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Tijdschrift voor Criminologie

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Aflevering 4, 2017 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
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Criminele groepen: een inleiding

Trefwoorden Criminal groups, Gangs, Youth groups, Hybrid groups, Online offline
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks, Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland en Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminal groups have traditionally been the focus of criminological research because of the collective dimension of many criminal activities or deviance. However, what constitutes a ‘criminal group’ or how specific criminal groups, like gangs, should be defined, remains open for discussion in the scientific literature. This introductory article highlights a number of recent developments illustrating the blurring boundaries between various criminal groups as defined by both insiders and outsiders. In addition, it suggests that the rise of social media and smartphones is changing the structure and dynamics of criminal groups. Future research should focus on how these (new) criminal groups originate, develop and function, but should also address the role of the group in criminal activities.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. A.A.J. Blokland is bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
Prof. dr. F.M. Weerman is bijzonder hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Het sociaal netwerk van een criminele jeugdgroep

Omvang, kern en sleutelfiguren

Trefwoorden criminal youth gang, social network analysis, key players (KPP-1), police records
Auteurs Gerard Wolters MSc, Matthijs Oosterhuis MSc en Dr. Jan Kornelis Dijkstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this study the authors examined a criminal youth gang of 35 persons in the Netherlands, using social network analysis, to answer the following questions. To what extent is it possible by means of police records to estimate the size of the complete social network of this criminal youth gang? To what extent are members of this original group part of the core of the complete network? To what extent have members of the original group a central position in the complete network (key players) and are, as such, responsible for holding the complete network together? Information is derived from police records. Results show that the size of the total network of this criminal youth gang consists of 593 individuals with a core of around hundred persons. Seven persons were identified as key players, among which six persons belonged to the original group. The social network approach in this study provides police and justice important indications for a more tailored approach regarding individuals within criminal networks.


Gerard Wolters MSc
G. Wolters MSc is werkzaam als analist bij de afdeling Analyse en Onderzoek van de Dienst Regionale Informatieorganisatie (DRIO) binnen de eenheid Noord-Nederland van de Nationale Politie.

Matthijs Oosterhuis MSc
Mr. M. Oosterhuis is als analist werkzaam bij de afdeling Analyse en Onderzoek van de Dienst Regionale Informatieorganisatie (DRIO), eenheid Noord-Nederland, van de Nationale Politie en bij het 1 Civiel en Militaire Interactiecommando van de Koninklijke Landmacht.

Dr. Jan Kornelis Dijkstra
Dr. J.K. Dijkstra is werkzaam als universitair hoofddocent aan de faculteit Gedrags- & Maatschappijwetenschappen van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

‘Is daar nog werk voor zakkenrollers?’

Over mobiele bendes en de betekenis van criminaliteit

Trefwoorden mobile banditry, property crime, organized crime, Itinerant criminal groups, crossing border crime
Auteurs Dr. Barbra van Gestel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on mobile organized criminal groups that travel through Europe and commit a broad range of property crimes. The study aims to explore the perspective of individual group members. Information was gathered from fifteen criminal investigations that were carried out in the Netherlands in recent years (2013-2016). The study shows that members of these crime groups view their criminal activities primarily as ‘work’. It is work that is characterized by conflicts and consensus. Conflicts often have to do with the stolen loot and reveal disagreement about leadership, rules and obedience. Rows and threats of violence go along with feelings of fear and distrust. At the same time gang members belong to an international deviant community with a shared common way of life and feelings of togetherness. Performing within this international community gives the possibility to attain social status and to express success and richness. These contractive emotions and symbolic meanings characterize the everyday life of gang members and motivates their daily practices.


Dr. Barbra van Gestel
Dr. B. van Gestel is socioloog en als onderzoeker werkzaam voor het WODC.
Artikel

Mannen met een hobby

Outlaw motorclubs, nieuwsmedia en imagopolitiek

Trefwoorden rhetoric, framing, OMG, ethos, news
Auteurs Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter en Dr. Peter Burger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study contains a qualitative framing analysis of outlaw motor clubs in Dutch newspaper articles. These clubs appear in the news as a source for positive framing to counterbalance the prevailing organized crime frame. The study shows with what rhetorical means club members are framed and how news media balance a criminal and a non-criminal image. In news articles club members refer to ethical norms and group values, and appear to employ mitigation strategies which take the hard edges off the frame and simultaneously increase their credibility.


Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter
Dr. A.W.M. Koetsenruijter is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Peter Burger
Dr. J.P. Burger is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Vechten op afspraak

Verklaringen voor georganiseerde vormen van groepsgeweld

Trefwoorden collective, violence, hooliganism, organized confrontations, group dynamics
Auteurs Drs. Tom van Ham
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Collective violence around football has been a topic of research since the 1980s. In the Netherlands, in recent decades the size and severity of this problem have decreased sharply and the number of incidents has stabilized due to measures taken. At the same time, these measures have resulted in an increase of football-related incidents outside stadiums and on other days than match days. Confrontations based upon prior mutual agreements, so-called arranged confrontations, are an example of this. Based on multiple research methods, in this article the underlying causes of arranged confrontations and processes influencing individual participation are addressed. Results show that this type of collective violence and partaking in it has various causes and explanations. These fit with extant research literature in the area of group crime and collective violence and are incorporated in the recently developed initiation-escalation model.


Drs. Tom van Ham
Drs. T. van Ham is onderzoeker bij Bureau Beke en als buitenpromovendus verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Harde-kernsupporters, gelegenheidsstructuren en georganiseerde criminaliteit

Trefwoorden hooliganism, organized crime, drugs trade, social opportunity, social embeddedness
Auteurs Bart Collard MSc en Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper describes the results of twelve criminal investigations into criminal activities of hardcore supporters of a Dutch soccer club. The information from these criminal investigations consists of among other 74,246 transcribed, wiretapped telephone conversations and 643 pages with transcribed, secretly recorded conversations in cars (between March 2009 and June 2013). The organization and execution of these criminal activities (particularly large-scale drugs trade and extortion) is described within the context of the daily activities of these hardcore supporters. This context consists of regularly visiting soccer games (in the Netherlands and abroad), bars and the supportershome, and the subculture of hooliganism. The results show a criminal group using the opportunity structures related to hooliganism for carrying out criminal activities.


Bart Collard MSc
B.J. Collard MSc is inspecteur van de politie.

Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. E.R. Kleemans is hoogleraar Zware Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving aan de Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Dr. Hilde Wermink
Dr. H.T. Wermink is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Hanneke Palmen
Dr. J.M.H. Palmen is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Boekbespreking

Dadergroepen op het internet en hun doelwitkeuzes

Auteurs Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J.A. van Wilsem is hoofd van de afdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving & Sancties van het WODC.
Boekbespreking

Begripvolle rechters

Auteurs Prof. dr. Harald Merckelbach
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Harald Merckelbach
Prof. dr. H.L.G.J. Merckelbach is hoogleraar rechtspsychologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Boekbespreking

Het persoonlijke netwerk van gedetineerden

Auteurs Dr. Pauline Aarten
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Pauline Aarten
Dr. P.G.M. Aarten is onderzoeker en docent aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Boekbespreking

Naar een differentiële victimologie

Auteurs Prof. dr. Jan van Dijk
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Jan van Dijk
Prof. dr. J. van Dijk is emeritus hoogleraar aan Tilburg University.