Zoekresultaat: 230 artikelen

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Artikel

Wettelijke bepalingen voor herstelgerichte afdoeningen

Niet te weinig, niet te veel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden bemiddelingsdiensten, wetgeving, preventie, strafproces
Auteurs Martin Wright
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legislation affects restorative justice in four ways: existing legislation may allow it, new laws may enable it, laws may limit it, or restorative justice may be the norm. Examples from different countries are given and specific questions about the relationship of restorative justice to the criminal justice system discussed. It is suggested that, broadly speaking, safeguards should be legislated and practice regulated by an independent body. It is concluded that restorative practices, have the potential to transform society’s response to harmful behaviour.


Martin Wright
Martin Wright is senior onderzoeker aan De Montfort Universiteit in Leicester, Engeland.
Praktijk

Jongeren en criminaliteit

Een lange geschiedenis van de Middeleeuwen tot heden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden jeugdcriminaliteit, geschiedenis, jeugdige delinquenten, literatuur
Auteurs Dr. Margo De Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Juvenile crime has been present form the Midle Ages onward, although it was nly described as a separate phenomenon in the Nineteenth Century. This article explores the similarities and notions of juvenile crime from a long-term perspective. This sheds another light on present-day youth problems and delinquency and ways to prevent and/or punish them.


Dr. Margo De Koster
Dr. M. De Koster is Universitair docent Historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Afdeling strafrecht en criminologie en Post-doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Université catholique de Louvain, Centre d’histoire du droit et de la justice, margo.dekoster@uclouvain.be.
Artikel

Gemeenschap als bron van positieve veiligheid

Een conceptuele verkenning en aanzet tot empirisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden gemeenschap, sociale cohesie, sense of belonging, insluiting
Auteurs Ronald van Steden, Marieke van Vliet, Ton Salman e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the links between the concepts of security and community, questioning the conventional use and meaning of both. To begin with, it addresses the taken-for-grantedness of the thought that communities foster feelings of security, and that contemporary processes of migration, intensified worldwide communication, and ‘heterogeneization’ of habitats stimulate feelings of insecurity and nostalgia for ‘old-fashioned’ tight kinship. Subsequently, it criticizes the too lop-sided focus on insecurity in current debates, and asks attention for – community-based – positive feelings of security. In the next paragraphs, however, the problematic aspects of the idea of ‘community’ are discussed: its inadequacy in capturing current individualized ways-of-life, its exclusionary tendencies, its potentially exaggerated focus on social control, and its rejection of, and fear for, the outside world. Therefore, we assess the possibility to construe (‘strong’) community qualities in a situation of multiple, overlapping and porous populations of varied identity-relevance within overarching institutional arrangements of rule of law and of shared codes of conduct (as ‘weak’ ties). Finally, the argument is translated in suggestions for empirical research to be able to determine the fecundity of the ideas presented.


Ronald van Steden
Ronald van Steden is universitair docent aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschappen van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: r.van.steden@fsw.vu.nl.

Marieke van Vliet
Marieke van Vliet is cultureel antropologe. Zij is werkzaam als recherchekundige bij de regiopolitie Amsterdam-Amstelland. E-mail: marieke.van.vliet@amsterdam.politie.nl.

Ton Salman
Ton Salman is universitair hoofddocent aan de afdeling culturele antropologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: aj.salman@fsw.vu.nl.

Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.E-mail: jcj.boutellier@fsw.vu.nl.
Artikel

Jeugdstrafrecht naar Nieuw-Zeelands model

Een door herstelrecht geïnspireerde benadering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden jeugdsanctiemodel, Nieuw-Zeeland, family group conferencing
Auteurs Robert Ludbrook
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Due to immigration the Dutch have made a significant contribution to the development of New Zealand, especially in the field of juvenile justice and adoption. As for New Zealand’s Youth Justice Service, the introduction of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act in 1989 has been a landmark in New Zealand’s history of dealing with juvenile delinquency. While it was not designed as a restorative justice system, the current system is tuned towards restorative justice. Until then, New Zealand had a shameful history as far as the handling of juvenile delinquency is concerned. The Maori, whose youngsters were – and still are – overrepresented in juvenile statistics, heavily criticized this model, emphasizing the need to strengthen the bond between the (extended) family and the juvenile offender, as well as the need to provide for redress. In the same period, the United Nations Convention on Children’s Rights (UNCROC) was introduced (1989), the Act of 1989 paying tribute to the UNCROC. As the national juvenile justice system to some extent does not live up to the standards of the UNCROC, there remains room for improvement. However, black clouds gather over New Zealand’s juvenile justice system, for the present government has announced to be in favor of a punitive oriented policy; there is a call to get ‘tough on juvenile crime’. This policy, however, implies setting back the clock and endangers the current orientation on restorative justice, as well as the legal values set out by the UNCROC.


Robert Ludbrook
Robert Ludbrook, een jurist woonachtig in Nieuw-Zeeland, zet zich al ruim dertig jaar in voor de verbetering van rechten van kinderen. Hij was in 1987 aanwezig bij de afsluitende sessie van de werkgroep die het IVRK voorbereidde. Van 1984 tot 1986 werkte hij voor de Children’s Legal Centre in Londen en in 1987 zette hij in Auckland een juridische actiegroep op, Youth Law. Daarnaast was hij oprichter en directeur van de Australian National Children’s and Youth Law Centre (1995-1997). Hij is (mede)auteur van een reeks boeken op het gebied van familierecht, kinderrecht en jeugdstrafrecht.
Artikel

De ontwikkeling van herstelrechtelijke praktijken in Noord-Ierland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Noord-Ierland, Jeugdsanctiesysteem, Preventie, Jeugdrecht
Auteurs Martin McAnallen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a perspective on the development of restorative justice practice in Northern Ireland. The island of Ireland has a standing history as to the use of restorative justice. In fact, the earliest restorative form of law dates from 2000 BCE, the so-called Brehon Laws. To date, Northern Ireland features as a divided society; over the past 35 years intercommunity conflict brought devastation and heartbreak to the health of the community. Nevertheless, initial soundings were heard as to how the practice of restorative justice might be re-introduced to Northern Ireland. Already in 1989, the Probation Board indicated its intention of piloting a Victim Offender Mediation Programme. From that time, serious attempts were undertaken to implement restorative justice within the North-Irish society. Initiatives were undertaken by Republican as well as Loyalist communities, both being eager to move away from violent community based justice. Special attention was given towards juvenile crime. In 2000 this interest in restorative justice led to a commitment from the North-Irish authorities to put restorative justice matters at the heart of the criminal justice system for young offenders. As a result, in the Justice (Northern Ireland) Act 2002 the Youth Conference Service was initiated. Between 2003 and the present, Youth Conference Orders or Plans have been the most common disposals for adjudicated offenders up to eighteen years of age. The focus is on the parties resolving how the young person can make amends to the victim and what can be done to prevent further offending. All Agencies linked into the Youth Justice system recognize the special needs of young people. Recent figures show the numbers of young people going into youth custody in Northern Ireland have decreased due to the use of restorative justice models.


Martin McAnallen
Martin McAnallen is ruim 35 jaar actief geweest in het reguliere strafrecht in Noord-Ierland. Sinds halverwege de jaren tachtig was hij nauw betrokken bij de ontwikkeling van de mediationpraktijk in Noord-Ierland en herstelrecht. In 1992 vervulde Martin een actieve rol bij de oprichting van wat nu heet Mediation Northern Ireland. Zijn speciale aandacht ligt bij slachtoffer-daderbemiddeling en in het bijzonder Family Group Conferencing met jonge daders. Hij is een ervaren trainer en publiceert in diverse tijdschriften.
Redactioneel

Herstelrecht en mensenrechten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis en Renée Kool
Auteursinformatie

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is onderzoeker aan de Open Universiteit en schrijft een proefschrift over jeugdherstelrecht en kinderrechten. Zij is tevens verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut, waar zij bijdraagt aan maatschappelijk onderzoek, en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Renée Kool
Renée Kool is als hoofddocent verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij is tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Naar een ‘rights based’ jeugdherstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderrechten, Internationale Verdrag inzake de Rechten van het Kind, Jeugdherstelrecht
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution starts with an introduction of human rights, children’s rights and restorative justice. What are the links and differences between these concepts and how do they interrelate? An overview of human rights for children in international standards relevant to the discussion on juvenile justice, such as the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and additional instruments, is given. It is examined how restorative justice fits in this framework.
    Human rights are one of the main pillars of our modern society. General juvenile justice principles such as diversion, the use of detention only as a measure of last resort and focusing on re-integration give a clear basis for restorative justice practice. Recent international and European conventions, guidelines and recommendations dealing with juvenile justice explicitly recommend the use of restorative justice. It is actually seen as the main priority focus of the reaction to youth criminality. The Committee on the Rights of the Child declared in General Comment 10 that the best interests of the child imply that the traditional aims of criminal justice – repression and retribution – should make room for rehabilitation and reintegration. Today’s focus on youth delinquency should be a restorative one. But how to implement rather broad notions such as restorative justice in individual cases and to make them fulfil internationally accepted human rights standards. With the model of Mitchell and Moore it is explored how children’s rights (mainly article 40 and the main principles of the CRC) and restorative justice are connected and how they can use each other. The need is stressed and some tools are given to work towards a ‘rights based restorative justice’.


Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is onderzoeker aan de Open Universiteit en schrijft een proefschrift over jeugdherstelrecht en kinderrechten. Zij is tevens verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut, waar zij bijdraagt aan maatschappelijk onderzoek, en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

‘White trash’ versus ‘Marokkaanse straatterroristen’

Een analyse van het Nederlandse en Engelse discours rond migranten en overlast

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Marokkanen, Overlast, Engeland en Wales, Mediadiscours
Auteurs Drs. Monique Koemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the differences in perception that appear when the English and Dutch discourses on anti-social behaviour and street terror are compared. The political and media discourses in the Netherlands focus on the migration background of the youth responsible (mainly Moroccan juveniles) whereas in England and Wales the possible influence of discrimination is stressed. The analysis of the two discourses reveals that although the problems in the two countries are in essence comparable, very different discourses have developed.


Drs. Monique Koemans
Drs. M. Koemans M. Sc. is PhD. Fellow aan de Universiteit Leiden, m.l.koemans@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Boekbespreking

Criminele kinderen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2010
Auteurs dr. Machteld Hoeve
Auteursinformatie

dr. Machteld Hoeve
Dr. M. Hoeve is universitair docent bij forensische orthopedagogiek aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam, m.hoeve@uva.nl.
Artikel

Kinderen van gedetineerde moeders

Een studie naar het gedrag en welbevinden van kinderen met een moeder in de gevangenis

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderen, Gedetineerde moeders, Sociale omstandigheden
Auteurs Dr. Menno Ezinga en Drs. Sanne Hissel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Little is known about children when the mothers are imprisoned. Especially in the Netherlands, hardly any empirical research has been conducted regarding the whereabouts and psychological well-being of children with incarcerated mothers. We visited and collected data from four female prisons. Via the mothers’ consent we contacted the children and their caregivers. First, we conducted a semi-structured interview about the wellbeing of the child during the separation through detention of mother and child. Second, we asked mothers and caregivers to complete checklists of behavioral problems. The caretaking situation turned out to be diverse. Generally, the children experienced both internalizing and externalizing behavioural problems and specific problems associated with the detention of their mothers. The well-being of the children seems to be partially related with the incarceration of the mother. However, it also turned out that quite a few risk factors such as a broken home and neglect is present for the child being raised. Results are discussed as well as some recommendations for future research.


Dr. Menno Ezinga
Dr. M.A.J. Ezinga is universitair docent bij de Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit, M.ezinga@rechten.vu.nl.

Drs. Sanne Hissel
Drs. S.C.E.M. Hissel is als promovendus verbonden aan het Phoolan Devi instituut, in een samenwerkingsverband tussen de afdeling Orthopedagogiek, de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, en het NSCR, Shissel@nscr.nl.
Artikel

Objectiviteit of schijnzekerheid?

Kwaliteit, mogelijkheden en beperkingen van instrumenten voor risicotaxatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Risicotaxatieinstrumenten, Meta-evaluatie, Risicotaxatie
Auteurs Dr. Joke Harte en MSc Minke Breukink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Increasingly, instruments for risk assessment have been used for the assessment of future violence. This article provides an overview of the risk assessment instruments that are used in the Netherlands for the prediction of criminal recidivism. The quality of these instruments is regarded by examining studies on the interrater reliability and the predictive validity. The benefits as well as the limitations of risk assessment instruments are discussed. It is concluded that these instruments can be valuable, especially for research on treatment effects in the field of forensic psychiatry. On the other hand, it has to be acknowledged that with risk assessment instruments, the possibility to predict criminal recidivism on individual level is still limited. Psychologist and psychiatrists, presenting a mental health assessment to the court, have to inform the judge correctly about these limitations.


Dr. Joke Harte
Dr. J.M. Harte is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en universitair docent Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, jharte@nscr.nl.

MSc Minke Breukink
M.D. Breukink MsC was student criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en participeerde in dit onderzoek in het kader van haar afstudeerproject, minkebreukink@live.nl.
Praktijk

International seminar on penal mediation.

Korte impressie van een tweedaags seminar in Napels

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Auteurs Eric Wiersma
Auteursinformatie

Eric Wiersma
Eric Wiersma is werkzaam als beleidsconsulent bij Halt Nederland.
Artikel

Een blik op herstelbemiddeling vanuit een sociaal werk-perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden sociaal werk, herstelbemiddeling, emancipatie, responsabilisering
Auteurs Lieve Bradt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author reports on the doctorate research that she presented in 2009. Restorative practices have not often been researched as a praxis of social work, on the interface between giving help and administering justice. The author situates restorative mediation as a form of social work on the threshold between the private and the public, a threshold that she considers to be of a social nature.Restorative mediation as social work should contribute to values such as human dignity and social justice. The author observed and studied restorative mediation in adult on the one hand and juvenile criminal cases on the other (in Flanders, Belgium) and found that these practices differ widely.Although in both kind of practices responsibility and restoration are central concepts, their meanings differ fundamentally: in youth cases the offer of restorative mediation departs from a critical pedagogy oriented at emancipation, holding on to protective arrangements at the same time. Societal developments changed the image of youngsters from victims of society into risks for society and this may have implied that social problems around criminality are now also by mediation transformed into individual problems for which juveniles should be held accountable.In adult criminal cases the approach was initially much more on civic responsibility for the harm done to victims and since mediation was only offered in serious cases the courts always had their say too.Reflecting upon her research the author questions whether dominant social norms can be and still are challenged in the praxis of mediation. Restorative mediation has become incorporated into the existing institutional arrangements relevant to juveniles and adults: with juvenile cases the logic of prevention seems to become dominant. The practices seem to become exercises in taking responsibility within the traditional normative framework. On the threshold between the private and the public restorative practices, with their self-image of being a more humane form of law enforcement, run the risk of becoming blind for the potential effect of criminalization of their clients.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt is als sociaal-agoog verbonden aan de Universiteit van Gent. Zij is in 2009 gepromoveerd op haar proefschrift met de titel Victim-offender mediation as social work practice. A comparison between mediation for Young and adult offenders in Flanders.
Artikel

De maximalistische visie op herstelrecht onder vuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden maximalisme, rechtsorde, slachtoffers, rehabilitatie
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors latest book on Restorative Justice, Self-Interest and Responsible Citizenship has been discussed in this journal in 2009 and the author now responds to the critiques, which came from three jurists and therefore had a predominantly juristic character. Themes discussed are ‘criminal justice and punishment’, ‘restorative justice and the law’, ‘restorative justice, the victim and public interest’, ‘restorative justice and the legal order’ and finally ‘restorative justice and offender rehabilitation’. Walgrave maintains and clarifies the views he developed in the book explaining why it is correct to claim that criminal justice can be identified as fundamentally punitive (although it does not always punish, as one critic has observed) and that it should be possible to elaborate restorative justice into a completely new legal system, offering legal guarantees fitting to what restorative justice is trying to achieve. Legal guarantees as they exist today in criminal procedure cannot be taken as the benchmark for restorative procedures in view of the totally different aims and procedures. Furthermore, it is not true that the victim gets too much power in restorative justice – as one critic stated – because restorative justice is and should be conceived as a system of public law, involving the legal agencies and authorities such as courts in a proper role as guardians of every citizin’s dominion. It is because of the safeguarding of dominion that the victim should have a key-role to play in restorative justice, although not obliged to participate.One critic has mentioned that Walgraves ideas seem to imply that the legal order is only something being imposed upon the citizens ‘top down’, while in many respects one could maintain that the law and the principles of the legal order have been produced ‘bottom-up’ or at least should be the result of democracy. The response is that restorative procedures offer more opportunities for citizens for this democratic participation in producing the norms of the law.Finally some have argued that the rehabilitative interests of the offender should have a more central place in the definition of restorative justice, more or less of the same importance as restoring the harms of the victim. Walgraves experiences with the Belgian model of juvenile protection made him cautious of the risks of doing so, not only in terms of serving the victims needs, but also in terms of the legal protection of the juvenile offender against arbitrary interventions.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is als onderzoekster verbonden aan het Hilde Verweij-Jonker Instituut te Utrecht.
Boekbespreking

Jeugdige zedendelinquenten vergeleken en getypeerd

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 02 2007
Trefwoorden Delinquent, Strafbaar feit, Recidive, Zedendelict, Model, Geweldsdelict, Registratie, Stoornis, Seksueel misbruik, Selectiviteit
Auteurs Bogaerts, S.

Bogaerts, S.
Artikel

Herstelrechtelijke regelgeving in Europa: een vergelijkend perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 03 2008
Trefwoorden Bemiddeling, Slachtoffer, Delinquent, Wetgeving, Minderjarige, Lidstaat, Meerderjarige, Tussenkomst, Aansprakelijkheid, Misdrijf
Auteurs Aertsen, I. en Miers, D.

Aertsen, I.

Miers, D.
Artikel

Herstel in het jeugdrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 04 2006
Trefwoorden Delinquent, Slachtoffer, Herstel, Mediation, Misdrijf, Jeugdrecht, Schade, Jeugdstrafrecht, Tussenkomst, Bemiddeling
Auteurs Walgrave, L.

Walgrave, L.
Artikel

Marokkaanse jongeren en herstelrecht: een verkenning

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 04 2006
Trefwoorden Slachtoffer, Ouders, Bemiddelaar, Herstel, Politie, Delinquent, Getuigenverklaring, Bedreiging, Vader, Zoon
Auteurs Vanfraechem, I.

Vanfraechem, I.
Boekbespreking

Herstelrechtelijke praktijken in Europa

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 01 2005
Trefwoorden Bemiddeling, Slachtoffer, Delinquent, Mediation, Rechtscollege, Schade, Compensatie, Nakoming, Registratiesysteem, Strafrecht, Bemiddeling, Slachtoffer, Delinquent, Mediation, Rechtscollege, Schade, Compensatie, Nakoming, Registratiesysteem, Strafrecht
Auteurs Blad, J.

Blad, J.
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