirisch onderzoek, criminologisch onderzoek, kwalitatief onderzoek, kwantitatief onderzoek
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun en Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on an analysis of twenty five years of articles in Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, we describe developments in the use of research methods and tools. One of the questions is how and to what extent new techniques are adopted over the years and whether certain sources of data become more or less popular. Almost half of the articles were non-empirical, and of the remainder the majority primarily made use of quantitative research methods. In the second half of the period under study, the use of secondary data, collected and often processed by people other than the researcher in question, became much more prominent. Amongst other elements, international comparative research was scarce, as was the use of experimental designs. About one-third of all empirical articles were based on qualitative research. We give some suggestions to increase variation among the kind of articles published in the journal.


Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie, faculteit rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden, j.p.vanderleun@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is hoogleraar methoden en technieken van criminologisch onderzoek, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam en senior onderzoeker, Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), CBijleveld@nscr.nl.
Artikel

Institutionalisering van de criminologie in Nederland en Vlaanderen

Laveren tussen overheid en autonomie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden institutionalisering criminologie, criminologisch instituut, criminologieonderwijs
Auteurs Prof. dr. Gerben Bruinsma en Prof. dr. Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article briefly outlines the origin and development in the past fifty years of institutions in the Netherlands and Flanders which have explicitly been labelled ‘criminological’. There are remarkable differences in developments between both regions. But in The Netherlands as well as in Flanders criminology has grown over the course of a century from a very modest phenomenon in the margin of criminal policy to a fully-fledged specialisation in socio-scientific and criminal research in universities, and a recognised qualification on the labour market.


Prof. dr. Gerben Bruinsma
Prof. dr. G.J.N. Bruinsma is hoogleraar criminologie, faculteit rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden en directeur, Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), GBruinsma@nscr.nl.

Prof. dr. Lode Walgrave
Prof. dr. L. Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie, K.U.Leuven, lode.walgrave@law.kuleuven.be.
Artikel

Vijftig jaar Tijdschrift voor Criminologie in cijfers

Wat gebeurde er de afgelopen tien jaar?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, geschiedenis Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, auteurs Tijdschrift voor Criminologie
Auteurs Dr. Ben Rovers en Drs. Ruben Boers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It has been ten years since an overview on contributing authors in Tijdschrift voor Criminologie was presented. This sequel pays attention to the backgrounds of the authors, the content of their articles, the quotations and their organisational backgrounds. In addition, attention has been given to authors that have contributed most and for the longest time. The number of female contributors and entries from Flemish criminologists has increased, as well as those from authors with a specific criminological background. Content-wise there is greater focus on matters such as recidivism and life course, and topics related to violence, sex offenses and organised crime. A considerable number of authors have NSCR backgrounds.


Dr. Ben Rovers
Dr. G.B. Rovers is lector, Avans Hogeschool/ Expertisecentrum Veiligheid, Den Bosch en directeur, onderzoeksbureau BTVO, Den Bosch, benrovers@btvo.nl.

Drs. Ruben Boers
Drs. J.L.R. Boers is senior-onderzoeker, Avans Hogeschool / Expertisecentrum Veiligheid, Den Bosch, jlr.boers@avans.nl.
Artikel

De ontwikkeling van criminologisch onderzoek voor beleid en praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden beleidsgerichte criminologie, professionele criminologie, WODC
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Bert Niemeijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article first addresses the tension between scientific requirements and policy oriented criminological research. The article then proceeds to describe the historical development of policy oriented criminology in the Netherlands. This narrative can be divided into three phases: early history, the years 1980-1995 and the period from 1995. Criminology in the Netherlands has always had and retains a strong policy orientation. The growth of professional (academic) criminology is a relatively recent phenomenon. ‘Critical’ and ‘public’ criminology always have been and remain the work of individuals. The development of policy oriented criminological research in the Netherlands appears dependent on governmental involvement. The situations in Belgium and the USA give the same impression.


Prof. dr. mr. Bert Niemeijer
Prof. dr. mr. E. Niemeijer is bijzonder hoogleraar rechtssociologie, faculteit rechtsgeleerdheid, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam en coördinator strategieontwikkeling, Ministerie van Justitie, e.niemeijer@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

Criminologie als studie en beroep

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden opleiding criminologie, beroepsveld criminoloog, publieke criminologie
Auteurs Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The primary goal of this article is to survey the various criminological study programmes in the Netherlands and Flanders and of the jobs students attain after graduating in criminology. The theoretical question posed is to what extent the enormous expansion of criminology over the last decade has contributed to the scientific development of criminology as a discipline and to better-informed crime policies. Though the answer to this question remains limited to an ‘it depends on how you look at it’ position, the author is not pessimistic. Taking into account the current grim penal climate and the fact that the criminologist is a relative newcomer on the Dutch labour market, the positions criminology students have been able to gain – with jobs within the police force, in research and policy-development as prime fields – give reason to be hopeful, if reflexivity and overview remain the primary educational goals and practical skills training is not seen as the ‘trick box’ for the ‘quick fix’ of the safety problem.


Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. R. van Swaaningen is bijzonder hoogleraar internationaal comparatieve criminology, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en directeur, Onderzoeksschool Maatschappelijke Veiligheid (OMV), vanswaaningen@frg.eur.nl.
Artikel

Vijftig jaar Tijdschrift voor Criminologie

Vooruitgang en verandering in de Nederlandstalige criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Nederlandstalige criminologie
Auteurs Dr. Jan Nijboer, Dr. Frank Weerman, Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Fifty years ago Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, the Dutch Journal for Criminology, appeared for the first time. It has now developed into a peer reviewed journal with quantitative and qualitative research of high quality. Youth and life course criminology, research into organised and organisational crime, criminographical research, and research into violence are strongly represented nowadays. Changes in the journal reflect more general developments in criminology in the Netherlands and Belgium. In the last 10-15 years the discipline has become more internationally oriented and professional, and scientific backgrounds of criminologists have become more diverse.


Dr. Jan Nijboer
Dr. J.A. Nijboer is universitair hoofddocent, sectie criminologie, faculteit rechtsgeleerdheid, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, j.a.nijboer@rug.nl.

Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker, Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), FWeerman@nscr.nl.

Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. E.R. Kleemans is waarnemend hoofd, afdeling criminaliteit, rechtshandhaving en sancties, Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) en hoogleraar zware criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, e.r.kleemans@minjus.nl.

Dr. Andrea Donker
Dr. A.G. Donker is universitair docent, afd. criminologie en penologie, faculteit rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden, a.g.donker@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Prof. dr. Els Enhus
Prof. dr. E.A.M. Enhus is hoogleraar, eenheid criminologische wetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit Brussel en co-directeur, Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA), elsenhus@brutele.be.
Boekbespreking

Herstelrecht en procedurele waarborgen

Bespreking van dissertatie Katrien Lauwaert

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden procedurele waarborgen, strafrechtelijke waarborgen, herstelrechtelijke waarborgen
Auteurs John Blad
Auteursinformatie

John Blad
John Blad is als universitair hoofddocent strafrechtswetenschappen verbonden aan de faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid te Rotterdam en is redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Juridische professionals en herstelgerichte praktijken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden juridische professionals, magistratuur, advocatuur
Auteurs Katrien Lauwaert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sets the stage for the discussion on the role of legal professionals – lawyers and magistrates – in restorative practices. A common task they have is controlling the respect of fundamental rights of the participants in restorative justice practices. How important this task is, will vary according to different variables such as the goals of restorative justice programs and their position towards the criminal justice system. Lauwaert goes on to sketch in separate parts the possible roles of respectively magistrates and lawyers before, during and after mediation or conferences. She refers to the European legislative framework which foresees an important role for magistrates as gatekeepers and assessors of restorative outcomes and explores the strengths and problems these roles evoke. She refers to her own research to explore the attitudes of magistrates towards restorative practices. Concerning the role of lawyers, the European legislative framework is quite vague, and the article tries to analyse more in depth the possibilities and obstacles for lawyers to contribute to the quality of mediation. The lack of knowledge of and acquaintance with the world of restorative justice and mediation is detected as a serious obstacle for further development of this field of action.


Katrien Lauwaert
Katrien Lauwaert is docent criminologie aan de universiteit van Luik en vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerker van het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie. Zij is tevens voorzitter van de Vlaamse bemiddelingsorganisatie Suggnomè en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Telefoontaps als netwerkdata?

Mogelijkheden en beperkingen om telefoontaps te gebruiken voor SNA van georganiseerde criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, telefoontaps, georganiseerde criminaliteit
Auteurs Willem-Jan Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The literature on using Social Network Analysis (SNA) in criminological research is expanding. The SNA perspective already changed the way we look at organized crime. More often organized crime is referred to as changeable social networks instead of hierarchical structured organizations like the Italian or American mafia. In this respect, SNA seems to lack behind in empirical research on organized crime. Mainly, this is due to the lack of suitable network data on organized crime. For obvious reasons, commonly used methods of gathering network data – such as questionnaires – are less suitable for research on organized crime. Suspects of organized crime have not much to gain from talking about their ‘comrades in crime’. Alternative data need to be explored. Wiretaps from criminal investigations are one such source. In this contribution the SNA perspective is used to present an overview of the possibilities and limitations of using wiretaps for SNA. It follows that wiretaps from criminal investigations should be regarded as ego-centered network data. Therefore, research questions and objective for both criminal investigations as well as scientific research should be directed to the personal networks of suspects instead of the network as a whole.


Willem-Jan Verhoeven
Willem-Jan Verhoeven is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Contactadres: Criminologie/OMV, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam. E-mail: verhoeven@frg.eur.nl.
Artikel

Terroristische netwerken en intelligence: een sociale netwerkanalyse van de Hofstadgroep

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, terrorisme, Hofstadgroep
Auteurs Dr. Renée C. van der Hulst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Radicalization and terrorism remain areas of special interest in terms of security policies. It’s common knowledge that most of the activities related to radicalization and terrorism heavily rely on the involvement of multiple actors. Therefore, an increased understanding of the underlying social structures is considered to offer important leads for the development of effective countermeasures (in particular when related to demographic, cultural, psychological and other social factors). Yet, the number of empirical network studies in this domain (at least those openly available) that incorporate arithmetic tools known as Social Network Analysis (SNA) remain extremely scarce. In this paper the author presents an exploratory Social Network Analysis of the Hofstad network based on publicly available data. Members of the Hofstad network, a radical Islamist network in the Netherlands, were active recruiters for the violent jihad, spreaded radical propaganda, some attended training camps in Pakistan, and the network was suspected of planning several terrorist attacks on strategic objects and prominent people in the Netherlands. One of the members, Mohammed B., was sentenced to life in prison for murdering the Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004. Although the Hofstad network was considered by trial as a terrorist organization in the first instance in 2006, the judgment was reversed on appeal in 2008 when most members were acquitted. As is characteristic of home-grown networks, our analysis indicated that the Hofstad network (N=67) was relatively sparse and decentralized and evolved around a more cohesive core of key players (N=13). The key players were identified based on their central network position and a hierarchical clique analysis. Mohammed B., who had been considered a marginal player by the secret service, turns out to be the most central actor of the network. Although the analysis clearly suggests that quantifying network structures provides actionable intelligence, more research is needed to validate the results.


Dr. Renée C. van der Hulst
Dr. Renée C. van der Hulst was tot voor kort als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie. Zij is thans werkzaam voor Bureau Netwerkanalyse dat onderzoek-, advies- en onderwijswerkzaamheden verzorgt (onder andere op het gebied van sociale netwerkanalyse) binnen het domein van nationale veiligheid en criminaliteitsbestrijding. Contactadres: Bureau Netwerkanalyse, Postbus 938, 1200 AX Hilversum. E-mail: vanderhulst@online.nl.
Artikel

Analyse van het Zuid-Nederlandse xtc-netwerk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, xtc-netwerk, xtc-handel, crimineel macronetwerk
Auteurs Dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The social network approach is gaining influence among criminologists studying organized crime and terrorism. The theoretical concept, however, still needs further elaboration. To this end, concepts developed within the field of economic sociology could provide a substantial contribution. Economic sociologists have, among other things, focused on the role of social networks with regard to the completion of economic transactions. They regard mutual trust built through personal relations as an essential part of economic transactions, particularly if these imply certain risks for the parties involved. In other words, before transactions materialize, the parties must first be able to establish trustworthy personal relations. Based on these ideas, Spapens introduced in 2006 the theoretical concept of the criminal macro network, being a social network consisting of individuals able and willing to engage in illegal activities. The capital of each member of the criminal network consists, on the one hand, of his links, defined as information relations, within the network. On the other hand, a person’s position is determined by personal knowledge and skills. It is assumed that executing an actual illegal activity – e.g. drug production, trafficking human beings, bank robbery – requires cooperation between a subset of members of the criminal network, the criminal group.An extensive study of xtc production in the south of the Netherlands between 1996 and 2004 revealed the existence of a ‘xtc network’ consisting of individuals interconnected by social relations. The macro network proved to be relatively stable over time. The composition of the criminal groups, however, changed regularly. This was not only explained by shifting business opportunities, but also by the efforts of the police and the Public Prosecution Service leading to convictions and the dismantling of criminal groups. Better knowledge of the functioning of the criminal macro network can provide valuable contributions to criminological understanding of organized crime. These insights are of course also of great practical importance for law enforcement agencies.


Dr. Toine Spapens
Dr. Toine Spapens is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Contactadres: Universiteit van Tilburg, Vakgroep Strafrechtswetenschappen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg. E-mail: a.c.spapens@uvt.nl.
Artikel

De komende emancipatie van het slachtoffer

Naar een verbeterde rechtspositie voor gedupeerden van misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2009
Trefwoorden slachtoffers, etikettering, spreekrecht, herstelrecht
Auteurs Jan van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Western languages those affected by crime are universally labelled as the sacrificed ones. This label is inspired by the suffering of Jesus Christ and evokes images of helplessness and meekness. It acts as hidden justification for the marginal, self-effacing role of victims in criminal procedure and restorative justice. The author argues for deconstruction of the stereotypical victim label and the creation of more space in criminal procedure for victims as autonomous parties. In his view the recent innovation in Dutch law of a limited Victim Impact Statement still gives victims insufficient voice. He also argues for a reconceptualisation of restorative justice practices as a supplement to the criminal trial rather than as a substitute.


Jan van Dijk
Jan van Dijk is als hoogleraar victimologie verbonden aan INTERVICT, Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

De slachtoffergerichte dimensie in rechterlijk denken

België en Nederland vergeleken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2009
Trefwoorden rechterlijke attitudes, strafdoelen, vergelijkend onderzoek
Auteurs Veerle Scheirs, Kristel Beyens en Jan de Keijser
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research on magistrates’ penal attitudes has long been a blank spot in both the Netherlands and in Belgium. In the Netherlands, a theoretically integrated measurement instrument has been developed revealing the general structure of penal attitudes held by Dutch judges. It showed that the complex of penal attitudes is dominated by two independent perspectives: harsh treatment and social constructiveness. The latter perspective encompasses rehabilitation and restorative justice. Replicating the Dutch measurement instrument, penal attitudes of Belgian magistrates were recently examined. This article reports the results and compares them to earlier findings in the Netherlands. It is shown that, in contrast to Dutch magistrates’ penal attitudes, the structure of Belgian magistrates’ attitudes reveals an autonomous role for restorative justice. This finding and possible explanations are elaborated upon.


Veerle Scheirs
Veerle Scheirs is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Kristel Beyens
Kristel Beyens is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Jan de Keijser
Jan de Keijser is verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), Leiden.

    Lode Walgrave reageert op het artikel De komende emancipatie van het slachtoffer van Jan van Dijk.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar (jeugd)criminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
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